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#1$2K3OverviewofHelp Tofi


#1$2K3Overview of Help 

To find help on a specific topic click on the index button above.  

For a general tutorial and introduction to UCINET see the online User's Guide which accompanies this program.  

An introduction to the general form of most help files in UCINET is contained in the Introduction Section (see link below). Also below are links to the UCINET standard datasets together with  help on the DL file format. 

          Introduction SectionR61FJK

          DL.YXWXN

          Standard DatasetsScribble30 

    To obtain technical support, send email to: 

                support@analytictech.com*! ExecFile("mailto:support@analytictech.com")  (for United States users)

                M.Everett@wmin.ac.uk*! ExecFile("mailto:M.Everett@wmin.ac.uk")  (for all other users) 

     

          #4$5K6DATA>DESCRIBE>IMPORT LABELS 

          PURPOSE Import labels into a UCINET dataset 

          DESCRIPTION Imports labels which are in text format into a UCINET dataset. The labels should be separated by a carriage return and be of plain text. 

          PARAMETERS

          Label File

          Name of text file containing the labels   

          Import into:

          Choices are: 

          Row Labels

          Column Labels

          Matrix Labels 

          LOG FILE None 

          TIMING N/A 

          COMMENTS None 

          REFERENCES None 
           
           
           
           

           

                #7$8K9FILE > DELETE 

                PURPOSE Delete a UCINET dataset 

                DESCRIPTION Both the header and the data files are deleted. Files should be separated by a space. 

                PARAMETERS 

                File(s) to be deleted

                List of files to be deleted. Data type: any UCINET file. 

                LOG FILE None 

                TIMING N/A 

                COMMENTS None 

                REFERENCES None 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

           

                #10$11FILE>RENAME UCINET FILE 

                PURPOSE Rename a UCINET dataset. 

                DESCRIPTION Renames both a header and data file of a UCINET dataset. 

                PARAMETERS

                Original Dataset Name :

                Name of file to be re-named      

                New Dataset Name:

                Name of new UCINET dataset.  
                 

                LOG FILE None 

                TIMING N/A 

                COMMENTS None 

                REFERENCES None 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 

                 

                      #12$13K14FILE>COPY UCINET DATASET 

                      PURPOSE Copy a UCINET dataset to a new filename or folder. 

                      DESCRIPTION Copies both a header and data file of a UCINET dataset. 

                      PARAMETERS

                      Original Dataset Name :

                      Name of dataset to be copied. Data type: any UCINET file. 

                      New Dataset Name:

                      Name of new UCINET dataset. This can be sent to a new folder. Default is the same folder as the original file. 

                      LOG FILE None 

                      TIMING N/A 

                      COMMENTS None 

                      REFERENCES None 
                       
                       
                       
                       
                       

                       

                            #15$16K17Introduction 

                            This file gives technical information about all the routines contained within UCINET.   

                            The manual assumes that users have certain rudimentary knowledge of the Windows operating system and of network terminology. Elementary information on UCINET is available in the accompanying users guide. 

                            Each routine is documented in a standard way.  This should help the user to understand some of the non-standard routines once documentation for which they are familiar has been thoroughly digested. 
                             

                            Command Format 

                            Each routine is documented using the following keywords:  MENU, PURPOSE, PESCRIPTION, PARAMETERS, LOG FILE, COMMENTS, and REFERENCES.  The details of these are as follows: 

                            MENU  This gives the exact position of the routine within the UCINET menu system. For example NETWORK>SUBGROUPS>K-PLEX can be found by first selecting NETWORK on the top level of the menu and then from the pull down submenu selecting SUBGROUPS and then finally from this submenu selecting K-PLEX.  The selection of all the options in the MENU list followed by a mouse click will begin execution of the routine. 
                             

                            PURPOSE  This gives a brief one or two line description of the routine. 
                             

                            DESCRIPTION  Gives a fuller account of what the routine does.  This description will include a brief definition of some of the concepts required to understand the technique and an outline of the algorithms employed.  It should contain sufficient information for a user to fully comprehend the action of the routine.  An effort has been made to make the descriptions succinct.  Users should read descriptions carefully if they are unfamiliar with the action of a particular algorithm. 

                            PARAMETERS   This gives a complete list of what information must be supplied by the user in order to run a routine.  It contains a list of all the information requested on the forms when a routine is executed.  This list is indented in such a way as to make it clear what exactly appears on the forms. 

                            For each entry on the form the manual gives the defaults provided by UCINET.  This can be useful in trying to locate files that have been created by the software, or when re-running a particular routine with different parameters. 

                            In addition the manual gives additional information (to the help line on the form) about how to complete each entry on the form. 

                            If the routine requires a dataset (which most usually do) then the manual specifies precisely which type of data can be analyzed.  These are as follows: 

                            Graph - an n??n symmetric binary adjacency matrix. 

                            Digraph - an n??n not necessarily symmetric binary adjacency matrix. 

                            Valued graph - an n??n matrix.  The entries are usually reals, sometimes there are restrictions on the values to integers or the matrix to symmetric. 

                            Square matrix - an n??n matrix.  The entries are usually reals, sometimes there are restrictions on the values to integers or probabilities. Obviously valued graph and square matrix are the same data type, it is just convention which dictates usage. 

                            Matrix - an n??m matrix.  The entries are usually reals.  These can be restricted to binary or integer. 

                            Each data type is contained within the next.  So, for example, any routine that accepts valued graphs will run on digraphs or graphs. 

                            Some routines contain options which will run on different data types.  In this case the data type given in the manual is the most general.  Certain options dictated by the parameters may not run with this data type.  It should be apparent from the manual which data types will be applicable for the selected parameters. 

                            Routines which take specific action on multirelational data have this indicated in the data type specification.  For example, the routine specified by 

                                        TRANSFORM>SEMIGROUP 

                            has as its data type Digraph.Multirelational.  This indicates that this routine acts on multirelational data in a particular way.  If this data type is not included and a multirelational data set is submitted for analysis then UCINET will perform the analysis on each relation separately, if possible.  In some cases such an action would not make network sense, and in other cases it is simply not technically possible to do this.  In these cases the routine only acts on the first relation. 
                             

                            LOG FILE  The LOG FILE contains output generated by each routine.  The contents of the file are displayed on the screen and the user can browse, edit, save or print it.  For each routine a comprehensive account of the contents of the file is given. 
                             

                            TIMING  The timing gives the order of the routine related to the longest dimension of the data matrix, which is called N.  Care should be taken on the interpretation of this value since it only gives the order of the polynomial (if one exists) which dictates the time.  Hence a time O(N^3) means that for sufficiently large N the time to execute will increase at the rate of N^3.  It is quite possible for the user to increase N for an O(N^3) routine by a factor of 2 say, and the execution time to increase by 20-fold instead of the expected 8-fold increase.  This would be because N was not sufficiently large for the highest order to dominate.  Equally well it cannot be used to compare two different routines. 

                            Whilst caution is wise for a strict interpretation, it will be true that for O(N^3) routine doubling the size of N will probably cause the execution time to increase by approximately a factor of 8.  Timings which are exponential mean that the user should be aware that small increases in N may cause very large increases in execution time. 
                             

                            COMMENTS  Additional comments which may be of help to the user are given in this section. 
                             

                            REFERENCES  A 'sample' of useful references which should enable the interested user to gain more information. 
                             

                             

                            #18$19STANDARD DATASETS 

                            Ucinet comes with a collection of network datasets. Multirelational data are stored, where possible, in a single multirelational data file. Each relation within a multirelational set is labelled and information about the form of the data is described for each individual matrix. 
                             

                            BERNARD & KILLWORTH FRATERNITYScribble5010

                            BERNARD & KILLWORTH HAM RADIO Scribble5020

                            BERNARD & KILLWORTH OFFICEScribble5025

                            BERNARD & KILLWORTH TECHNICALScribble5027

                            CAMP 92Scribble5206

                            COUNTRIES TRADE DATAScribble5201

                            DAVIS SOUTHERN CLUB WOMENScribble5029

                            FREEMAN'S EIES DATAScribble5191

                            GAGNON & MACRAE PRISON5031

                            GALASKIEWICZ'S CEO'S AND CLUBSScribble5211

                            KAPFERER MINEScribble5041

                            KAPFERER TAILOR SHOPScribble5051

                            KNOKE BUREAUCRACIESScribble5061

                            KRACKHARDT HIGH-TECH MANAGERSScribble5181

                            KRACKHARDT OFFICE CSSScribble5071

                            NEWCOMB FRATERNITYScribble5081

                            PADGETT FLORENTINE FAMILIESScribble5091

                            READ HIGHLAND TRIBESScribble5101

                            ROETHLISBERGER & DICKSON BANK WIRING ROOMScribble5111

                            SAMPSON MONASTERY Scribble5121

                            SCHWIMMER TARO EXCHANGEScribble5131

                            STOKMAN-ZIEGLER CORPORATE INTERLOCKSScribble5141

                            THURMAN OFFICEScribble5151

                            WOLFE PRIMATESScribble5161

                            ZACHARY KARATE CLUBScribble5171 

                             

                                  #20$21K22DATA>EDIT 

                                  PURPOSE Edit or create a UCINET dataset using a spreadsheet style editor. 
                                   

                                  DESCRIPTION All UCINET data files store the data as a matrix.  Upon execution of this routine a spreadsheet style editor is invoked.  The spreadsheet layout is very similar to that found on other spreadsheets such as Excel, and hence should be familiar to most users. 

                                  Each element of the data occupies a cell in the spreadsheet.  The data matrix is displayed exactly in matrix form.  The user can move around the matrix using the keys , ¯, ¬ and ® to move from one cell to an adjacent cell, and by using the scroll bars to move around the whole dataset. If there is more than one matrix then the tabs at the bottom can be used to move between matrices.   When the cursor is located in a particular cell the position of the cursor is recorded on the screen in terms highlighted row and column numbers of the cell.   

                                  If the rows and/or columns are labeled then the labels are displayed at the top and side of the screen. 
                                   

                                  If your data is symmetric click the Asymmetric mode button before you enter any data this will automatically fill in the other half of your data. You need only enter the non-zero values in the spreadsheet, once these have been filled in then click on the button marked Fill all empty cells will be given a value of zero up to the dimensions specified. If your data has more than one relation then add the extra matrices using the edit button and selecting insert sheet.  

                                  The editor allows some simple analysis and transformations. These are exactly the same routines as contained in the menu and the user should read the help files associated with these to obtain relevant information. 
                                   
                                   
                                   

                                  PARAMETERS N/A. 

                                  LOG FILE None. 

                                  TIMING Linear. 

                                  REFERENCES None. 
                                   

                                   

                                        #23$24K25DATA > RANDOM > MATRIX 

                                        PURPOSE Generate matrices where the cell values are drawn randomly from a variety of possible distributions. 

                                        DESCRIPTION Generate a set of m??n matrices whose elements are random numbers drawn from any of the following distributions - uniform, normal, binomial, Poisson, gamma or exponential. 

                                        PARAMETERS

                                        # of rows: (Default = 10).

                                        The number of rows in the random matrix to be generated. 

                                        # of columns: (Default = 10).

                                        The number of columns in the random matrix to be generated. 

                                        # of levels: (Default = 1).

                                        The number of matrices to be generated, all matrices will be of the same dimension. 

                                        Probability distribution: (Default = Uniform).

                                        The underlying distribution from which the elements of the matrix are taken.  

                                        Choices are:  

                                        Uniform

                                        Each cell value is taken from a [0,1] uniform distribution so that each cell value is between 0 and 1.  The mean is 0.5. 

                                        Normal

                                        Each cell value is taken from a normal distribution.

                                         

                                        Upon execution of the routine with this option a new window will appear with the following parameters: 

                                        Mean of normal distribution (Default = 0.0)  

                                        Standard deviation of normal distribution (Default = 1.0). 

                                        Binomial

                                        Each cell is filled with the number of times an event with probability p occurs in n trials. 

                                        Upon execution of the routine with this option a window will appear with the following parameters: 

                                        Event probability: (Default = 0.5)

                                        This gives the probability p of success, i.e. the probability of an event occurring during one trial. 

                                        # of trials (Default = 1).

                                        This gives the desired number of repeated trials n. The mean is np. 

                                        Poisson

                                        Each cell is filled with the number of times an event occurred in a unit interval of time assuming a Poisson process.  

                                        Upon execution of the routine a window will appear with the following parameter: 

                                        Average # of occurrences per time period (Default = 1.0).

                                        This gives the mean of the distribution. 

                                        Gamma

                                        Each cell is filled with the time taken for the kth occurrence of an event to occur assuming the event follows a Poisson process with an average of one occurrence per time period.  

                                        Upon execution of the routine a window will appear with the following parameter: 

                                        Desired # of occurrences (Default = 1).

                                        The number k of events which must occur.  The value k=1 gives the exponential distribution. The mean is k. 

                                        Exponential

                                        Each cell is filled with the time taken for the 1st occurrence of an event to occur assuming the event follows a Poisson process with an average of one occurrence per time period. The mean is 1. 

                                        Include diagonal values: (Default = YES).

                                        NO will give missing values on the main diagonal. 

                                        Generator Seed:

                                        A seed for random number generator.  Use of the same number will create exactly the same 'random' matrix twice.  Any value from 1 to 32000 is permissible. The default is randomly generated. 
                                         

                                        Output dataset: (Default = 'Random').

                                        Name of data file which will contain random matrix. 
                                         

                                        LOG FILE  Generated random matrix.  The cells of the random matrix will be of the following type: 

                                        UNIFORM - real range [0,1].

                                        NORMAL - real range (-¥,¥).

                                        BINOMIAL - integer range [0,¥).

                                        POISSON - integer range [0,¥).

                                        GAMMA - real range (0,¥).

                                        EXPONENTIAL - real range (0,¥). 

                                        TIMING O(N^2). 

                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                         
                                         

                                         

                                              #26$27K28DATA >RANDOM > SOCIOMETRIC 

                                              PURPOSE A random digraph is created in which edges are generated with the constraint that each vertex has a user specified out-degree. 

                                              PARAMETERS 

                                              Number of nodes (Default = 10)

                                              The size of digraph to be constructed. 

                                              Number of graphs (Default = 1)

                                              This specifies the number of relations to be generated. 

                                              # of choices per actor (out-degree)

                                              Specifies the out-degree for each actor.  A single number will specify the same out-degree for each actor.The degree of each actor can be specified by a list.  Each element of the list is separated by a space or comma.  If the list is shorter than the number of nodes then it is extended by repeating from the first element.  Values greater than the maximum out-degree are reduced to the maximum value.

                                              The list can be specified by a UCINET data file.  This must be of the form: 

                                              <filename> ROW (or COLUMN) <number> 

                                              where filename is the name of the data file. The command ROW or COLUMN followed by the appropriate number specifies which row or column of the dataset is to be used. 

                                              Generate self loops (Default = No)

                                              If NO edges connecting a node to itself will not be allowed. 

                                              Random generator seed:

                                              A seed for the random number generator.  Use of the same number will create exactly the same 'random' graph.  Any value from 1 to 32000 is permissible. The default is randomly generated. 

                                              OUTPUT dataset (Default = 'SociometricRandomGraph')

                                              Name of file which contains generated digraph. 
                                               

                                              LOG FILE Table of specified out-degrees.

                                              Randomly generated digraph which conforms to the specification. 

                                              TIMING O(N^2). 

                                              COMMENTS None. 

                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                               

                                         

                                              #29$30K31DATA > RANDOM > BERNOULLI 

                                              PURPOSE Generate a random network taken from a Bernoulli distribution. 

                                              DESCRIPTION A random network is created in which edges are generated independently from a Bernoulli distribution.   

                                              A random number between 0 and 1 is generated for each cell in an adjacency matrix.  If this number is less than a user specified probability then an edge is created.  Users can specify a single probability for the whole matrix, or different probabilities for each row, column or cell.  The whole procedure can be repeated for a number of trials to create an integer valued network. 

                                              PARAMETERS

                                              Number of nodes (Default = 10)

                                              The size of the graph to be constructed. 

                                              Number of graphs (Default = 1)

                                              This specifies the number of relations to be generated. 

                                              Number of trials per cell (Default = 1)

                                              The number of repeated trials per cell.  A value of 1 will give a binary matrix.  Values greater than 1 will give entries which correspond to the number of successes in the given number of trials. 

                                              What probabilities will you supply (Default = Matrix)

                                              Choices are: 

                                              Matrix - in which a single probability is used for the entire matrix. 

                                              Row - a set of probabilities, one for each row is used. 

                                              Column - a set of probabilities, one for each column is used. 

                                              Cell - a complete matrix of probabilities one for each cell is prescribed. 

                                              Once an option has been selected the routine highlights parameters which are dependent on the option selected. 

                                              MATRIX option: 

                                              Probability of a tie (Default = 0.5)

                                              A single probability applicable to the whole matrix should be specified. 

                                              ROW option: 

                                              Row probabilities dataset:

                                              Name of file which will contain dataset with row probabilities. 

                                              Probabilities are ROW or COLUMN of the dataset (Default = Column)

                                              Row means that probabilities will be taken from a particular row of the dataset.  Column specifies a column. 

                                              Which row/column (Default = 1)

                                              Specifies which row or column of the dataset is to be used. 

                                              COLUMN option: 

                                              Column probabilities dataset:

                                              Name of file which will contain dataset of column probabilities. 

                                              Probabilities are Row or Column of the dataset (Default = Column)

                                              Row means that probabilities will be taken from a particular row of the dataset.  Column specifies a column. 

                                              Which row/column (Default = 1)

                                              Specifies which row or column of the dataset is to be used.

                                               

                                              CELL option: 

                                              Cell probabilities dataset:

                                              Name of file which will contain the matrix of probabilities. 

                                              Generate self-loops (Default = No)

                                              No means that nodes cannot be connected to themselves.

                                              Yes means that self-loops may be generated. 

                                              Random generator seed:

                                              A seed for the random number generator. Use of the same number will create exactly the same 'random' graph twice.  Any value from 1 to 32000 is permissible.  The default is randomly generated. 

                                              Output dataset (Default = 'RandomBernoul')

                                              Name of file which will contain random graph. 
                                               

                                              LOG FILE Generated random graph. 

                                              TIMING O(N^2). 

                                              COMMENTS None. 

                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                               
                                               

                                               

                                                    #32$33K34DATA > RANDOM > MULTINOMIAL 

                                                    PURPOSE Generate random valued graphs in which the values are distributed by user assigned probabilities. 

                                                    DESCRIPTION The user specifies N, the total number of cases in the simulated "sample".  The algorithm randomly distributes the N cases into the cells of the adjacency matrix.  This distribution can either be uniform, in which case each cell has the same probability of being assigned one of the cases, or the distribution can be user specified.  In this case the algorithm randomly assigns each case in proportion to the cell probabilities.  The probabilities can be specified by row, column or individual cells.  The result is a value for each directed arc in the network. 

                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                    Number of nodes (Default = 10)

                                                    Number of nodes in each valued adjacency matrix to be created. 

                                                    Number of graphs (Default = 1)

                                                    Number of random matrices to be created. 

                                                    Total number of cases (sum of values)

                                                    Total number of values to be distributed across all cells in adjacency matrix.  Default is n(n-1) where n is the number of nodes. 

                                                    What probabilities will you supply (Default = Matrix)

                                                    Choices are: 

                                                    Matrix - a single probability is used for the entire matrix. 

                                                    Row - a set of probabilities, one for each row is used. 

                                                    Column - a set of probabilities, one for each column is used. 

                                                    Row*Column - two sets of probabilities are prescribed, one for the rows and one for the columns.  The probability for each cell is the product of the probabilities prescribed for its row and column. 

                                                    Cell - a complete matrix of probabilities, one for each cell is prescribed. 

                                                    Once an option has been selected the routine highlights parameters which are dependent on the option selected. 
                                                     

                                                    Row option 

                                                    Row probabilities dataset:

                                                    Name of file which contains probabilities for each row, it is assumed that the required probabilities will be contained in a matrix. 

                                                    Probabilities are Row or Column of this dataset: (Default = Column)

                                                    Specify Row or Column as required. 

                                                    Which Row/Column (Default = 1)

                                                    Number of row or column required. 

                                                    Column option 

                                                    Column probabilities dataset:

                                                    Name of file which contains probabilities for each column, it is assumed that the required probabilities will be contained in a matrix. 

                                                    Probabilities are Row or Column of this dataset: (Default = Column)

                                                    Specify Row or Column as required. 

                                                    Which Row/Column: (Default = 1)

                                                    Number of row or column required. 

                                                    Row*Column option

                                                    Two datasets are provided row probabilities as in row option and column probabilities as in column option. 

                                                    Cell option 

                                                    Cell probabilities dataset:

                                                    Name of file which contains matrix of probabilities. 

                                                    Generate self loops: (Default = No)

                                                    If NO then there will be no ties on the diagonal. 

                                                    Random number seed:

                                                    UCINET generates a different random number as a default each time it is run.  Use of the same seed will result in the same 'random' graph.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                    Output dataset (Default = 'MultinomialRandomGraph')

                                                    Name of file which will contain generated random network. 
                                                     

                                                    LOG FILE The log file contains a display of each random matrix. 

                                                    TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                    COMMENTS None. 

                                                    REFERENCES None. 
                                                     
                                                     

                                                     

                                                          #35$36K37DATA > IMPORT>DL 

                                                          PURPOSE Convert text (ie ASCII) data files in DL format to UCINET format. 

                                                          DESCRIPTION Imports ASCII files, that is plain text files which are in DL format into UCINET. These files can be created externally or using the UCINET text editor, more information is contained in the users guide or in the DL help. .YXWXN 

                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                          Input dataset:

                                                          Name of DL type file containing data to be imported. Data type: ASCII or text. 

                                                          Output data type: (Default = Real)

                                                          Choices are: 

                                                          Byte - whole numbers in the range 0 to 255 inclusive.   

                                                          Missing values are not allowed. 

                                                          Smallint - whole numbers in the range -32000 to 32000.   

                                                          Missing values are not allowed. 

                                                          Real - real numbers in the range -1.E36 to 1.E36.

                                                          Missing values permissible. 

                                                          Output dataset:

                                                          Name of UCINET data file, this will be set to the same name as the text file by default. 
                                                           

                                                          LOG FILE UCINET data file. 

                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                          COMMENTS None 

                                                     

                                                          #38$39DATA > IMPORT>MULTIPLE DL FILES 

                                                          PURPOSE Converts multiple text (ie ASCII) data files in DL format to UCINET format. 

                                                          DESCRIPTION Imports multiple ASCII files, that is plain text files which are in DL format into UCINET. These files can be created externally or using the UCINET text editor, more information is contained in the users guide or in the DL help. .YXWXNWithin UCINET these files retain their plain text filename. Files which are of the same size on the same set of actors can be imported into a single multirelational dataset. This dataset can be given a new name in this routine. Imported files are of real type.  

                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                          Input files:

                                                          Names of DL type files containing data to be imported. Each file should be specified starting on a new row.  Data type: ASCII or text. 

                                                          Output files

                                                          Choices are: 

                                                          Load all  data into a single dataset with multiple relations

                                                          Each dl file must contain the same nodes. It is possible to change the default name from Multiple to a user selected name. 

                                                          Load each file into a separate dataset

                                                          If this is chosen the each imported file will have the dl filename as its UCINET filename 
                                                           
                                                           

                                                          LOG FILE UCINET data files 

                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                    COMMENTS  None 
                                                     

                                                     

                                                          #40$41DATA > IMPORT > PAJEK 

                                                          PURPOSE Convert Pajek data files into UCINET format. 

                                                          DESCRIPTION Imports Pajek files for use by UCINET,  both the network in the form of an adjacency matrix and the co-ordinates of the nodes in the plot may be imported.   

                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                          Input dataset:

                                                          Name of file containing data to be imported. Data type: ASCII file. 

                                                          Output UCINET Network   

                                                          Name of UCINET data file to contain the network details, default is the same name as the input dataset.  

                                                          Output Coordinate dataset  

                                                          Name of UCINET data file to contain the coordinate details, default is the same name as the input dataset with Crd added to the name. 
                                                           

                                                          LOG FILE A display of the UCINET data file. 

                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                          COMMENTS None. 

                                                          REFERENCES None. 
                                                           
                                                           
                                                           

                                                           

                                                                #42$43K44DATA > IMPORT > KRACKPLOT 

                                                                PURPOSE Convert Krackplot data files into UCINET format. 

                                                                DESCRIPTION Imports Krackplot files for use by UCINET both the network in the form of an adjacency matrix and the co-ordinates of the nodes in the plot may be imported.   

                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                Name of file containing data to be imported. Data type: ASCII file. 

                                                                (Output)  Network dataset

                                                                Name of UCINET data file to contain the network details, default is the same name as the input dataset. 
                                                                 

                                                                (Output) Coordinate dataset (Default = 'Kpcrd') 

                                                                Name of UCINET data file to contain the coordinate details, default is the same name as the input dataset with Crd added to the name. 
                                                                 

                                                                LOG FILE A display of the UCINET data file. 

                                                                TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                 

                                                           

                                                                #45$46DATA > IMPORT>VNA 

                                                                PURPOSE Convert Netdraw vna data into UCINET format. 

                                                                DESCRIPTION Imports vna network and attribute data into UCINET. Netdraw vna files can be pure attribute or network or contain both network and attribute data. This procedure allows the user to import all of these types into UCINET.  

                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                Input file:

                                                                Name of vna to be imported. 

                                                                Output network:

                                                                Name of UCINET data file to contain the network details, default is the same name as the input dataset followed by -Net. Unchecking the associated box means this file will not be created.  

                                                                Output Attributes:

                                                                Name of UCINET data file to contain the attribute details, default is the same name as the input dataset followed by -Attr. Unchecking the associated box means this file will not be created.

                                                                .    
                                                                 

                                                                LOG FILE UCINET data files. 

                                                                TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                COMMENTS Information on the VNA format can be found online at www.analytictech.com/netdraw.htm*! ExecFile("www.analytictech.com/netdraw.htm")  

                                                                 

                                                                      #47$48DATA > IMPORT>RAW 

                                                                      PURPOSE Convert a text file (that is an ASCII file) containing a matrix into UCINET for windows format. 

                                                                      DESCRIPTION Imports a text file (that is an ASCII file) containing a matrix into UCINET for windows format. The datafile must be pure text with spaces, commas or carriage returns between the characters. 

                                                                      PARAMETERS 

                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                      Name of text file to be imported. 

                                                                      # of columns

                                                                      The number of columns in the data matrix. 

                                                                      # of rows

                                                                      The number of rows in the data matrix 

                                                                      Output data type: (Default = Real)

                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                      Byte - whole numbers in the range 0 to 255 inclusive.   

                                                                      Missing values are not allowed. 

                                                                      Smallint - whole numbers in the range -32000 to 32000.   

                                                                      Missing values are not allowed. 

                                                                      Real - real numbers in the range -1.E36 to 1.E36.

                                                                      Missing values permissible. 

                                                                      Output dataset:

                                                                      Name of UCINET data file, this will be set to the same name as the input file by default. 
                                                                       

                                                                      LOG FILE UCINET data file. 

                                                                      TIMING O(N^2). 
                                                                       
                                                                       

                                                                       

                                                                            #49$50DATA > IMPORT>EXCEL 

                                                                            PURPOSE Convert EXCEL files (4.0 or 5.0/95) into UCINET format. 

                                                                            DESCRIPTION Imports simple EXCEL files (4.0 or 5.0/95) into UCINET format. Note that the spreadsheet must have no extras such as shading or borders. 

                                                                            PARAMETERS 

                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                            Name of EXCEL type file containing data to be imported. 

                                                                            Output dataset:

                                                                            Name of UCINET data file, this will be set to the same name as the input file by default. 
                                                                             

                                                                            LOG FILE UCINET data file. 

                                                                            TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                            COMMENTS This is very sensitive and many users find it easier to copy and paste from their spreadsheet into the UCINET spreadsheet. The easiest way is to copy the data only (ie not the labels) paste into the UCINET spreadsheet by first blocking the same dimensions as you wish to import. To import the labels save them  and use the label import feature in DESCRIBE.Scribble11  
                                                                             
                                                                             

                                                                             

                                                                                  #51$52K53DATA > IMPORT > NEGOPY 
                                                                                   

                                                                                  PURPOSE Convert text files formatted for the Negopy program into UCINET datasets. 

                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Reads the .dat and .nam Negopy files and creates a UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                  PARAMETERS  

                                                                                  Input link file: <*.dat>

                                                                                  Name of file, such as TRADE71.DAT, containing ties among actors. Format of the file looks like this: 

                                                                                  (2I3,1F5.1,1f3.1)

                                                                                  19  23  156.7  26.2

                                                                                  19  28  162.3  28.9

                                                                                  ... 

                                                                                  The first line is a Fortran format statement, required by Negopy but ignored by UCINET. You can just put a blank line if you like. The second line indicates a tie from person 19 to person 23, of strength 156.7 on the first relation, and of strength 26.2 on the second relation. 

                                                                                  Input name file: <*.nam>

                                                                                  Name of file, such as TRADE71.NAM, containing labels of actors. Format looks like this: 

                                                                                  (1I2,1X,1A30)

                                                                                  01 Billy-Bob

                                                                                  02 Johnny

                                                                                  ... 

                                                                                  Number of relations: (Default = 1)

                                                                                  Number of relations contained in the input link file (i.e., the number of columns of data after the two actor id numbers). 

                                                                                  Output dataset:  (Default = 'Imported')

                                                                                  Name of UCINET dataset to be created. 
                                                                                   

                                                                                  LOG FILE Data displayed in matrix form. 

                                                                                  TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                  COMMENTS Negopy is a program written by Bill Richards and Andy Seary. 

                                                                             

                                                                                  #54$55K56DATA > EXPORT>DL  

                                                                                  PURPOSE Convert UCINET data files into DL format. 

                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET data files into DL format, for a full description of the DL format go to help dl.YXWXN .  

                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                  Input dataset:

                                                                                  Name of file containing data to be exported. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                  Output format : (Default = "Full matrix")

                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                  Full matrix

                                                                                  A complete N??N matrix; 

                                                                                  Lowerhalf

                                                                                  Gives the lower-triangle and should only be used for symmetric matrices. 

                                                                                  Upper half

                                                                                  Gives the upper-triangle and should only be used for symmetric matrices. 

                                                                                  Nodelist1

                                                                                  This is used on binary matrices only. Each line of data consists of a row number (call it i) followed by a list of column numbers (call each one j) such that x(i,j) = 1.  

                                                                                  Nodelist1B

                                                                                  This is used on binary matrices only. Each line of data corresponds to a matrix row (call it i). The first number on the line is the number of non-zero cells in that row. This is followed by a list of column numbers (call each one j) such that x(i,j) = 1. Note that rows must appear in numerical order, and none may be skipped (unlike the Nodelist1 format). 

                                                                                  Nodelist2

                                                                                  Each line begins with a row id number followed by a list of column id numbers that are connected to that row number. For use in 2-mode matrices  

                                                                                  Edgelist1

                                                                                  This format is used on data forming a matrix in which the rows and columns refer to the same kinds of objects (e.g., an illness-by-illness proximity matrix, or a person-by-person network). The 1-mode matrix X is built from pairs of indices (a row and a column indicator). Pairs are typed one to a line, with indices separated by spaces or commas. The presence of a pair i,j indicates that there is a link from i to j, which is to say a non-zero value in x(i,j). Optionally, the pair may be followed by a value representing an attribute of the link, such as its strength or quality. If no value is present, it is assumed to be 1.0. If a pair is omitted altogether, it is assigned a value of 0.0.  

                                                                                  Edgelist2

                                                                                  This is used on data forming a matrix in which the rows and columns refer to different kinds of objects (e.g., illnesses and treatments). The 2-mode matrix X is built from pairs of indices (a row and a column indicator). Pairs are one to a line, with indices separated by spaces. The presence of a pair i,j indicates that there is a link from row i to column j, which is to say a non-zero value in x(i,j). If the pair is followed by a value then this is the strength of the tie. If no value is present, it is assumed to be 1.0. If a pair is omitted altogether, it is assigned a value of 0.0.  

                                                                                  Diagonals present (Default = Present)

                                                                                  If Absent diagonal values will not be written to file. 
                                                                                   

                                                                                  (edgelist only) Type

                                                                                  Specify whether the data is directed or undirected 

                                                                                  Decimal places: (Default = 0)

                                                                                  The number of places of decimals required.  The default will correspond to the number of places of decimals in the original UCINET data file.  A smaller value will result in rounding to the nearest value.  A value of 0 will indicate Integer values only. 

                                                                                  Field width (Default = Freefield)

                                                                                  Freefield will simply place each row of a matrix on a new line with no attempt to align the columns.

                                                                                  Automatic will align the rows and columns into a matrix format.  The user can also specify the number of spaces for each field - this number should be greater than the number of decimal places in the field. 

                                                                                  Guaranteed space (Default = Yes)

                                                                                  Yes separates each number in every row by a space.  No prints each number in a continuous list. 

                                                                                  Page width (Default=10000): 

                                                                                  The maximum width of the output page. 

                                                                                  Embed row labels(Default=No):

                                                                                  Should these labels be embedded. 

                                                                                  Embed column labels(Default=No):

                                                                                  Should these labels be embedded. 

                                                                                  Embed matrix labels(Default=No):

                                                                                  Should these labels be embedded. 

                                                                                  Output dataset:

                                                                                  Name of file to be created with .txt file extension. 
                                                                                   

                                                                                  LOG FILE A text DL data file of type specified. 

                                                                                  TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                  COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                  REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                   

                                                                                   

                                                                                        #57$58DATA>EXPORT >KRACKPLOT 

                                                                                        PURPOSE Convert UCINET data files into Krackplot format. 

                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET data files including co-ordinate and attribute files into Krackplot format.  

                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                        (Input) Network dataset:

                                                                                        Name of file containing data to be exported. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                        (Input) Co-ordinate dataset

                                                                                        Name of file containing co-ordinates of points for the layout of the data. These are as in the co-ordinate output of MDS. If there are no co-ordinates then this can be left blank. 

                                                                                        Node attributes (if any)

                                                                                        Name of file containing actor attributes, given as a vector of shared attributes so that (1,2,3,1,2,2) means that actors 1 and 4 share the same attribute actors 2,5,and 6 share the same attribute and actor 3 has a different attribute from all the others. 
                                                                                         

                                                                                        Output data file:

                                                                                        Name of file to be created. 
                                                                                         

                                                                                        LOG FILE Krackplot data file. 

                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                         
                                                                                         

                                                                                         

                                                                                              #59$60DATA>EXPORT >MAGE 

                                                                                              PURPOSE Convert UCINET data files into Mage format. 

                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET data files including co-ordinate files and attribute files into Mage format for 3D visualization.  

                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                              (Input) Network dataset:

                                                                                              Name of file containing network data to be exported. Data type: Digraph 

                                                                                              (Input) Co-ordinate dataset

                                                                                              Name of file containing co-ordinates of points for the layout of the data. These are as in the co-ordinate output of MDS. If there are no co-ordinates then this can be left blank. 

                                                                                              Node attributes (if any)

                                                                                              Name of file containing actor attributes, given as a vector of shared attributes so that (1,2,3,1,2,2) means that actors 1 and 4 share the same attribute actors 2,5,and 6 share the same attribute and actor 3 has a different attribute from all the others. These attributes can be used in Mage to color the nodes according to the attribute. 
                                                                                               

                                                                                              Ball Size (Default = 0.15)

                                                                                              Radius of the nodes in the image, a value of zero eliminates nodes, typically values are from 0.05 to 0.5.  

                                                                                              Line thickness (Default = 2)

                                                                                              A number from 1 to 5 which specifies the thickness of the lines. 

                                                                                              Arrow Size (Default = 0.25)

                                                                                              Size of arrow heads, typically values are from 0.05 to 0.5. 

                                                                                              Arrow Angle (Default = 20)

                                                                                              The angle that the arrow makes with the edge in degrees. 

                                                                                              Font Size (Default = 20)

                                                                                              Size of the font used on the image to display the node labels 

                                                                                              Output File

                                                                                              Name of file to be created, normally the file extension should be .kin. 

                                                                                              Launch Mage on Exit (Default = 'Yes')

                                                                                              If yes exported file is immediately displayed in Mage 
                                                                                               

                                                                                              LOG FILE Mage data file. 

                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                              COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
                                                                                               

                                                                                               

                                                                                              #61$62DATA>EXPORT > PAJEK > NETWORK 

                                                                                                    PURPOSE Convert UCINET graph or digraph files into Pajek format together with any categorical attribute files. 

                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET data files into Pajek format, the conversion can take valued data and dichotomize it during the export and also export associated categorical attribute files together with co-ordinate files. The conversion will also automatically delete isolated vertices if required. 

                                                                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                                                                    (Input) Network dataset:

                                                                                                    Name of file containing network data to be exported. Data type: Valued digraph. 

                                                                                                    Dichotomize vals > than:

                                                                                                    For valued data a cut-off value used to convert the data to a binary matrix, for binary data leave blank. 

                                                                                                    Delete isolates? (Default = 'No')

                                                                                                    If yes isolated vertices are not included in the exported file 

                                                                                                    (Input) Co-ordinate dataset

                                                                                                    Name of file containing co-ordinates of points for the layout of the data. These are as in the co-ordinate output of MDS. If there are no co-ordinates then this can be left blank. 

                                                                                                    (Input) Attribute dataset

                                                                                                    Name of file containing categorical actor attributes, given as a vector of shared attributes so that (1,2,3,1,2,2) means that actors 1 and 4 share the same attribute actors 2,5,and 6 share the same attribute and actor 3 has a different attribute from all the others. If there is more than one attribute this can be combined into an attribute matrix with the rows representing the actors and each column corresponding to a different attribute. 
                                                                                                     

                                                                                                    Output Attribute file:

                                                                                                    Name of Pajek attribute file to be created. If there is more than one attribute then one file will be created for each attribute with the same file name but with the column number added as the last character in the name. Pajek categorical attribute files have the file extension .clu. 

                                                                                                    Output Network file:

                                                                                                    Name of Pajek file containing the adjacency matrix of the network, the file has .net as an extension. 

                                                                                                    Launch Pajek on exit?

                                                                                                    If yes then Pajek is launched on exit. 

                                                                                                    LOG FILE Pajek .net data file. 

                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                    REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                     
                                                                                                     

                                                                                                     

                                                                                                    #63$64DATA>EXPORT > PAJEK > CATEGORICAL ATTRIBUTE 

                                                                                                          PURPOSE Convert UCINET categorical attribute files into a Pajek file. 

                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET categorical attribute files into Pajek format ie Pajek clu files. The conversion can take a matrix of attributes and create a set of Pajek clu files one for each column of the matrix. These files can be used in Pajek to color the nodes according to a particular attribute. 

                                                                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                          (Input) Attribute dataset

                                                                                                          Name of file containing categorical actor attributes, given as a vector of shared attributes so that (1,2,3,1,2,2) means that actors 1 and 4 share the same attribute actors 2,5,and 6 share the same attribute and actor 3 has a different attribute from all the others. If there is more than one attribute this can be combined into an attribute matrix with the rows representing the actors and each column corresponding to a different attribute. 
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                          Output file(s) prefix:

                                                                                                          Name of Pajek attribute file to be created. If there is more than one attribute then one file will be created for each attribute with the same file name but with the column number added as the last character in the name. Pajek categorical attribute files have the file extension .clu. 
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                          LOG FILE Lists the Pajek clu files created 

                                                                                                          TIMING O(N) 

                                                                                                          COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                           

                                                                                                          #65$66DATA>EXPORT > PAJEK > QUANTITATIVE ATTRIBUTE 
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                          PURPOSE Convert UCINET quantative attribute files into a Pajek file. 

                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET quantative attribute files into Pajek format ie Pajek vec files. The conversion can take a matrix of attributes and create a set of Pajek vec files one for each column of the matrix. These files can be used in Pajek to change the sizes of the nodes according to a particular attribute. 

                                                                                                          PARAMETERS (Input) Attribute dataset

                                                                                                          Name of file containing quantative actor attributes. These maybe attributes of the actors Eg age or possibly network attributes Eg centrality.  If there is more than one attribute this can be combined into an attribute matrix with the rows representing the actors and each column corresponding to a different attribute. 

                                                                                                          Output file(s) prefix:

                                                                                                          Name of Pajek attribute file to be created. If there is more than one attribute then one file will be created for each attribute with the same file name but with the column number added as the last character in the name. Pajek quantative attribute files have the file extension .vec. 
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                          LOG FILE Lists the Pajek vec files created 

                                                                                                          TIMING O(N) 

                                                                                                          COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                           

                                                                                                          #67$68DATA>EXPORT > METIS 

                                                                                                                PURPOSE Convert UCINET network files into Metis files. 

                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET datafiles either binary or valued but only symmetric into data files for the Metis partitioning software.  

                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                Input dataset

                                                                                                                Name of UCINET data file containing network. Data Type: Valued symmetric graph 

                                                                                                                Type of Data

                                                                                                                Choices are Binary or Valued.   

                                                                                                                Output Dataset

                                                                                                                Name of Metis file to be created, note there are no prescribed file extensions. 
                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                LOG FILE Metis file created 

                                                                                                                TIMING O(N) 

                                                                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                      #69$70DATA > EXPORT>RAW  

                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Convert UCINET data files into raw format. 

                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET data files into raw format, these are the same as the DL format but without the headers, for full information of the DL formats go to help dl.YXWXN .  

                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                                                                      Name of file containing data to be exported. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                      Output format : (Default = "Full matrix")

                                                                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                                                                      Full matrix

                                                                                                                      A complete N??N matrix; 

                                                                                                                      Lowerhalf

                                                                                                                      Gives the lower-triangle and should only be used for symmetric matrices. 

                                                                                                                      Upper half

                                                                                                                      Gives the upper-triangle and should only be used for symmetric matrices. 

                                                                                                                      Nodelist1

                                                                                                                      This is used on binary matrices only. Each line of data consists of a row number (call it i) followed by a list of column numbers (call each one j) such that x(i,j) = 1.  

                                                                                                                      Nodelist1B

                                                                                                                      This is used on binary matrices only. Each line of data corresponds to a matrix row (call it i). The first number on the line is the number of non-zero cells in that row. This is followed by a list of column numbers (call each one j) such that x(i,j) = 1. Note that rows must appear in numerical order, and none may be skipped (unlike the Nodelist1 format). 

                                                                                                                      Nodelist2

                                                                                                                      Each line begins with a row id number followed by a list of column id numbers that are connected to that row number. For use in 2-mode matrices  

                                                                                                                      Edgelist1

                                                                                                                      This format is used on data forming a matrix in which the rows and columns refer to the same kinds of objects (e.g., an illness-by-illness proximity matrix, or a person-by-person network). The 1-mode matrix X is built from pairs of indices (a row and a column indicator). Pairs are typed one to a line, with indices separated by spaces or commas. The presence of a pair i,j indicates that there is a link from i to j, which is to say a non-zero value in x(i,j). Optionally, the pair may be followed by a value representing an attribute of the link, such as its strength or quality. If no value is present, it is assumed to be 1.0. If a pair is omitted altogether, it is assigned a value of 0.0.  

                                                                                                                      Edgelist2

                                                                                                                      This is used on data forming a matrix in which the rows and columns refer to different kinds of objects (e.g., illnesses and treatments). The 2-mode matrix X is built from pairs of indices (a row and a column indicator). Pairs are one to a line, with indices separated by spaces. The presence of a pair i,j indicates that there is a link from row i to column j, which is to say a non-zero value in x(i,j). If the pair is followed by a value then this is the strength of the tie. If no value is present, it is assumed to be 1.0. If a pair is omitted altogether, it is assigned a value of 0.0.  

                                                                                                                      Diagonals present (Default = Present)

                                                                                                                      If Absent diagonal values will not be written to file. 
                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                      (edgelist only) Type

                                                                                                                      Specify whether the data is directed or undirected 

                                                                                                                      Decimal places: (Default = 0)

                                                                                                                      The number of places of decimals required.  The default will correspond to the number of places of decimals in the original UCINET data file.  A smaller value will result in rounding to the nearest value.  A value of 0 will indicate Integer values only. 

                                                                                                                      Field width (Default = Freefield)

                                                                                                                      Freefield will simply place each row of a matrix on a new line with no attempt to align the columns.

                                                                                                                      Automatic will align the rows and columns into a matrix format.  The user can also specify the number of spaces for each field - this number should be greater than the number of decimal places in the field. 

                                                                                                                      Guaranteed space (Default = Yes)

                                                                                                                      Yes separates each number in every row by a space.  No prints each number in a continuous list. 

                                                                                                                      Page width (Default=10000): 

                                                                                                                      The maximum width of the output page. 

                                                                                                                      Embed row labels(Default=No):

                                                                                                                      Should these labels be embedded. 

                                                                                                                      Embed column labels(Default=No):

                                                                                                                      Should these labels be embedded. 

                                                                                                                      Embed matrix labels(Default=No):

                                                                                                                      Should these labels be embedded. 

                                                                                                                      Output dataset:

                                                                                                                      Name of file to be created with txt file extension. 
                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                      LOG FILE A text data file of type specified. 

                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                      REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                            #71$72K73DATA > EXPORT > UCINET 3.0 

                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Convert UCINET data files into Ucinet 3.0 format. 

                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Converts UCINET data files into Ucinet 3.0 format.  

                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                            Name of file containing data to be exported. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                            Output format:

                                                                                                                            Choices are: 

                                                                                                                            Lower triangular matrix

                                                                                                                            Symmetric square matrix

                                                                                                                            Non-symmetric square matrix

                                                                                                                            Rectangular square matrix

                                                                                                                            Stacked square matrices

                                                                                                                            Stacked triangular matrices 

                                                                                                                            Output data type:

                                                                                                                            Choices are: 

                                                                                                                            Binary

                                                                                                                            Non-Binary 

                                                                                                                            Decimal places:

                                                                                                                            The number of decimal places to include. 

                                                                                                                            Output data file:

                                                                                                                            Name of file to be created. 
                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Ucinet 3.0 data file. 

                                                                                                                            TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                            COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                            REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                  #74$75K76DATA>EXPORT>EXCEL 

                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Export a UCINET dataset to Excel format. 

                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Creates an Excel spreadsheet file in either Excel 4,  Excel 5and 7, Tab delimited or HMTL 

                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                  Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to be converted. Data type: any UCINET file. 

                                                                                                                                  Which version of Excel:  

                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                  Excel 5 and 7

                                                                                                                                  Excel 4

                                                                                                                                  Tab-Delimited Text File

                                                                                                                                  HTML   

                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE None 

                                                                                                                                  TIMING N/A 

                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS Note that Tab-delimited and HTML are more flexible and are recommended for later versions of Excel. The spreadsheet editor can also be used to save datsets as Excel files  

                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                        #77$78K79DATA >ATTRIBUTE 

                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Create a network from attribute data. 

                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Convert a vector of valued attributes to a matrix based upon either exact matches, differences, absolute differences, squared differences, product or sums of the values. 

                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                        Dataset containing attribute vector:

                                                                                                                                        Name of data file containing vector of valued attributes. This vector must be a row or column of a matrix , it can be the only row or column. Data type: Matrix  

                                                                                                                                        Vector is Row or Column?:

                                                                                                                                        Choose either row or column 

                                                                                                                                        Which Row/Col (Default = 1)

                                                                                                                                        The number of the row or column that contains the attributes to be converted.  

                                                                                                                                        Method: (Default = Absolute Difference).

                                                                                                                                        Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                        Exact Matches

                                                                                                                                        Matrix X is formed by X(i,j) = 1 if vector(i) = vector(j) and 0 otherwise. 

                                                                                                                                        Difference

                                                                                                                                        Matrix X is formed by X(i,j) = vector(i) - vector(j). 

                                                                                                                                        Absolute Difference

                                                                                                                                        Matrix X is formed by X(i,j) = ABS (Vector(i) - vector(j)). 

                                                                                                                                        Squared Difference

                                                                                                                                        Matrix X is formed by X(i,j) = (vector(i) - vector(j))^2. 

                                                                                                                                        Product

                                                                                                                                        Matrix X is formed by X(i,j) = vector(i) * vector(j). 

                                                                                                                                        Sum

                                                                                                                                        Matrix X is formed by X(i,j) = vector(i) + vector(j). 

                                                                                                                                        Output dataset:

                                                                                                                                        Name of file which contains constructed matrix. 
                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Constructed matrix. 

                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                        #80$81K82DATA >AFFILIATIONS 

                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Create a network from affiliation data. 

                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Converts an m??n matrix to an m??m or n??n by forming AA'  or A'A using two different types of binary multiplication. Given a binary incidence matrix A where the rows represent actors and the columns events, then the matrix AA' gives the number of events in which actors simultaneously attended.  Hence AA' (i,j) is the number of events attended by both actor i and actor j.  The matrix A'A gives the number of events simultaneously attended by a pair of actors.  Hence A'A(i,j) is the number of actors who attended both event i and event j. If the data is valued there are two options. The cross product (or co-occurence method) constructs the standard matrix product as in the binary case. The minimum method takes taking the minimum of the two values in the sums instead of the products. Hence if row i was (5,6,0,1) and row j was (4,2,4,0) then AA'(i,j) is 5*4+6*2+0*4+1*0=32 for the cross product and min(5,4)+min(6,2)+min(0,4)+min(1,0)=6 for the minimum method. These produce the same answers for binary data. 

                                                                                                                                        The routine also allows for the final matrix to be normalized to accomodate the different sizes of the events. Consider two actors i and j and let X be the product of the number events they both attended and the number of events they both did not attend, let Y be the product of the number events i attended and j did not with the number of events j attended and i did not. If X=Y the normalized entry is 0.5 otherwise it is (X-SQRT(XY))/(X-Y). 

                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing 2-mode dataset. Data type: Matrix 

                                                                                                                                        Which mode: (Default = Row).

                                                                                                                                        Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                        Row

                                                                                                                                        Represents row by row matrix of overlaps, i.e. forms AA' 

                                                                                                                                        Column

                                                                                                                                        Represents column by column matrix of overlaps, i.e. forms A'A. 

                                                                                                                                        Method:

                                                                                                                                        Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                        Cross-Products (co-occurrence)

                                                                                                                                        Uses standard matrix multiplication. 

                                                                                                                                        Minimums (for valued data)

                                                                                                                                        Uses matrix multiplication in which the binary operation of multiplication is replaced by taking the minimum. 

                                                                                                                                        Normalization:

                                                                                                                                        Selecting none gives the raw products. Bonacich '72 normalization gives the values as described in the description above.  

                                                                                                                                        Output dataset: (Default = 'Affiliations').

                                                                                                                                        Name of file which contains new matrix. 
                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE New matrix. 

                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None.  

                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Bonnacich P. (1972) 'Techniques for analyzing overlapping memberships' Sociological Methodology 176-185 Jossey-Bass.  
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                        #83$84K85DATA>CSS 

                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Combines a number of different relations or cognitive "slices" of the same network into a single pooled network. These may either be a number of views of the whole network or the view of the whole network through all ego centered networks. 

                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION The input is a set of k adjacency matrices, each of the form A(i,j) stacked into a three-dimensional matrix, A(i,j,k).  This form is useful for cognitive social structures, where k refers to the perceiver of a relation from i to j.  This routine compresses this 3-D matrix into a two-dimensional matrix, A'(i,j) using one of two methods.  One is to compute the element-wise sum over the k matrices: A'(i,j) = SUM over k of A(i,j,k)  This matrix can be dichotomized around a threshold to produce a "consensus" structure.   

                                                                                                                                        Alternatively, one can produce a "locally aggregated structure" (LAS) by setting A'(i,j) = A(i,j,i)+A(i,j,j).  In other words, the value of a given cell in the aggregate matrix is a function only of the perceptions of the two individuals involved, not the whole group.  This matrix can also be dichotomized. 

                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing any set of matrices representing the same network. Data type: Valued graph. Multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                        Method of Pooling graphs (Default = Slice)

                                                                                                                                        Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                        Slice. Take an individuals view of the network. This simply extracts a single matrix from the structure. 

                                                                                                                                        Row LAS. Construct a matrix which uses each respondents row as a row in the data matrix. The result is that each row of the data corresponds to the respondents perception of that row. 

                                                                                                                                        Column LAS. Construct a matrix which uses each respondents column as a column in the data matrix. The result is that each column of the data corresponds to the respondents perception of that column. 

                                                                                                                                        Intersection LAS. Construct a matrix with a connection between i and j if both i and j agree that such a connection exists.  

                                                                                                                                        Union LAS. Construct a matrix with a connection between i and j if either i or j state that such a connection exists.  
                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                        Median LAS. Construct a matrix with values A(i,j) which are the median of i's value of the i,j connection and j's value of the connection.  

                                                                                                                                        Consensus. The consensus takes the sum of all the respondents and then dichotomises the sum. 

                                                                                                                                        Average. The average of all the respondents view of the network. 

                                                                                                                                        If the users choose either Slice or Consensus then the following parameters will be highlighted. 

                                                                                                                                        (For Slice Method) Which informants slice? (Default = 1)

                                                                                                                                        Number of actor to be the informant 

                                                                                                                                        (For consensus method) Threshold value (Default =0.5)

                                                                                                                                        Threshold value for dichotomising the aggregated matrix.    

                                                                                                                                        Output dataset (Default = 'Pooled')

                                                                                                                                        Output file that will contain pooled graph . 

                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Pooled graph adjacency matrix. 

                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Krackhardt D. (1987). 'Cognitive social structures'. Social Networks 9, 104-134. 

                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                              #86$87K88DATA>DISPLAY 

                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Display UCINET datasets on the screen. 
                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Allows display of all or part of any UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                              Data Set Filename

                                                                                                                                              Name of file to be displayed. Data type: Matrix.    

                                                                                                                                              Width of Fields (Default = Min)

                                                                                                                                              The width of field gives the size allocated for the width of each cell.  The default value will display the number in each cell separated by a single space. 

                                                                                                                                              # of decimals (Default = Min)

                                                                                                                                              Defines the number of places of decimals to be displayed.  The default will give the number of the original data up to a maximum of 2 places of decimals. 

                                                                                                                                              Print zeros as (Default = 0)

                                                                                                                                              Enter blank to suppress zeros. 

                                                                                                                                              Scale factor (Default= 1)

                                                                                                                                              Scales up entries by multiplying them by the scale factor. Useful for seeing small numbers. Note the data is left unchanged. 

                                                                                                                                              Which rows (Default = All)

                                                                                                                                              Rows to be displayed are done so in the order specified by a row list.  Each element of the list is separated by a comma or space.  The keywords, TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible.  Hence 3, 7 TO 9, FIRST 2 will display rows 3, 7, 8, 9, 1 and 2 in that order. 

                                                                                                                                              Which cols (Default = All)

                                                                                                                                              Columns to be displayed are done so in the order specified by a column list in the same way as the rows above. 
                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                              Row blocking (if any):  (Default = None)

                                                                                                                                              To partition the rows of the displayed matrix into blocks, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the rows of the matrix. All rows with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same block of the matrix.  

                                                                                                                                              Column blocking (if any): (Default = None)

                                                                                                                                              To partition the columns of the displayed matrix into blocks, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the columns of the matrix. All columns with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same block of the matrix.  
                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Display of UCINET dataset, or part of dataset as prescribed. 

                                                                                                                                              TIMING Linear. 

                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS 'Width of Field' should be greater than # of places of decimals.  If this is not the case data is still displayed with no spaces between cells causing the labels to be incorrectly aligned. 

                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                    #89$90K91DATA>DESCRIBE 

                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Gives a description of a UCINET dataset and allows the user to import, enter or edit the labels 
                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Displays information contained in UCINET header file, this includes the data type; number of dimensions, size of matrix, title and labels. The labels can be edited, entered or imported. To edit an existing label simply double click on the label and perform the edit. The edits will only be kept if the file is saved using the 'save as' button. To type in a new set of labels change the label flag from false to true and double click in the label box. Proceed as an edit remembering to save the file when you have finished. You can import labels saved in ASCII by clicking on the import button and then entering the appropriate file name. 

                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS None 

                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE None 

                                                                                                                                                    TIMING Linear. 

                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                    #92$93K94DATA>EXTRACT 

                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE To extract parts of a dataset from a UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Extracts by means of specified lists rows, columns or matrices from UCINET IV datasets. 

                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                    Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                    Name of file from which data is to be extracted. Data type: matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                    Are you going to Keep or Delete (Default = Keep)

                                                                                                                                                    User can either specify which rows, columns or matrices form the new dataset or which rows, columns or matrices will be deleted to form the new dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                    Which rows (Default = All (None))

                                                                                                                                                    Rows to be kept or dropped are specified by a list. Each row number is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give row numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. ALL gives all possible rows, NONE gives no rows. Lists kept in a UCINET dataset can be used. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use.The list must be specified using a binary vector where a 1 in position k indicates that vertex k is a member of the list, a zero indicates that k is not a member. 

                                                                                                                                                    Which columns (Default = All (None))

                                                                                                                                                    Same as above but for columns. 

                                                                                                                                                    Which matrices(Default = All (None))

                                                                                                                                                    In multirelational data matrices from different levels can be selected using the same list format as above. 

                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset: (Default = 'Extract')

                                                                                                                                                    Name of UCINET dataset that will contain edited data. 

                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE Newly created dataset with labeled rows and columns. 

                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None. 

                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                    #95$96DATA >EXTRACT MAIN COMPONENT 

                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Extracts the largest component from a network. 

                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION The main component of a network is the component with the largest number of vertices. This routine extracts the largest weak component of a directed network and creates a new UCINET dataset consisting of just that componet. If the data is undirected then this would simply be the largest component of the network.  

                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                    Input network dataset:

                                                                                                                                                    Name of network file from which the component is to be extracted. Data type: Valued Graph 

                                                                                                                                                    Output network:

                                                                                                                                                    Name of UCINET dataset that will contain the main weak component Its defaiult name will be the name of the input network dataset with -main appended to the end. 
                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE None 

                                                                                                                                                    TIMING N/A 

                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES  None 
                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                              #97$98DATA>SUBGRAPHS FROM PARTITIONS 

                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Create new UCINET datasets from a network that correspond to a partition indicator vector. 

                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION A partition indicator vector for a network divides all the nodes into mutually exclusive groups. That is each node is placed in one and only one group and this group is given by the indicator vector. A value of k in row i of the vector means that actor i is in group k.  All other actors in the same group should be assigned the same value k. The number of different k's in the vector gives the number of groups in the partition. This routine creates separate UCINET datasets consisting of nodes in the same partition. Different partitions on the same dataset can be represented by a partition matrix where the columns (or rows) of the matrix represent different partitions.  

                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                    Input network:

                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing network from which partitions are to be extracted.      

                                                                                                                                                    Input Partition:

                                                                                                                                                    Name of new UCINET dataset that contains the partition matrix. The name of the matrix should be enetered followed by the word col (or row) and the col (row) number corresponding to the column of the parttion that is to be extracted. If the matrix is a vector and only has one column this still needs to be included. Eg Partition col 1. 

                                                                                                                                                    Output Prefix

                                                                                                                                                    Each class within a partition creates a new dataset. This will have the name specified in the output prefix followed by a dash and the number k in the partition indicator vector. The default is the same as the name of the input file. 

                                                                                                                                                    Make files for which classes of groups?

                                                                                                                                                    A check box list corresponding to all the groups within the partition. A new datafile will be created for each one checked. The list gives the size of each group. These can be checked or unchecked by hand or if all groups above a certain size are required a minimum size can be set in the bok on the right. This will uncheck all groups smaller than the size set.  
                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE List of datsets created 

                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N) 

                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES  None

                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                              #99$100DATA>EGONET 

                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Construct an ego centered network from the whole network   

                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION The neighborhood of an actor is the set of actors they are connected to together with the actors that are connected to them. An ego centered network is the subgraph induced by the set of neighbors. That is the network that consists of all the neighbors and the connections between them.  The idea of an ego network can be extended to a group of actors and the neighborhood is simply the union of the neighborhoods of the group. This procedure returns the adjacency matrix of the ego network and provides an option to include or exclude ego(s) from the network   

                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing the network from which the egonet is to be constructed. 

                                                                                                                                                    Focal Nodes

                                                                                                                                                    The node or nodes on whom the neighborhood will be built. Nodes are specified by a list. Each node  is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give nodes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12.  Lists kept in a UCINET dataset can be used. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use.The list must be specified using a binary vector where a 1 in position k indicates that vertex k is a member of the list, a zero indicates that k is not a member. 

                                                                                                                                                    Include focal? (Default  = 'Yes')

                                                                                                                                                    Whether to include the focal nodes in the network or not. 

                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset (Default = 'Neighborhood')

                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing adjacency matrix of the ego network. 

                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE Ego network adjacency matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N) 

                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                          #101$102DATA >REMOVE ISOLATES 

                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Delete all isolates in a network.  

                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION An isolate is a vertex of degree zero. This routine deletes all the isolates from the network. 

                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                          Input network data

                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing network data . Data type: Valued Graph 

                                                                                                                                                          Output network

                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing network with isolates deleted. The default is the name of the input network followed by -NoIsolates. 

                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE Network with the isolates deleted. 

                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                #103$104DATA >REMOVE PENDANTS 

                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Iteratively delete all pendants in a network.  

                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION A pendant vertex in an undirected graph has degree one. This routine deletes all the pendants from the network, this may create new pendants and these are then deleted. This continues iteratively until there are no more pendants left. For directed data this routine iteratively removes vertices with out-degree one and in-degree zero. 

                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                Input network

                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network data . Data type: Valued Graph 

                                                                                                                                                                Output network (Default= 'PendantsRemoved')

                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network with pendants deleted.  

                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Network with the pendants deleted. 

                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES  None 
                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                #105$106DATA > UNPACK 

                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE To unpack matrices from a UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Unpacks some or all matrices from a UCINET multirelational dataset. This routine is similar to extract for matrices except it places each extracted matrix as a single UCINET dataset. Hence extracting n matrices results in n different single datasets.  

                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                Name of file from which data is to be unpacked. Data type: matrix multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                Which relations to unpack (Default = ALL)

                                                                                                                                                                List of relations to unpack. Each matrix number is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give matrix numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. ALL gives all possible matrices.  

                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Lists the filenames of the unpacked matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                TIMING Linear 

                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                      #107$108DATA>JOIN 

                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Combine UCINET data files to form a single data file. Combines sets of single matrices into a new matrix by merging all rows or all columns.  Also combines sets of single matrices or multi-relational matrices into one multi-relational matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Combines sets of single matrices, with equal columns, row wise into a larger matrix.  If A1, A2 ... AN  are all matrices with  R1, R2, ... RN  rows respectively and  C  columns then these are merged into the  R1 + R2 +...+ RN by C matrix (A1  A2  ...  AN) transpose. 

                                                                                                                                                                      Also combines sets of single matrices, with equal rows, column wise into a larger matrix.  If A1, A2, ... AN are all matrices with  R  rows and C1, C2, ... CN columns respectively then these are merged into the R by C1 + C2 + CN matrix (A1  A2  ...  AN). 

                                                                                                                                                                      Certain UCINET routines permit the analysis of multiple relations on the same set of actors.  This routine can create a single data file which brings together all the relevant networks or matrices and makes them suitable for analysis. 
                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                      Files selected:

                                                                                                                                                                      Names of datasets each containing one or more matrices. The names should be entered in the order required in the merged data set. To enter a file, highlight one or more files in the Possible Files and click on the > button and they will be moved across. Clicking on < moves the files back. All possible files can be moved across by clicking on >> or <<. To select more than one file press Ctrl and then click. The files will be placed in the order they are selected.

                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                      Dims to join (Default = Rows)   

                                                                                                                                                                      Defines which method is to be used.

                                                                                                                                                                      Choices are:  

                                                                                                                                                                      Rows

                                                                                                                                                                      Matrices combine row-wise creating extra rows. Each matrix must be a single relation with an equal number of columns.   

                                                                                                                                                                      Columns

                                                                                                                                                                      Matrices combine column-wise creating extra columns. Each matrix must be a single relation with an equal number of rows.   

                                                                                                                                                                      Matrices

                                                                                                                                                                      Matrices appended as additional matrices or relations. Networks must all have the same dimensions.   
                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                      Destination filename (Default = 'Joined')

                                                                                                                                                                      Name of the file which will contain merged dataset. 
                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE The merged data set with appropriate labels. 

                                                                                                                                                                      If Rows has been selected and the original matrices do not have row labels then the new row labels are of the form i-j indicating that the row was formed from row j of matrix i. 

                                                                                                                                                                      If Columns has been selected then the new columns are labeled in a similar way to Row labels described above. 

                                                                                                                                                                      If Matrices has been selected then each relation is numbered sequentially. 
                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING Linear. 

                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                            #109$110DATA > PERMUTE 

                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Re-order rows, columns or matrices in a dataset according to a user specified list. 

                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Re-ordering of matrices can be by a list given at the keyboard or from a dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                            Name of dataset to be permuted. Data type: Matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                            New order of rows (Default is the natural order)

                                                                                                                                                                            Rows are ordered as specified by a list.  Each row number is listed separated by a comma or space.  The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible.  Hence 5, FIRST 3, 6 TO 8, 4, LAST 2, 9 specifies the order 5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 4, 10, 11, 9. 

                                                                                                                                                                            A UCINET data file can be specified which contains the order.  This must be of the form 

                                                                                                                                                                            <file name> ROW (or COLUMN) <number> 

                                                                                                                                                                            where file name is the name of the data file.  The command ROW or COLUMN followed by the appropriate number specifies which row or column of the dataset is to be used. The keyword RANDOM is also allowed. 

                                                                                                                                                                            New order of cols (Default is the natural order)

                                                                                                                                                                            Columns are ordered by a list using the same convention as for rows. 

                                                                                                                                                                            New order of matrices (Default is the natural order)

                                                                                                                                                                            Matrices are ordered by a list using the same convention as for rows. 

                                                                                                                                                                            Output Filename (Default = 'Permuted')

                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which will contain permuted dataset. 
                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Permuted dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS There is a limitation of 255 characters on keyboard entered lists.  Lists longer than 255 characters must be specified in a UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                  #111$112DATA > SORT 

                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Re-orders nodes in a network so that they correspond to the monotonic ordering of a prescribed vector. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Arranges the nodes of a network so that they are in the same order as an external vector. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  The sort can be either ascending or descending.  Hence if the ASCENDING option is chosen and the external vector is (V1, V2, ... VN), the nodes would be ordered so that node i would be before node j if and only if Vi £ Vj.  The external vector can be selected from the rows or columns of any UCINET data matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to be sorted. Data type: Matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Dimensions to be arranged:

                                                                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Both-Both rows and columns are simultaneously sorted

                                                                                                                                                                                  Rows Just the rows are sorted and the column order is preserved 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Columns Just the columns are sorted and the row order is preserved     

                                                                                                                                                                                  Sort order (Default = Ascending)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Ascending

                                                                                                                                                                                  Gives a sort which corresponds to placing the elements of the prescribed vector in the order from smallest to largest. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Descending

                                                                                                                                                                                  Gives a sort which corresponds to placing the elements of the prescribed vector in the order from largest to smallest. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Criterion vector (sort key) :

                                                                                                                                                                                  Either the name of the UCINET dataset from which the prescribed vector will be taken with the row or column specified as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                  <dataset> ROW (or COLUMN) <number> 

                                                                                                                                                                                  where <dataset> is the name of the dataset containing the criterion vector. The command ROW or COLUMN followed by the appropriate number specifies which row or column of the dataset is to be used. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Alternatively, a list of values may be entered, one for each row or column being sorted. Each list entry is separated by a comma or a space. There must be as many values as rows or columns being sorted. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  To sort in ascending or descending order the dataset itself should be used as the key. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  Output dataset: (Default = Sorted)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file which will contain sorted dataset. 
                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE Sorted dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N*LOG(N)). 

                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS User prescribed SORT to a keyboard list is provided by the routine PERMUTEScribble1170 

                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                        #113$114K115DATA >TRANSPOSE 

                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Take the transpose of a matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Interchanges the rows and columns of a matrix. Note that this corresponds to taking the converse of a directed graph.  That is, reversing the direction of every arc. 

                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                        Output dataset (Default = 'Transpose')

                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing transposed data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Transposed matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS More complicated transposes for three-dimensional matrices can be done using TOOLS>MATRIX>ALGEBRACN_B.2 

                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                              #116$117K118DATA >PARTITION TO SETS  

                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Transforms a partition indicator vector into a group by actor incidence matrix and display partition by groups. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION A partition indicator vector has the form (k1,k2,...,ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to group ki.  So that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1;  and 3 and 5 to block 2.  A group by vertex incidence matrix has vertices as its columns and the groups as the rows.  A 1 in row i column j indicates that actor j is a member of group i;  the values are zero otherwise. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                              Partition indicator vector.  This can either be entered at the keyboard by specifying the elements of the vector, each number separated by a comma or space or as a UCINET dataset.

                                                                                                                                                                                              For partitions kept in a UCINET data file enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. Data type: Partition indicator vector. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              Output dataset: (Default = 'PartitionToSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file which will contain group by vertex incidence matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE A list of the groups.  Each group is numbered and specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS Partition indicator vectors enters using the keyboard are restricted to 255 characters.  Longer vectors should be specified using a UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                              #119$120K121DATA >RESHAPE 

                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Reorganize the data into different size matrix or matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION This routine treats any input data as one long list.  The list is formed row by row and, if applicable, level by level.  The new matrix is then filled up row by row and then level by level from this list. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                              # of rows desired (Default = 0)

                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of rows in reshaped matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              # of columns desired (Default = 0)

                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of columns in reshaped matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              # of matrices desired (Default = 1)

                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of different matrices required. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              Output dataset (Default = 'Reshaped')

                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing reshaped data. 
                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Reshaped matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                    #122$123K124DATA > CREATE NODE SETS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE To create a group indicator vector based on comparing two vectors or a vector and a number. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Given a vector of attributes or values for every actor and a threshold number then this routine selects actors which are have a value which is less than (or greater than) the threshold. More generally the threshold can itself be a vector so that actors are selected if they have a value less than (or greater than) the value in the corresponding cell in the threshold vector. An example of using two vectors would be the selection of actors whose closeness centrality is less than their degree centrality.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Variable 1:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file from which contains value or attribute vector this must be a UCINET data file. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COL) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Relational Operator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Criterion by which to compare the actor values or attributes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    LT -Less than

                                                                                                                                                                                                    LE -Less than or equal to

                                                                                                                                                                                                    EQ -Equal to

                                                                                                                                                                                                    NEQ -Not equal to

                                                                                                                                                                                                    GE -Greater than or equal to

                                                                                                                                                                                                    GT -Greater than 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Variable 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The threshold value or vector. If a single value is required then this can be typed in directly. Vectors must be specified using a UCINET data file, enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset (Default = 'SELECTED')

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file to contain group indicator matrix. This will be a single column vector with selected actors having a 1 and non-selected actors having a 0.

                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE Displays the group indicator vector. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING Linear 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS The group indicator vector can be used in routines such as ExtractG4RLJE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                          #125$126K127TRANSFORM > BLOCK 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Partition nodes in a data graph into blocks and calculate block densities, sums or other statistics. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION The adjacency matrix is partitioned into submatrices. The average, sum, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, or sum of squares of each submatrix is then calculated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          This routine is virtually identical to the Networks>Properties>Density routine, except that it provides more options for aggregating cells within a matrix block. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing matrices to be blocked. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Method: (Default = Average)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Choices are 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Average -Arithmetic mean of all cells in each submatrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sum -Simple sum of all cells in each submatrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Maximum -Largest value of all cells in each submatrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Minimum -Smallest value of all cells in each submatrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Std Dev -Standard deviation of all cells in each submatrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          SSQ -Sum of squares of all cells in each submatrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Utilize Diagonal values (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Whether diagonals are to be included in density calculations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Row partition/blocking (if any):

                                                                                                                                                                                                          To partition the rows of the data matrix into blocks, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the rows of the matrix. All rows with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same block of the matrix.  Densities will then be computed separately for each block. The block partitions can also be typed directly into the box by typing in a partition indicator vector. A partition indicator vector has the form (k1,k2,...,ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to group ki.  So that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1;  and 3 and 5 to block 2. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Column partition/blocking (if any):

                                                                                                                                                                                                          To partition the columns of the data matrix into blocks, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the columns of the data matrix. All columns with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same block of the matrix.  Densities will then be computed separately for each block.The block partitions can also be typed directly into the box by typing in a partition indicator vector. A partition indicator vector has the form (k1,k2,...,ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to group ki.  So that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1;  and 3 and 5 to block 2. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Output) Reduced image dataset (Default = 'Blocked')

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of dataset that will contain the reduced block density matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Output) Pre-image dataset (Default= 'PreImage')

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of dataset that will contain the original data with the rows and columns permuted to form the blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE List of block numbers together with their members. The pre-image matrix ie the permuted original data matrix. Blocked matrices. A blank in the matrix indicates that a matrix value (such as the average), was undefined. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS Users who wish to produce a binary image matrix from the output of this routine can obtain one by using Transform>Dichotomize

                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                          #128$129K130TRANSFORM>COLLAPSE  

                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Combine one or more rows or columns of a matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Combines row, columns or both simultaneously to form a new smaller matrix.  The value of the combined cells can either be the average, the sum, the maximum or the minimum of the set of cells which are to be collapsed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing matrix to be collapsed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Aggregation operation: (Default = Sum).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Specifies how to aggregate the cells which are to be collapsed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Average - The arithmetic mean of all the cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sum - The sum of all the cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Maximum- Maximum value of all the cells.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Minimum - Minimum value of all the cells. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Enter instructions for collapsing:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the window provided the user must provide instructions to the routine which specify which rows or columns must be collapsed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The following keywords are used. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ROWS to combine rows.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          COLS to combine columns

                                                                                                                                                                                                          NODES to combine rows and columns simultaneously. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Each  new line must commence with one of these keywords.  Each keyword is followed by a list of the rows, columns or nodes which are to be collapsed.  The list has elements separated by spaces or commas, the keywords TO is permissible.  For example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ROWS  1   3   4 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          collapse rows 1, 3 and 4 to a single row; 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          COLS  2  TO  4

                                                                                                                                                                                                          COLS  1, 6 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          collapses columns 2, 3 and 4 to one column and 1 and 6 to another column separately. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          (For Square Mats) Include diagonal values? (Default = No).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No excludes diagonal values from consideration. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          OUTPUT dataset: (Default = 'Collapse').

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file which contains labeled collapsed matrix described below. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE A list of assignments of rows and columns to blocks.  The blocks specify the new row and column numbers for each of the old row and column numbers. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The collapsed matrix.  Each row or column is labeled.  Rows or columns that have been collapsed are labeled by B followed by their block number.  Rows or columns which have not been collapsed retain the label R (for row) or C (for column) followed by their row or column number. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                          #131$132K133TRANSFORM>RECODE   

                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Change ranges of matrix values to new values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION The routine allows the user to change values or a range of values in a matrix to a new value.  Up to 5 values or ranges can be recoded. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of dataset to be recoded. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rows to recode (Default = All)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rows to be recoded are specified by a list. Each row number is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give row numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. ALL gives all possible rows. Lists kept in a UCINET dataset can be used. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. The list must be specified using a binary vector where a 1 in position k indicates that vertex k is a member of the list, a zero indicates that k is not a member. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cols to recode (Default = All)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Columns to be recoded are specified by a list. Each column number is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give column numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. ALL gives all possible columns. Lists kept in a UCINET dataset can be used. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. The list must be specified using a binary vector where a 1 in position k indicates that vertex k is a member of the list, a zero indicates that k is not a member. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mats (levels) to recode (Default = All)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Matrices to be recoded are specified by a list. Each matrix number is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give matrix numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. ALL gives all possible matrices. Lists kept in a UCINET dataset can be used. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. The list must be specified using a binary vector where a 1 in position k indicates that vertex k is a member of the list, a zero indicates that k is not a member. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Include diagonal values: (Default = No).

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes means that diagonal values are recoded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No ignores the diagonal in the recoding. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Five boxes of the form

                                                                                                                                                                                                          values             to            are recoded as           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          If the values x, y and z are entered so that the completed line reads 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          values x to y are recoded as z 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          then all values of the matrix in the range from x to y inclusive are changed to the value z. To change a single value set both x and y to the value. Note that the value na can be used for missing values. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output dataset: (Default = 'Recode').

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file which contains recoded matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE Recoded matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                #134$135K136TRANSFORM>REVERSE  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Convert similarity data to distance data, or distance to similarity by a linear transformation. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Subtract each value of the matrix from the sum of the maximum and minimum entries. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing matrix to be reversed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rows to reverse: (Default = 'ALL')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Enter id numbers of all rows whose values are to be reversed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Columns to reverse: (Default = 'ALL')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Enter id numbers of all columns whose values are to be reversed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Matrices (levels) to reverse: (Default = 'ALL')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Enter id numbers of all matrices in dataset whose values are to be reversed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Sq. matrices only) Include diagonal values (Default = Yes).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Whether diagonals are to be included in the reversing process. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset: (Default = 'Reverse').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file that will contain reversed matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Display of reversed matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                #137$138K139TRANSFORM>DICHOTOMIZE  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Form a binary matrix from a valued matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Given a specified cut-off value then the valued matrix is made binary by comparing each element with the cut-off value.  Comparisons can be strictly greater, greater than or equal, equal, less than or equal or strictly less than. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of matrix to be dichotomized. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cut-off value: (Default = 0).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Any user-specified value.  MEAN gives the average value of all the cells in the input matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Diagonal OK?  (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes means that diagonal elements are considered valid in calculating the mean.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No ignores diagonal values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cut-off operator: (Default = 'GT').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                GT - Matrix values replaced by a 1 if they are strictly greater than the cut-off value and 0 otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                GE - Matrix values replaced by a 1 if they are greater than or equal to the cut-off value and 0 otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                EQ - Matrix values replaced by a 1 if they are equal to the cut-off value and 0 otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                LE - Matrix values replaced by a 1 if they are less than or equal to the cut-off value and 0 otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                LT - Matrix values replaced by a 1 if they are strictly less than the cut-off value and 0 otherwise. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset: (Default = 'Dichotomize').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which contains dichotomized matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Dichotomized matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #140$141K142TRANSFORM > DIAGONAL  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Perform simple operations on the diagonal of a square matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Set the diagonal of a matrix to a new value.  Save the diagonal of a matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file on which to perform the transformations. Data type: Square matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      New diagonal value(s): (Default = 0).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A single value will set all diagonal elements to the value. A list will set the diagonal to the values in the list;  these values can be separated by a space or comma. The name of a data file of any UCINET dataset consisting of a square matrix of the same size.  The diagonal of the input dataset will be set to the same value of the diagonal of the specified data set. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Output) Diagonal Dataset: (Default = 'DiagonalSaveDiag').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which contains a square matrix with the diagonal of the input dataset as its diagonal and zeros elsewhere. This file is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Output) Changed Matrix: (Default = 'DiagonalNewMat').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which contains matrix with new diagonal values. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE Matrix with reset diagonal. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #143$144K145TRANSFORM>SYMMETRIZE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Change an unsymmetric matrix into a symmetric matrix by using one of a variety of criteria. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Produces a symmetric square matrix by one of the following methods. Replace xij and xji by their maximum, minimum, average, sum, absolute difference, product or xij/xji (provided xji is non zero) i < j. Alternatively make the lower triangle equal the upper triangle or the upper triangle equal the lower triangle. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The routine also produces a symmetric matrix with binary values on all off-diagonal by replacing xij and xji by 1 if xij > xji for i £ j. The > operation in xij > xji can be replaced by ³, =, <, £. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      If the data has missing values  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing matrix to be symmetrized. Data type: Square matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Symmetrizing method (Default = Maximum).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Maximum - Replace xij and xji by max(xij,xji), i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Minimum - Replace xij and xji by min(xij,xji), i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Average - Replace xij and xji by (xij + xji)/2, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sum - Replace xij and xji by xij + xji, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Difference - Replace xij and xji by abs(xij - xji), i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Product - Replace xij and xji by xijxji, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Division - Replace xij and xji by xij/xji, i < j provided xji is non zero.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lower Half - Replace xij by xji, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upper Half - Replace xji by xij, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upper > Lower - Replace xij and xji by 1 if xij > xji, by 0 otherwise, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upper ³ Lower - Replace xij and xji by 1 if xij³ xji, by 0 otherwise, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upper = Lower - Replace xij and xji by 1 if xij = xji, by 0 otherwise, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upper £ Lower - Replace xij and xji by 1 if xij £ xji, by 0 otherwise, i < j.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Upper < Lower - Replace xij and xji by 1 if xij < xji, by 0 otherwise, i < j. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Handle missing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Specify how to treat missing data in the symmetrization process. Choose the non-missing value allows the user to reduce or even eliminate the number of missing values in the data. Both missing means that if either value is missing then this is recorded as missing in the symmetrized data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output dataset (Default = 'Symmetrize').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing symmetrized data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE Symmetrized matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #146$147K148TRANSFORM>NORMALIZE   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Normalize the values in a matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION This routine normalizes using a variety of techniques.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Each technique can be applied to either the whole matrix or just the rows or columns.  In addition an iterative facility is provided to Normalize both rows and columns simultaneously.  These operate on the matrix as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marginal:  normalizes the sum to be 100.  This is achieved by dividing by the current sum of the rows, columns or matrix and multiplying by 100. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mean:  normalizes the mean to be zero.  This is achieved by subtracting from every row, column, or matrix element the current mean. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Standard Deviation:  normalizes the standard deviation to be one.  This is achieved by dividing the rows, columns or matrix by the current  standard deviation.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Z-Score:  standardizes the mean to be zero and the standard deviation to be one.  This is achieved by subtracting from every row, column or matrix element the current mean and then dividing the rows, columns or matrix by the current standard deviation.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Euclidean:  standardizes the Euclidean norm to be one.  This is achieved by dividing the rows, columns or matrix by the current Euclidean norm.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Maximum:  standardizes the rows, columns or matrix to each have a maximum value of 100.  This is achieved by dividing the matrix or each row or column by the current maximum and multiplying by 100. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The routine also allows each of these options to be applied to the rows and columns simultaneously.  This involves an iterative procedure in which the technique is first applied to the rows and then the columns and then the rows etc.  It is terminated when (and if) there is convergence. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing matrix to be standardized. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Which dimension(s) to standardize: (Default = Columns).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rows - Normalization is applied to the rows of the matrix independently.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Columns - Normalization is applied to the columns of the matrix independently.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Matrix - Normalization is applied to the entire matrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Both - Normalization is applied to the rows, then the columns, then the rows etc iteratively until convergence. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Standardizing criterion: (Default = Marginal).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marginal - Forces the sum of elements to be 100.  By row, column, matrix or row and column. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mean - Forces the mean of elements to be zero.  By row, column, matrix, or row and column. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Std-Dev - Forces the standard deviation to be one.  By row, column, matrix or row and column.  If standard deviation is initially zero then elements of matrix are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Z-Score - Forces the mean of the elements to be zero and the standard deviation to be 1.  By row, column, matrix or row and column.  If standard deviation is initially zero then elements of matrix are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Euclidean - Forces the Euclidean norm,  to be one.  By row, column, matrix or row and column. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Maximum - Forces the maximum of the elements to be 100.  By row, column or row and column.  Forces the maximum element to be one for the whole matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Constant to replace zeros with (Default =0.0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zeros can cause this procedure to crash and this can be overcome by replacing them with a relatively small value.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Sq. matrices only) Include diagonal values?  (Default = Yes).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes includes diagonals.  No treats diagonal values as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (For iterative norm.) Convergence tolerance (Default=0.001)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When both is selected the routine iterates to convergence the tolerance specifies a point at which when the values change by less than the tolerance the routine has converged. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (For iterative norm.)  Max # of iterations (Default=100)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When both is selected the routine iterates to convergence. Convergence will be deemed to have failed if the tolerance has not been achieved before the maximum number of iterations has taken place.      

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output dataset: (Default = 'Normalize').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains normalized matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Normalized matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #149$150TRANSFORM>ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS>WITHIN DATASETS>AGGREGATIONS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Perform simple aritmetic operations across rows, columns or matrices.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Find the sum, average, standard deviation, minimium or maximum of sets of numbers which are taken from the complete rows, columns, or matrices or combinations thereof in one dataset.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing dataset on which the operation is to be performed. Data type: Multirelational 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Arithmetic Operation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of arithmetic procedure that is to be performed. Options are sum, average, standard deviation, minimium or maximum  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Break-out results by

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Specifies how the numbers are to be selected from the dataset. Note these can only be chosen after a dataset has been entered in the 'input dataset' field. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If the data has more than one level that is more than one matrix then the following options are presented 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nothing - aggregate across rows, cols and matrices to yield one value for entire dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rows - aggregate across cols and matrices yielding one value for each row in dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cols - aggregate across rows and matrices, yielding one value for each column in dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  levels - aggregate across rows and colums, yieling one value for each matrix in dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rows & cols - aggregate across matrices, yielding one row-by-column matrix summarizing all matrices

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rows & levels - aggregate across columns, yielding summary of rows for each matrix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cols & levels - aggregate across rows, yielding summary of columns for each matrix in dataset 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If the data is a single matrix then the following options are presented  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nothing - aggregate across rows and columns to yield single value for whole matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  rows - aggregate across columns to yield a number for each row in data matrix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cols - aggregate across rows to yield a number for each column in data matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE  Matrix with the results of the arithmetic operation 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING Linear 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS More complicated operations can be done using matrix algebra 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #151$152TRANSFORM>ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS>WITHIN DATASETS>CELLWISE TRANSFORMATIONS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Performs a cellwise transformation to every element of the dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Applies one of the following transformations to every element in the data, raise to a power, take the logarithm, negate, take absolute value, take the reciprocal apply a linear transformation. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing data to be transformed. Data type: Multirelational 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containg transformed matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Transformations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Clicking on box activates the required transformation. Raise to the power, multiply by a constant and add a constant require the user to type in the constants in the relevant boxes. The defaults will result in an identity transformation. The order listed in the tick boxes is the order in which the transformations will be applied. Hence ticking raise to the power and add a constant will result in the cells being raised to a power followed by adding the constant. If the user requires these in a different order the routine will need to be used more than once applying the required transformation at each stage. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The user should also use the radio buttons to select wheether the transformation should apply to the diagonal for square matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE The result of the transformation is displayed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING Linear 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS More complicated transformations can be made using matrix algebra. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #153$154K155TRANSFORM > BIPARTITE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Convert a 2-mode dataset into a 1-mode adjacency matrix   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Any 2-mode incidence matrix can be thought of as a bipartite graph. If the 2-modes are actors and events then the bipartite graph consists of the union of the actors and events as vertices with the edges only connecting actors with events (ie no connections between actors or between events). This routine takes a 2-mode incidence matrix and converts it to a 1-mode adjacency matrix of a bipartite graph. If the incidence matrix had n rows and m columns then the resultant adjacency matrix would be a square matrix of dimension m+n. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input 2-mode dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing incidence matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Value to fill within-mode ties: (Default=0.0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The incidence matrix specifies the values of ties from actors to events the values of the (non-existent) ties of actors to actors and events to events is not given. The user can override the default value of zero by specifying their own within mode value. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Make result symmetric? (Default = 'No')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If yes is selected matrix is symmetrized by taking the maximum of Xij and Xji. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output dataset:(Default='bi')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing adjacency matrix of bipartite graph.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Adjacency matrix of bipartite graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING Linear. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #156$157K158TRANSFORM > INCIDENCE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Convert an adjacency matrix to an incidence matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION An incidence matrix is a node by edge matrix. The rows represent the nodes of a graph and the columns the edges.  A one in row i column j indicates that node i is incident to edge j.  This representation is often called the hypergraph representation. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing adjacency matrix. Data type: Digraph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Treat data as directed: (Default=No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If Yes then reciprocal ties will occur twice in an incidence matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Include self loops: (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If No self loop ties will be ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output Filename: (Default = 'Incidence')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of data file which will contain incidence matrix.  The columns will be labeled with edge labels. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Labeled incidence matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #159$160K161TRANSFORM > LINEGRAPH 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Construct the line graph of a graph or network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION The line graph of a graph G is the graph obtained by using the edges of G as vertices, two vertices being adjacent whenever the corresponding edges are. In a digraph the arcs of a digraph are the vertices and two vertices are adjacent if the corresponding arcs induce a walk. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input Dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing graph from which to create the line graph. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Include self-loops: (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NO means that self loops will not generate vertices in the line graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset: (Default = 'Linegraph')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file which contains constructed linegraph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE Adjacency matrix of the line graph vertices labeled with corresponding edges from original graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Note that multirelational data cannot be converted to line graph format.  Users should do each relation separately. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #162$163K164TRANSFORM > MULTIGRAPH 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Convert a valued graph into a set of binary graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION A single binary graph is created for each different value of a valued graph. All created graphs are stacked in a single dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing valued data. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Splitting operator (Default = EQ)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GT - Greater than yields Mijk = 1 if xij > wk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GE - Greater than or equal yields Mijk = 1 if xij ³ wk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          EQ - Equal yields Mijk = 1 if xij = wk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LE - Less than or equal to yields Mijk = 1 if xij £ wk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LT- Less than yields Mijk = 1 if xij < wk 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          where Mijk is the (i,j) entry of the kth adjacency matrix, xij is the (i,j) entry of the input data, and wk are the ordered values of the weights of the valued data placed in ascending order. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Include self- loops (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If NO then self loops are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Count zeros as valid relationships: (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If NO then no binary graph is created corresponding to the wk value zero. If YES then a binary graph corresponding to the value zero is included in the multigraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Dataset (Default = 'Multigraph')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file that will contain multigraph as a set of binary graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE Constructed multigraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS The number of relations constructed will correspond to the number of different values. Care should be taken not to enter datasets that will create a large number of binary graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #165$166K167TRANSFORM>MULTIPLEX 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Constructs a multiplex graph from a multirelational graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Technically if G(V,{Ri}) is a multirelational graph with vertex set V and relations {Ri}, i e I. If v and w are two vertices of G then the bundle of relations connecting v to w, Bvw, is defined as Bvw = {Ri: vRiw}.  Let Mk be the set of all bundles. The multiplex graph is the valued graph with valued adjacency matrix Xi,j = k where k is the Mk bundle of relations connecting i to j. Non technically the algorithm determines how many different distinct patterns of relations (the bundles) link any pair of vertices and assigns each of these a numerical label. The arcs in the output multiplex graph are then labeled with these identifying numbers. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file that contains multirelational binary network data. Valued data are automatically converted to multirelational binary data using a technique identical to Multigraph. Data type: Digraph. Multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Include transpose(s) in the multiplexing (Default = No).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For non-symmetric data the transposes can be automatically added as additional relations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Convert data to geodesic distances (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Option to convert each relation in dataset to geodesic distances. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output dataset (Default = 'Multiplex')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output file that will contain multiplex graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE Multiplex graph adjacency matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING Exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS In the worst case, the timing for the algorithm is exponential. The timing depends on the number of possible bundles; up to 2 to the power N bundles can occur when there are N different relations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #168$169K170TRANSFORM > SEMIGROUP 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Construct the semigroup of a graph, digraph or multirelational graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION The semigroup of a network is an algebraic representation of all compound relations.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Given a set of adjacency matrices R1,R2,...,Rn of a multirelational graph then the set of all possible Boolean products of pairs of matrices gives all possible relations of length 2.  If any of these products is repeated then they are discarded.  We continue with products of length 3 etc until no new matrices are found.  The set of all matrices constructed in this way together with the operation of Boolean matrix multiplication form a semigroup. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This routine finds all members of the semigroup, or members of the semigroup up to a certain length of product.  In addition the semigroup is specified by a multiplication table. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing adjacency matrix or matrices. Data type:  Digraph. Multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Maximum length of "words": (Default = 9)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The products are called words. The maximum length of products to be considered is known as the word length. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Save elements of semigroup ?: (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If only the multiplication table and words are required then it is not necessary to save the matrix elements.YES causes all generated matrices to be saved in a file specified below. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output semigroup: (Default = 'SEMIGROUP')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain all compounded relations provided the save elements of semigroup parameter was set to YES.  These are given as a list, each relation is sequentially numbered. This file does not appear in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output multiplication table: (Default = 'MULTABLE')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain the multiplication table specified below. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Semigroup multiplication table.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Each row (and column) is labeled with the compound relation number.  The rows also give the word that accounts for the compound.  Hence if row 6 is labeled 1 1 2 1 then relation 6 is the matrix obtained by Boolean matrix multiplication of the original relations numbered 1 1 2 1 in that order.  The value in row i column j is the result of the Boolean matrix multiplication of relation i and relation j. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If the word length is not sufficient to generate all elements of the semigroup then the right multiplication table of the generated elements is displayed.  This table gives the product of the generated elements with the input matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING Algorithm is exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS Relatively small datasets can result in large semigroups.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #171$172K173TOOLS > MDS > METRIC   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Metric multidimensional scaling of a proximity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Given a matrix of proximities (similarities or dissimilarities) among a set of items, the program finds a set of points in k-dimensional space such that the Euclidean distances among these points corresponds as closely as possible to the input proximities.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing proximity matrix. Data type: Square symmetric matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No of dimensions: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Number of dimensions to use in representing items in Euclidean space.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Similarities or Dissimilarities?  (Default = Similarities)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Whether the data represent similarities or dissimilarities.  If similarities, large values of X(i,j) will draw i and j close together on the MDS map.  If dissimilarities, large values will push i and j apart on the map. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Starting Configuration: (Default = Classic)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      How to generate initial location of points in space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Classic - Performs Gower's classical metric ordination procedure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      File - Reads starting coordinates from UCINET dataset.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      If this option is chosen then the user must complete the parameter: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Random - Locates points randomly in space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Starting Config Filename

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of the coordinate dataset if the file option is taken. This UCINET dataset should consist of an nxk matrix of values.  Each column corresponds to the co-ordinates in each of the dimensions specified. Hence row i gives the co-ordinates of the ith point. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Adjust data to nearest Euclidean (Default = Yes)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Iteratively adjusts the data so that it obeys the triangle inequality. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output dataset: (Default = 'MetricMdsCoord')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing the co-ordinates of the points in Euclidean space. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE The output first gives a 2D scatterplot of the first pair of co-ordinates. The x-axis is the first co-ordinate set and the y-axis is the second. The scatterplot can be saved or printed. Simple editing can be achieved using the options button. The labels can be turned on or off and values can be attached to the points (or removed). The scales can also be changed. More advanced editing is possible by double clicking in the plot, this invokes the chart wizard. To find the label attached to a single point when all the labels are moved click on a single point, this will highlight all the points, then click a second time to highlight one vertex. Now double click on the vertex and the label will be highlighted in the chart designer. The save button and the save chart data option allow the user to save all the chart data into a file which can be reviewed using Tools>Scatterplot>Review. The chart itself can be saved as a windows metafile which can then be read into a word processing or graphics package.  Only one chart can be open at one time and the chart window will be closed if you click on any other UCINET window. Behind the chart is a  numeric display of coordinates of each point in space together with information about the stress.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^4) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS MDS solutions are not unique, and they are subject to convergence to local minima.  The first point means that two or more maps can be equally good (same stress) but place points in radically different locations. The second point means that it is possible for the algorithm to fail to find the configuration with least stress.  If you suspect this has happened, run the program several times using random starting configurations. Stress values below 0.1 are excellent and above 0.2 unacceptable. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This routine only works if the regional settings are set to UK or USA. If you do not have these regional settings and do not get a plot then change them in the settings control panel on your machine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Gower 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #174$175K176TOOLS > MDS > NON-METRIC 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Non-metric multidimensional scaling of a proximity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Given a matrix of proximities (similarities or dissimilarities) among a set of items, program finds a set of points in k-dimensional space such that the Euclidean distances among these points corresponds as closely as possible to a rank preserving transformation of the input proximities. The algorithm is based on the MDS(X) MINISSA program. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing proximity matrix. Data type: Square symmetric matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No of dimensions: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Number of dimensions to use in representing items in Euclidean space.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Similarities or Dissimilarities?  (Default = Similarities)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Whether the data represent similarities or dissimilarities.  If similarities, large values of X(i,j) will draw i and j close together on the MDS map.  If dissimilarities, large values will push i and j apart on the map. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Starting Configuration: (Default = Torsca)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      How to generate initial location of points in space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Metric - Performs Gower's classical metric ordination procedure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Torsca - Uses principal components of rank-order data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      File - Reads starting coordinates from UCINET dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Random - Locates points randomly in space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Starting Config Filename

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of the coordinate dataset if the file option is chosen . This UCINET dataset should consist of an nxk matrix of values. Each column corresponds to the co-ordinates in each of the dimensions specified. Hence row i gives the co-ordinates of the ith point. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Print Diagnostics (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      If Yes is selected then dyads with large discrepancies between the proximity data and the plot distances will be printed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output dataset: (Default = 'NonMetricMdsCoord')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing the co-ordinates of the points in Euclidean space. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE The output first gives a 2D scatterplot of the first pair of co-ordinates. The x-axis is the first co-ordinate set and the y-axis is the second. The scatterplot can be saved or printed. Simple editing can be achieved using the options button. The labels can be turned on or off and values can be attached to the points (or removed). The scales can also be changed. More advanced editing is possible by double clicking in the plot, this invokes the chart wizard. To find the label attached to a single point when all the labels are moved click on a single point, this will highlight all the points, then click a second time to highlight one vertex. Now double click on the vertex and the label will be highlighted in the chart designer. The save button and the save chart data option allow the user to save all the chart data into a file which can be reviewed using Tools>Scatterplot>Review. The chart itself can be saved as a windows metafile which can then be read into a word processing or graphics package.  Only one chart can be open at one time and the chart window will be closed if you click on any other UCINET window. Behind the chart is a  numeric display of coordinates of each point in space together with information about the stress.  If the print diagnostics have been selected then dyads with large differences between the proximity data and the distances in the co-ordinate date are listed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^4) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS MDS solutions are not unique, and they are subject to convergence to local minima.  The first point means that two or more maps can be equally good (same stress) but place points in radically different locations. The second point means that it is possible for the algorithm to fail to find the configuration with least stress.  If you suspect this has happened, run the program several times using random starting configurations. Stress values below 0.1 are excellent and above 0.2 unacceptable. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This routine only works if the regional settings are set to UK or USA. If you do not have these regional settings and do not get a plot then change them in the settings control panel on your machine. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Kruskal J B and Wish M (1978).  Multidimensional Scaling, Newbury Park: Sage Publications. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Kruskal J B (1964).  Multidimensional Scaling by optimizing goodness-of-fit to a non-metric hypothesis.  Psychometrika 29, 1-27. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #177$178K179TOOLS > CLUSTERING > HIERARCHICAL 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Perform Johnson's hierarchical clustering on a proximity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Given a symmetric n-by-n representing similarities or dissimilarities among a set of n items, the algorithm finds a series of nested partitions of the items. The different partitions are ordered according to decreasing [increasing] levels of similarity [dissimilarity]. The algorithm begins with the identity partition (in which all items are in different clusters). It then joins the pair of items most similar (least different), which are then considered a single entity. The algorithm continues in this manner until all items have been joined into a single cluster (the complete partition). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing proximity matrix to be clustered. Data type: Square symmetric matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Method: (Default = AVERAGE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SINGLE_LINK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Also known as the "minimum" or "connectedness" method. Distance between two clusters is defined as smallest dissimilarity (largest similarity) between members. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMPLETE_LINK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Also known as the "maximum" or "diameter" method. Distance between two clusters is defined as largest dissimilarity (smallest similarity) between members. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      AVERAGE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Distance between clusters defined as average dissimilarity (or similarity) between members. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Similarities or Distances? (Default = Similarities)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Whether items i and j should be clustered together when X(i,j) is large or when it is small. If data are Similarities, items i and j are clustered together if X(i,j) is very large. If data are Dissimilarities, items i and j are clustered together if X(i,j) is very small. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Compute ultrametric proximity matrix? (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hierarchical clustering can be seen as transforming a dissimilarity matrix into an ultrametric distance matrix. The ultrametric distances correspond monotonically to the number of iterations (partitions) needed to join a given pair of items. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Diagram Type: (Default = Dendrogram)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The clustering can be shown as a dendrogram or a tree diagram.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output Partition matrix: (Default = 'Part')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of dataset to contain the partition-by-item indicator matrix. Each column of this matrix gives the cluster to which each item was assigned in a given partition. The columns are labeled by the level of the cluster.  A value of k in a column labeled x and row j means that actor j was in partition k at level x.  Actor k is always a member of partition k and is a representative label for the group.  It can be used by procedures like Transform>Block to obtain density matrices at any level of blocking.  This file is not displayed in the LOG FILE.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output Ultrametric matrix (if desired):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of dataset to contain the item-by-item ultrametric proximity matrix, if desired.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE Primary output are cluster diagrams. The first diagram (either a tree diagram or a dendrogram) re-orders the actors so that they are located close to other actors in similar clusters. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw. The output also produces a standard Log file that contains a different cluster diagram which looks like this: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             A B C D E F G H I J

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ----- - - - - - - - - - -

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.000 XXXXX XXX XXX XXXXX

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.422 XXXXX XXX XXXXXXXXX

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.578 XXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.287 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In this example, the data were distances among 10 items, labeled A through J. The results are 4 nested partitions, corresponding to rows in the diagram. Within a given row, an 'X' between two adjacent columns indicates that the items associated with those columns were assigned to the same cluster in that partition. For example, in the first partition (level 1.000), items D and E belong to the same cluster, but C is a member of a different cluster. In the third partition (level 1.578), items D, E and C all belong to the same cluster.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The levels indicate the degree of association (similarity or dissimilarity) among items within clusters. If, as in the example, the data are distances and the clustering method is single link, the a level of 1.578 means that every item within a cluster is no more than 1.578 units distant from at least one other item in that cluster. If the clustering method is complete link, a level of 1.578 indicates that every item in a cluster no more than 1.578 units distant from every other item in the cluster. For the average clustering method, a level of 1.578 indicates that the average distance among items within the cluster is 1.578. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For similarity data, the meaning of the levels for the single link and complete link methods is, in a sense reversed. For the single link method, a level of 1.578 means that every item in a cluster is at least 1.578 units similar to at least one other item in the cluster. For the complete link method, a level of 1.578 means that every item in a cluster is at least 1.578 units similar to every other item in the cluster. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Johnson, S C (1967).  'Hierarchical clustering schemes'.  Psychometrika, 32, 241-253.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #180$181K182TOOLS > CLUSTERING > OPTIMISATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Optimizes a cost function which measures the total distance or similarity within classes for a proximity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Given a partition of a proximity matrix of similarities into clusters, then the average similarity values within each gives a measure of the extent to which the groups form clusters.  A slightly different approach is required for distance data - in this case the cost is measured by summing the values for each pair of actors belonging to the same block.  The routine attempts to optimize these measures to try and find the best fit for a given number of blocks.  The cost function can be changed to give greater weight to relationships between the clusters.  In this case the cost simultaneously reflects a high degree of association within clusters and a similarity of association between members of different clusters using a correlation criteria. To do this correlate the data with an ideal structure matrix A(i,j) in which the i,j th entry is a one if actor i and j are in the same partition and zero otherwise. This correlation can either be Pearson correlation or a much faster pseudocorrelation measure. This cost is then either maximized or minimized depending on whether the proximity matrix contains similarities or distances.  The similarity value needs to be maximized and the distance measure minimized.  The routine uses a tabu search minimization procedure and therefore to maximize  multiplies the costs by -1. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing proximity matrix to be clustered. Data type: Square symmetric matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of clusters: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of clusters into which the actors must be assigned. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fit criterion

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Density the average value within clusters for similarity and the sum for distance data.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PseudoCorrelation a simple fast correlation measure between the clustered data and the ideal structure matrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Correlation the Pearson correlation measure between the clustered data and the ideal structure matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Are diagonal values valid? (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Whether diagonals are to be included on the cost function. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Type of Data:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Similarities causes large values to be clustered together. Distances causes small values to be clustered together. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Max # of iterations in a series: (Default = 12)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The algorithm starts from an arbitrary partition and attempts to decrease the cost by taking the steepest descent.  If the cost cannot be reduced then the algorithm continues its search in the neighborhood of the current partition.  This search direction is a mildest ascent direction and from there new search directions are explored.  This exploration only continues for a fixed number of iterations in a series.  If no improvement is made after the fixed number of iterations the algorithm terminates with the current minimum.  Increasing the parameter gives a more exhaustive and therefore slower search.  The recommended default value is automatically entered on the form once the input data has been selected. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Length of time in penalty box: (Default = 5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If the algorithm makes an ascending step then it is possible that the best possible descending step is the reverse of the direction just taken.  This parameter prohibits a move along the reverse direction for a set number of steps.  The larger the value the more difficult it will be to come back to a previously explored local minimum, however it will also be more difficult to explore the vicinity of that minimum.  The default has been shown experimentally to be the most useful. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of random starts: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The whole procedure is repeated with a different initial partition.  The best of these are then selected as a minimum. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Random Number Seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The random number seed generates the initial partition.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat the analysis with different initial configurations.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output Partition Dataset: (Default = 'TabuCluster').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of output file which contains a partition indicator vector.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to block ki, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1, and 3 and 5 to block 2.  This vector is not displayed at output. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE The value of the cost function.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            List of clusters.  Each cluster is labeled and is specified by the vertices it contains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The blocked proximity matrix.  The rows and columns of the original matrix are permuted into clusters.  The proximity matrix is displayed in terms of the matrix clusters it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING Each iteration of the tabu search algorithm is O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The algorithm seeks to find the minima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still have a high value in which case the blocking may not conform very closely to structural equivalence.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the minimum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima and does not locate the desired global minima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into the reported blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Glover F (1989).  Tabu Search - Part I.  ORSA Journal on Computing 1, 190-206. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Glover F (1990).  Tabu Search - Part II.  ORSA Journal on Computing 2, 4-32. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #183$184K185TOOLS -> 2 MODE > SVD  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Perform a singular value decomposition of real-valued matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Given an n-by-m matrix X with n ³ m, SVD finds matrices U, D, and V such that X = UDV'.  The matrix D is an r-by-r diagonal matrix containing r singular values.  The matrix U is an n-by-r matrix containing the r eigenvectors of XX' and V is an m-by-r matrix containing the r eigenvectors of X'X.  The eigenvectors are sorted in descending order by eigenvalue.  With symmetric data, U and V are identical (except for sign reversals). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  File containing matrix X to be decomposed; must have at least as many rows as columns (otherwise transpose the matrix then resubmit). Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  How to scale row and column scores: (Default = Axes)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Coordinates -

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eigenvectors are weighted by their respective eigenvalues. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Loadings

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eigenvectors are weighted by the square root of the eigenvalues (yields factor loadings when SVD is applied to correlation matrix). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Axes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No rescaling is performed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No of factors to save: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Maximum value of r, the number of eigenvectors used to decompose X. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reconstruct matrix from factors: (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If YES, the product UDV' is computed using r eigenvectors (see 'Number of factors to save', above).  The result is the best possible approximation of X using matrices of rank r based on a least squares criterion. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) File to contain row scores: (Default = 'RScores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to contain U matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) File to contain column scores: (Default = 'CScores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to contain V matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) File to contain singular values: (Default = 'Eigen')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to contain D matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) File to contain reconstructed matrix: (Default = 'Recon')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to contain the approximation X that is UDV'. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) File to contain combined row/column scores: (Default = 'RCScores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of dataset to contain concatenated U and V matrices to produce single (M+n)-by-r matrix (useful for plotting row and column scores on same map). 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE The output first gives a 2D scatterplot of the first two dimensions (eigenvectors). The scatterplot can be saved or printed. Simple editing can be achieved using the options button. The labels can be turned on or off and values can be attached to the points (or removed). The scales can also be changed. More advanced editing is possible by double clicking in the plot, this invokes the chart wizard. To find the label attached to a single point when all the labels are moved click on a single point, this will highlight all the points, then click a second time to highlight one vertex. Now double click on the vertex and the label will be highlighted in the chart designer. The save button and the save chart data option allow the user to save all the chart data into a file which can be reviewed using Tools>Scatterplot>Review. The chart itself can be saved as a windows metafile which can then be read into a word processing or graphics package.  Only one chart can be open at one time and the chart window will be closed if you click on any other UCINET window.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Behind the chart is a  numeric display of coordinates (U and V matrices) of each point (rows and columns of X) in r-space.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS This routine only gives a plot if the regional settings are set to UK or USA. If you do not have these regional settings and do not get a plot then change them in the settings control panel on your machine. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Press W H, Flannery B P, Teukolsky S A and Vetterling W T (1989).  Numerical Recipes in Pascal.  New York: Cambridge University Press. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #186$187K188TOOLS > 2 MODE > FACTOR ANALYSIS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Perform a complete factor analysis of a 2-mode matrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Decomposes a matrix into factors using either principal components or minimum residuals methods. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset containing 2-mode matrix to be factored. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Method of factor analysis (Default = Principal Components)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Choices are 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Principal Components

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Perform a principle component analysis in which the matrix is factored into a product of the most dominant eigenvectors. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Minimum Residuals

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Factor the matrix into factors so that the residuals (the sum of squares of the difference between the original data and the product of the factors) are minimized. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Method of factor rotation: (Default = Varimax)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Choices are 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        None

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No rotation is performed 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Varimax. Maximizes purity of factors. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Quartimax. Maximizes purity of variables (minimizes loading on multiple factors).Factors are rotated after deleting excess factors (see below). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of factors: (Default=3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of factors into which to decompose the matrix. IMPORTANT NOTE: Factors are rotated after deleting excess factors.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (OUTPUT) Factor Scores: (Default = 'Scores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing the factor scores for each actor on each factor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (OUTPUT) Factor Loadings: (Default = 'Loadings')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing the factor loadings for each actor on each factor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (OUTPUT) Eigenvectors: (Default= 'Eigen')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing eigenvalues corresponding to each eigenvector (factor). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (OUTPUT) Factor score coefficients: (Default='Coefs')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing the factor coefficients for each actor on each factor. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE The log file gives a full set of descriptive statistics of each actors profile. These are followed by the eigenvalues placed in descending order of size and labeled as factors in ascending order. The value of each is expressed as a percentage of the sum and a cumulative percentage of all the factors given so far is presented. The final column gives the ratio of the factor below to the current factor. This is followed by a matrix of factor loadings, entry X(i,j) is the loading of the jth factor on actor i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #189$190K191TOOLS > 2 MODE > CORRESPONDENCE 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Perform a correspondence analysis of a single real-valued matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Given a non-negative, n-by-m matrix with n ³ m, this routine represents the n rows and m columns as vectors in a common multidimensional space.  The algorithm essentially performs a singular value decomposition of an adjusted data matrix in which rows and columns have been separately normalized to yield more equal marginals. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed, it must have at least as many rows as columns (otherwise transpose the matrix then resubmit). Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        How to scale row and column scores: (Default = COORDINATES)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Coordinates - Scores for each point on each dimension adjusted both for point marginals and dimension weights (eigenvalues). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CGS - According to Carroll-Green-Schaffer, this transformation makes distance between a row and a column just as interpretable as distance between a row and a row or a column and a column. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Optimal - Scores for each point are corrected for point marginals, but not dimension weights. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Axes - No rescaling is performed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of factors to save: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Maximum value of r, the number of eigenvectors used to decompose the matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Reconstruct matrix from factors: (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If YES, the row and column scores are combined to approximate the data matrix with r eigenvectors (see 'Number of factors to save', above).  The result is the best possible approximation of X using matrices of rank r based on a least squares criterion. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Keep the trivial first factor: (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Normalization step prior to singular value decomposition causes first eigenvector to be constant.  If Yes, this factor is retained and eigenvalue percentages include it.  If No, the factor is dropped and eigenvalue percentages do not include it. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) File to contain row scores: (Default = 'CorrespondenceRScores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset to contain coordinates of row points. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) File to contain column scores: (Default = 'CorrespondenceCScores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset to contain coordinates of column points. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) File to contain singular values: (Default = 'CorrespondenceEigen')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset to contain eigenvalue of each dimension. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) File to contain reconstructed matrix: (Default = CorrespondenceRecon')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset to contain the approximated data matrix (if any). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) File to contain combined row/column scores: (Default = 'CorrespondenceRscores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset to contain concatenated row and column scores to produce single (m+n)-by-r matrix (useful for plotting row and column scores on same map). 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE The output first gives a 2D scatterplot of the first two dimensions (eigenvectors). The scatterplot can be saved or printed. Simple editing can be achieved using the options button. The labels can be turned on or off and values can be attached to the points (or removed). The scales can also be changed. More advanced editing is possible by double clicking in the plot, this invokes the chart wizard. To find the label attached to a single point when all the labels are moved click on a single point, this will highlight all the points, then click a second time to highlight one vertex. Now double click on the vertex and the label will be highlighted in the chart designer. The save button and the save chart data option allow the user to save all the chart data into a file which can be reviewed using Tools>Scatterplot>Review. The chart itself can be saved as a windows metafile which can then be read into a word processing or graphics package.  Only one chart can be open at one time and the chart window will be closed if you click on any other UCINET window.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The log file has a numeric display of coordinates (eigenvectors) of each point in r-space.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS See the SVDKOQFGA routine for more information.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        This routine only gives a plot if the regional settings are set to UK or USA. If you do not have these regional settings and do not get a plot then change them in the settings control panel on your machine. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #192$193K194TOOLS > SIMILARITIES  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Compute similarities among rows or columns of a matrix using one of various measures. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Given a matrix with n rows and m columns, the program computes either an n-by-n matrix of similarities among the rows, or an m-by-m matrix of similarities among the columns. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Measure of profile similarity: (Default = CORRELATION)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Correlation - Pearson's product-moment correlation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Covariance - Mean-centered cross products: Sxy/n - SxSy/n^2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cross-Products - Sum of products: Sxy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Matches - Proportion of cases in which xi = yi for all i

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Positive Matches - Proportion of cases in which xi = yi given that either xi > 0 or yi > 0 or both 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Compute similarities among Rows or Cols: (Default = COLUMNS)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If Rows, an n-by-n similarity matrix representing the similarity between each pair of rows is computed. If Columns, an m-by-m similarity matrix is computed representing the similarity between each pair of columns.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (For sq. mats) Diagonal valid (Default = YES)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If No, values along the main diagonal are treated as though they were missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output dataset: (Default = 'Similarities')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of dataset to contain output similarity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Similarity matrix, displayed with 2 decimal places. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS Missing values are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #195$196K197TOOLS > DISSIMILARITIES  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Compute dissimilarities among rows or columns of a matrix using one of various measures. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Given a matrix with n rows and m columns, the program computes either an n-by-n matrix of dissimilarities among the rows, or an m-by-m matrix of dissimilarities among the columns. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Measure of profile similarity: (Default = 'EUCLIDEAN')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Euclidean

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Euclidean distance: SQRT(S(xi-yi)^2) . When missing values are present, the computed distance is multiplied by n/m where n is the size of the vectors and m is the number of non-missing values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Manhattan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            City-block distance: S abs(xi-yi)  When missing values are present, the computed distance is multiplied by n/m where n is the size of the vectors and m is the number of non-missing values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Normed SSD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Normed sum of squared differences: S(xi-yi)^2/ Sxi^2Syi^2  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Non-Matches

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Proportion of cases in which xi does not equal yi for all i.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Positive Non-Matches

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Proportion of cases in which xi does not equal yi given that either xi > 0 or yi > 0 or both. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Compute dissimilarities among Rows or Cols (Default = COLUMNS)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If Rows, an n-by-n dissimilarity matrix representing the dissimilarity between each pair of rows is computed. If Columns an m-by-m dissimilarity matrix is computed representing the dissimilarity between each pair of columns. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (For sq. mats) Diagonal valid (Default = YES)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If No, values along the main diagonal are treated as though they were missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output dataset:(Default = Dissimilarities)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of dataset to contain output dissimilarity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Dissimilarity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS Missing values are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #198$199K200TOOLS > STATISTICS > UNIVARIATE   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Compute standard univariate statistics on values of a matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Procedure computes mean, standard deviation, variance, Euclidean norm, maximum, minimum and total number of observations for each row or column of a matrix, or for the matrix taken as a whole. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Which dimension to analyse: (Default = COLUMNS)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rows - Statistics are computed separately for each row in matrix.  Result is a matrix whose rows correspond to the rows of the data matrix and the columns are statistics. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Columns - Statistics are computed separately for each column in matrix.  Result is a matrix whose columns correspond to the columns of the data matrix and the rows are statistics. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Matrices - Statistics are computed on the matrix as a whole. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (For square mats) Diagonal valid? (Default = YES)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whether diagonal values in square matrices are to be ignored (treated like missing values). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output Dataset: (Default = 'UnivariateStats')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of data set to contain output statistics. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE Matrix of statistics. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS Missing values are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #201$202K203TOOLS > STATISTICS > MATRIX (QAP) > QAP-CORRELATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Compute correlation and other simiarity measures between entries of two square matrices, and assess the frequency of random measures as large as actually observed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION The procedure is principally used to test the association between networks.  Often, one network is an observed network while the other is a model or expected network.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The algorithm proceeds in two steps.  In the first step, it computes Pearson's correlation coefficient (plus simple matching, Jaccard, Goodman Kruskal Gamma and Hamming distance) between corresponding cells of the two data matrices.  In the second step, it randomly permutes rows and columns (synchronously) of one matrix (the observed matrix, if the distinction is relevant) and recomputes the correlation and other measures.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The second step is carried out hundreds of times in order to compute the proportion of times that a random measure is larger than or equal to the observed measure calculated in step 1.  A low proportion (< 0.05) suggests a strong relationship between the matrices that is unlikely to have occurred by chance. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Data Matrix:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset containing the first matrix (the observed or dependent matrix, if such distinctions are meaningful). Data type: Square Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Structure Matrix:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset containing the expected, modelled or independent matrix (if such distinctions are meaningful). Data type: Square Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of random permutations: (Default = 500)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of correlations to compute between the data matrix and the randomly permuted structure matrix.  The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Treat diagonals as valid? (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If YES, the values along the main diagonals of each matrix are included in the computation of correlation.  Otherwise, they are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE The outpt consists of some summary statistics of each of the matrices followed by the results. The following sample output is generated: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Value   Signif   Avg     SD    P(Large) P(Small)   NPerm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ------- ------ ------- ------ -------  -------   ---------

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pearson Correlation: 0.120   0.101  -0.002  0.086   0.101  0.943    2500.000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Simple Matching: 0.667   0.101   0.625  0.032   0.101   0.943    2500.000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jaccard Coefficient: 0.176   0.101   0.120  0.039   0.101   0.943    2500.000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Goodman-Kruskal Gamma: 0.319   0.101  -0.021  0.249   0.101   0.943    2500.000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Hamming Distance:70.000   0.101  78.738  6.348   0.943   0.101    2500.000 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Value column indicates  the observed value between the two networks, in this case 0.120 for correlation and 0.176 for Jaccard.  The average random correlation was almost zero with a standard error of 0.086.  The percentage of random correlations that were as large as 0.120 was 0.101 that is 10.01%. Hence of the 2,500 random permuatations just over 250 produced a correlation of 0.120 or higher.  At a typical 0.05 level, this correlation would not be considered significant since 0.101> 0.05. The table gives the P(Large) as well as P(Small) note that for the Hamming distance it is P(Small) that needs to be considered as smaller values imply more similarity. The column headed significance attempts to identify  the correct value from P(Small) and P(Large), however when the observed value is close to zero it can get this wrong since this selection is based upon whether the observed value is positive or negative. In this instance the user should consider the measure used and the type of data.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2) per permutation. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS The program ignores missing values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES  None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #204$205K206TOOLS > STATISTICS > MATRIX (QAP) > QAP-REGRESSION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Regress a dependent matrix on one or more independent matrices, and assess significance of the r-square and regression coefficients. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION The procedure is principally used to model a social relation (matrix) using values of other relations.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The algorithm proceeds in two steps.  In the first step, it performs a standard multiple regression across corresponding cells of the dependent and independent matrices.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the second step, it randomly permutes rows and columns (together) of the dependent matrix and recomputes the regression, storing resultant values of r-square and all coefficients.  This step is repeated hundreds of times in order to estimate standard errors for the statistics of interest.  For each coefficient, the program counts the proportion of random permutations that yielded a coefficient as extreme as the one computed in step 1. The primary requirement for conducting a multiple regression quadratic assignment procedure is that all the variables in the regression have to be one-mode, two-way matrices.  That is, they must all be NxN networks.  Person-by-object or Person-by-event matrices can be converted to NxN matrices using Data>Affiliations.   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Dependent variable:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of dataset containing the observed or dependent data:  the matrix whose values are to be predicted. Data type: Square Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Independent variables:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Names of datasets containing the independent or predictor matrices. To include more than one dataset using the browse button highlight all required files by pressing Ctrl and clicking with the mouse. If the file names are typed they should be separated by commas with no spaces. File names that contain spaces should be enclosed in quotation marks.  Data type: Square Matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of random permutations: (Default = 500)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of regressions to compute between the data matrix and the randomly permuted structure matrix.  The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Treat diagonals as valid? (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If Yes, the values along the main diagonals of each matrix are included in the computations.  Otherwise, they are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Two tables are output.  The first looks like this: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R-Square One-Tailed Probability

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.023   0.618

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The table gives the observed r-square along with the proportion of random trials yielding an r-square as large or larger than the observed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The second table is as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Unstandardized Two-Tailed 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Independent  Coefficient  Probability

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Intercept     0.385965    0.178

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R1   -0.007519    0.866

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R2   -0.150376    0.170

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    R3    0.000000    0.838 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This table gives the Unstandardized regression coefficient for each independent variable, including the intercept, along with the proportion of random trials yielding a coefficient with an absolute value as large or larger than the observed.  In this example, all the coefficients have non-significant probabilities, indicating that the observed values are well within the range of random variation., 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS The program ignores missing values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #207$208TOOLS > STATISTICS > AUTOCORRELATION > CATEGORICAL > JOIN COUNT 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Perform randomization test of autocorrelation for a symmetric adjacency matrix which is partitioned into two groups. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Relates a dyadic binary variable (an actor-by-actor adjacency matrix) to a monadic variable (a vector representing an attribute of each actor). For example, if the dyadic variable consists of who is friends with whom, and the categorical variable is gender, the procedure tests whether friendship is patterned by gender (e.g., do boys prefer boys and girls prefer girls?). The routine is limited to two groups and is based upon counting the entries within and between the groups and comparing them with a randomized model. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Partition Vector:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The name of an UCINET dataset that contains a partition of the actors into two groups. To partition the data matrix into groups specify a vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension (either row or column) and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to define the groups. All actors with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No. of Permutations: (Default = 10000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The number of random permutations required in the test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Treat diagonals as valid? (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    If Yes, the values along the main diagonals of each matrix are included in the computations.  Otherwise, they are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE The actor attributes are recoded to 1 and 2 these are reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A table which gives the observed and expected counts for the data. The first row gives the counts within group 1, the second is the counts between the groups and the third is the counts within group 2. The expected simply gives the values that would be expected if the ones were randomly distributed within and between the groups. The observed gives the counts of the data and the difference subtracts the expected from the observed. The P>=Diff and P<=Diff give the relative frequency that a randomly permuted matrix gets a difference as large or larger and as small or smaller than the observed. These columns are used to test the significance of the observed data.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Cliff, A D and Ord, J K  1973 Spatial Autocorrelation. Pion, London. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #209$210TOOLS > STATISTICS > AUTOCORRELATION > CATEGORICAL > RCT ANALYSIS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Perform randomization test of autocorrelation for a symmetric adjacency matrix which is partitioned into groups. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Relates a dyadic binary variable (an actor-by-actor adjacency matrix) to a monadic variable (a vector representing an attribute of each actor). For example, if the dyadic variable consists of who is friends with whom, and the categorical variable is gender, the procedure tests whether friendship is patterned by gender (e.g., do boys prefer boys and girls prefer girls?). The routine is similar to performing a standard chi squared test except instead of using the chi squared distribution the underlying distribution is constructed using a randomization procedure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Attribute:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The name of an UCINET dataset that contains a partition of the actors into two groups. To partition the data matrix into groups specify a vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension (either row or column) and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to define the groups. All actors with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No. of Permutations: (Default = 1000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The number of random permutations required in the test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Dataset (Default= 'lltab')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of output dataset that contains the frequencies in the observed data corresponding to the partition. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE The actor attributes are recoded to run from 1 and these are reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A table which gives the cross classified frequencies, that is a contingency table corresponding to the attributes and the input dataset.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A table which gives the expected values of the frequencies assuming that the ties are independent and randomly distributed throughout the groups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The observed values in each cell of the first table divided by the corresponding cell in the second table are then reported. This is followed by the observed chi square value, ie the square of the observed minus the expected divided by the expected value.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The average permutation frequency table gives the mean values of the entries from all the permutation tests. Each of the generated entries have their  value compared with the observed value and the significance is the relative frequency of the number of times the generated value is larger than the observed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES Cliff, A D and Ord, J K  1973 Spatial Autocorrelation. Pion, London. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #211$212K213TOOLS > STATISTICS > AUTOCORRELATION > CATEGORICAL > ANOVA / DENSITY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Perform randomization test of autocorrelation for a categorical variable. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Relates a dyadic variable (an actor-by-actor matrix) to a monadic variable (a vector representing an attribute of each actor). For example, if the dyadic variable consists of who is friends with whom, and the categorical variable is gender, the procedure tests whether friendship is patterned by gender (e.g., do boys prefer boys and girls prefer girls?). The test is based upon the densities within each block and is similar to performing an analysis of variance. Three different models which have different patterns of density are possible.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Network or Proximity Matrix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Actor Attribute:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing actor attributes, given as a vector of shared attributes so that (1,2,3,1,2,2) means that actors 1 and 4 share the same attribute actors 2,5,and 6 share the same attribute and actor 3 has a different attribute from all the others. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Model (Default = Structural Blockmodel)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Constant Homophily. Tests hypothesis that actors prefer to interact with members of their own kind (as defined by the actor attribute), and assumes that all groups have equal inbreeding tendencies.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Variable Homophily. Similar to the constant homophily model, except that it assumes that each group or class of actors has a different homophilic tendency (different inbreeding parameter).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Structural Blockmodel. Most general model. Just asks whether the different classes have significantly different interaction patterns. For example, girls might prefer girls (inbreeding), while boys also prefer girls (outbreeding).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of random perms: (Default=1000)  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of autocorrelations to compute between the data matrix and the randomly permuted structure matrix.  The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Treat diagonals as valid? (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If Yes, the values along the main diagonals of each matrix are included in the computations.  Otherwise, they are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset (Default= 'AUTOSIM')  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE The actor attributes are recoded so they run from 1 to n, these are reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The between group and in-group means are reported if either of the homophily models were chosen. For constant homophily the in-group mean is the overall mean of all within group interactions. For variable homophily each separate within group mean is reported. For the structural blockmodels option the total sum, the average value and the number of cells within each block are reported. In all cases this is followed by the value of the autocorrelation together with the r-squared value, the root mean square and the sum of squares. Below this is the autocorrelation averaged over all the permutations together with the standard error. Finally the proportion of random values which are as large as the actual autocorrelation is reported. This gives the significance of the calculated value, so for example if this were below 0.05 we would conclude at the 5% level that the dyadic variable is related to the categorical attribute.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #214$215K216TOOLS>STATISTICS>AUTOCORRELATION>INTERVAL/RATIO 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Perform a randomization test of autocorrelation with an interval or ratio level attribute variable. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Relates a dyadic variable (an actor-by-actor matrix) to a monadic variable (a vector representing an interval-scaled attribute of each actor). For example, if the dyadic variable is who is friends with whom, and the monadic variable is height, the procedure tests whether friendship is patterned by height (e.g., children prefer to be friends with children who are the same height as themselves).  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Network or Proximity Matrix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing matrix to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Actor Attribute(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing actor attributes. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Model (Default = Geary)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Geary. Geary's C statistic (larger negative values indicate greater positive autocorrelation). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Moran. Moran's I statistics (larger positive values indicate greater positive autocorrelation). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of random perms: (Default=1000)  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of autocorrelations to compute between the data matrix and the randomly permuted structure matrix.  The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Treat diagonals as valid? (Default = No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If Yes, the values along the main diagonals of each matrix are included in the computations.  Otherwise, they are treated as missing. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset (Default= 'AUTOSIM')  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE The value of the autocorrelation followed by the autocorrelation averaged over all the permutations together with the standard error. The proportion of random values which are as large for Geary or small for Moran as the actual autocorrelation gives the significance of the calculated value and this is reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES See Cliff and Ord's classic 1973 book 'Spatial autocorrelation' London: Pion. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #217$218K219TOOLS > STATISTICS > VECTOR > REGRESSION 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Regress a dependent vectors on one or more independent vectors, and assess significance of the r-square and regression coefficients. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION The procedure is principally used to model a vector using values of other vectors.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The algorithm proceeds in two steps.  In the first step, it performs a standard multiple regression across corresponding cells of the dependent and independent vectors.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In the second step, it randomly permutes rows the elements of the dependent vector and recomputes the regression, storing resultant values of r-square and all coefficients.  This step is repeated hundreds of times in order to estimate standard errors for the statistics of interest.  For each coefficient, the program counts the proportion of random permutations that yielded a coefficient as extreme as the one computed in step 1.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dependent dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of dataset containing the observed or dependent data:  the vector whose values are to be predicted. This is given as a column in a matrix. Data type:  Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dependent column #:  (Default=1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Specifies which column of the data matrix contains the dependent vector.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Independent dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Names of dataset containing the independent vectors. All independent vectors must be contained in a single matrix. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Independent column #s:  (Default=1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Specifies which columns of the independent dataset contain the independent vectors. Columns to be selected are specified by a list. Each column number is listed separated by a comma or space. The keywords TO, FIRST and LAST are permissible. Hence FIRST 3, 5 TO 7, 10, 12 would give column numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12. ALL gives all possible columns. Lists kept in a UCINET dataset can be used. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COLUMN) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use.The list must be specified using a binary vector where a 1 in position k indicates that vertex k is a member of the list, a zero indicates that k is not a member. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of random permutations: (Default = 1000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of regressions to compute between the original data and the randomly permuted data.  The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Output) Regression Coefficients: (Default='Coefs')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the regression coefficients. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Output) Correlation Matrix:(Default= 'RegCorr')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the correlation matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Output) Inverse of correlation Matrix (Default='RegInv')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the inverse of the correlation matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Output) Predicted values and residuals. (Default='PredVals') 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the predicted values and residuals. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE The correlation matrix followed by information on the model fit. This is followed by a table of regression coefficients. This table gives the Unstandardized and standardized regression coefficients for each independent variable, including the intercept, along with the proportion of random trials yielding a coefficient i) as large or larger, ii) as small or smaller and iii) as extreme as  the observed value. These values give the significance of the coefficients. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS The program ignores missing values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #220$221K222TOOLS > STATISTICS > VECTOR > ANOVA 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Performs an ANOVA with a significance based upon a permutation test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Undertakes a standard analysis of variance but uses a permutation test to generate the significance level so that standard assumptions on independence and random sampling are not required.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dependent (Y) variable:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the dependent vector, this must be a UCINET data file. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COL) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Independent (X) variable:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the independent vector, this must UCINET data file. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COL) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of random permutations: (Default = 5000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The random number seed sets off the random permutations. UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE A standard analysis of variance table together with the significance value derived from the permutation test.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING N/A 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #223$224K225TOOLS > STATISTICS > VECTOR > T TEST 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Performs a t-test with a significance based upon a permutation test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Undertakes a standard t-test to compare the means of two groups but uses a permutation test to generate the significance level so that standard assumptions on independence and random sampling are not required.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dependent (Y) variable:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the dependent vector, this must be a UCINET data file. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COL) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Independent (X) variable:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing the independent vector, this must be a UCINET data file. Enter the filename followed by ROW (or COL) and a number to specify which row or column of the file to use. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of random permutations: (Default = 5000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The larger the number of permutations, the better the estimates of standard error and "significance", but the longer the computation time. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Random number seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Gives standard statistics on each group followed by significance tests. The difference in means is reported together with the two one tailed tests assessing whether one mean is greater than the other and the two tailed test.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING N/A 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #226$227TOOLS > STATISTICS >COMPARE DENSITIES>PAIRED 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Give a statistical test for the comparison of the densities of two networks in which the actors are paired.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION This routine uses a bootstrap technique to compare the densities of two not necessarily independent networks with the same actors. This method is analogous to the classical paired sample t-test for estimating the standard error of the difference. Its main use would be in comparing the same relation on the same set of actors at two different time points.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 1st Network

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of UCINET dataset containing one of the datasets to be compared. Data type: Valued graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2nd Network

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of UCINET dataset containing the same actors (in the same order) as the 1st dataset. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of Samples

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gives the number of times sampling with replacement is used to construct the distribution. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE The output gives the density of both matrices together with the difference and the number of samples taken. This is followed by a classical t-test. The estimated bootstrap standard errors are then reported together with the bootstrap standard error of the differences, the bootstrap 95% confidence intervals and the bootstrap t-statistic assuming independent samples. The bootstrap standard error, confidence interval, t-statistic and average value are then reported for the paired samples. Finally the proportion of differences (absolute, as large as and as small as) to the observed values are given.      
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Tom A.B. Snijders and Stephen P. Borgatti (1999)  Non-Parametric Standard Errors and Tests for  Network Statistics. Connections 22(2): 1-11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #228$229TOOLS > STATISTICS >COMPARE>DENSITIES>THEORETICAL PARAMETER 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Give a statistical test for the comparison of the density of a network to a theoretical value.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION This routine uses a bootstrap technique to compare the density of a network to a specified value. In essence a distribution is built up by sampling the network with replacement from the vertices. There is an assumption that vertices are interchangeable.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 1st Network

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of UCINET dataset containing the datasets to be compared. Data type: Valued graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Expected Density

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Value of the theoretical parameter to which the observed value will be compared. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of Samples

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gives the number of times sampling with replacement is used to construct the distribution. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE The output gives the parameter value and the density of the matrix together with the difference and the number of samples taken. This is followed by the actual variance and the classical estimate of the standard error. The number of samples in the bootstrap are then reported together with the estimated bootstrap standard error, z-score and average density. Finally the proportion of differences (absolute, as large as and as small as) to the observed values are given.      
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Tom A.B. Snijders and Stephen P. Borgatti (1999)  Non-Parametric Standard Errors and Tests for Network Statistics. Connections 22(2): 1-11 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #230$231TOOLS>STATISTICS>COMPARE AGGREGATE PROXIMITY MATRICES>PARTITION 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Use a permutation test to compare proximity matrices aggregated from a cognitive social structure into two mutually exclusive groups. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION To compare aggregated proximity matrices from a partition of the respondents into two mutually exclusive groups Eg male and female, we begin by correlating the two matrices (or computing a dissimilarity measure). This is our observed test statistic. Then we go back to the individual level data and divide the respondents into two groups at random. We then aggregate the matrices separately for each group, obtaining an aggregate proximity matrix for each group. Next, we correlate these matrices (or compute dissimilarity measure) and store the result. This process is repeated thousands of times to generate a distribution of (dis)similarities under the null hypothesis of independence (i.e., judged proximities are independent of gender). We then count the proportion of correlations (or dissimilarity measures) that are as small (or as large) as the observed measure. The proportion of correlations as small as the observed (or, equally, the proportion of dissimilarity coefficients as large as the observed) gives the p-value: the likelihood that the difference we see could be obtained by chance. Note that the aggregation is simply the mean of the matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of dataset containing the cognitive social structure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Data type: Valued graph, multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Utilize diagonal values (Default=No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      If YES diagonal values are included 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Data are symmetric (Default = No) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Partition Vector

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The name of an Ucinet dataset.To partition the matrices of the data matrix into groups, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the matrices. All matrices with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same group. There should only be two groups and so the vector should only contain two different values. The partition can also be typed in directly so that 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 places matrices 1,2 and 4 in one group and matrices 3,5,6 and 7 in the other group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No. of  permutations (Default =2000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Number of Permutations used in the permutation test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output Dataset (Default = 'agprox')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file that will contain the mean of the matrices corresponding to each group. Two files will be produced one for each group and they will be called agprox1 and agprox2. These are not displayed in the logfile. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE A listing of the partitions used in the aggregation procedure, followed by the sizes of the two groups, the number of observations and the number of permutations used in the test. The observed correlation and Euclidean distance are the values calculated between the two aggregated matrices. This is followed by the average correlation and Euclidean distance over all the random permutations. Finally the number of times the correlation and regression were as high or higher and as low or lower are given as a probability. These values are used to determine the significance of the observed values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Borgatti, S.P. () A Statistical Method for Comparing Aggregate Data Across a Priori Groups 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #232$233TOOLS>STATISTICS>COMPARE AGGREGATE PROXIMITY MATRICES>OVERLAPPING GROUPS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Use a permutation test to compare proximity matrices aggregated from a cognitive social structure into two groups which may overlap. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION To compare aggregated proximity matrices from a partition of the respondents into two possibly overlapping groups Eg Smokers and Drinkers, we begin by correlating the two matrices (or computing a dissimilarity measure). This is our observed test statistic. Then we go back to the individual level data and divide the respondents into two groups at random. We then aggregate the matrices separately for each group, obtaining an aggregate proximity matrix for each group. Next, we correlate these matrices (or compute dissimilarity measure) and store the result. This process is repeated thousands of times to generate a distribution of (dis)similarities under the null hypothesis of independence (i.e., judged proximities are independent of gender). We then count the proportion of correlations (or dissimilarity measures) that are as small (or as large) as the observed measure. The proportion of correlations as small as the observed (or, equally, the proportion of dissimilarity coefficients as large as the observed) gives the p-value: the likelihood that the difference we see could be obtained by chance. Note that the aggregation is simply the mean of the matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of dataset containing the cognitive social structure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Data type: Valued graph, multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Utilize diagonal values (Default=No)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If YES diagonal values are included 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Data are symmetric (Default = No) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Group Indicator Matrix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The name of an Ucinet dataset. This dataset must contain a row for each actor and two columns representing the two groups. The (i,j)th entry is a 1 if actor i is in group j (j= 1 or 2) and zero otherwise. The matrix is simply a standard incidence matrix with two columns.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No. of  permutations (Default =2000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of Permutations used in the permutation test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output Dataset (Default = 'agprox')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file that will contain the mean of the matrices corresponding to each group. Two files will be produced one for each group and they will be called agprox1 and agprox2. These are not displayed in the logfile. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE A listing of the partitions used in the aggregation procedure, followed by the sizes of the two groups, the number of observations and the number of permutations used in the test. The observed correlation and Euclidean distance are the values calculated between the two aggregated matrices. This is followed by the average correlation and Euclidean distance over all the random permutations. Finally the number of times the correlation and regression were as high or higher and as low or lower are given as a probability. These values are used to determine the significance of the observed values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Borgatti, S.P. () A Statistical Method for Comparing Aggregate Data Across a Priori Groups 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #234$235K236TOOLS > STATISTICS > P1 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Fits the Holland and Leinhardt P1 model for binary networks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION All dyads (i,j) in a sociometric choice matrix X can be classified as mutual (xij = xji = 1), asymmetric (xij not equal to xji), or null (xij = xji = 0). The probabilities of each type of dyad are modelled as a function of three sets of substantive parameters: expansiveness of each actor, popularity of each actor, and reciprocity. The probabilities of mutual, asymmetric and null dyads, denoted mij, aij, and nij respectively, are modeled as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mij = lijexp(r+2q+ai+aj+bi+bj)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  aij = lijexp(q+ai+bj)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nij = lij 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the equations, the a parameters are interpreted as "productivity" or "expansiveness" measures for each node. The b parameters are interpreted as "attractiveness" or "popularity" measures. The r parameter is interpreted as a general measure of the tendency towards "reciprocity" or "mutuality" in the network. The q parameter is a function of the density of the network, reflecting the total number of arcs observed. Finally, the l parameters are normalizing constants used to insure that the modeled probabilities add to 1 for any given dyad. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input Dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file that contains network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) Parameter dataset (Default = 'Alphabet')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file to contain alpha and beta parameters. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) Expected values (Default = 'P1Expect')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file to contain P1 expected values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output residual values (Default= 'P1Resid')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file to contain P1 residuals. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE G-squared negative goodness-of-fit value with degrees of freedom. Probabilities are not printed because the theoretical distribution governing these values has not yet been established. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Values of q and r . 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Expansiveness (a) and popularity (b) parameters for each actor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An nxn matrix containing the P1 expected value between each pair of actors. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An nxn matrix of residuals (observed data minus expected) between each pair of actors. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A single-link hierarchical clustering3J.X0E of symmetrized residuals.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N^4). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS The model would be more useful if the distribution of G-squared were known: as it is, we cannot say for certain when the model fits and when it does not. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Holland P and Leinhardt J (1981). "An Exponential Family of Probability Distributions for Directed Graphs." Journal of the American Statistical Association 76:33-6 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #237$238K239TOOLS > MATRIX ALGEBRA 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Command-driven matrix algebra package. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Input and output are UCINET datasets. Capabilities are divided into functions and procedures, which have different syntax. Further, within functions we can distinguish three basic types: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Uniary Operations. Those that operate on a single dataset and take no arguments (e.g. ABS, which takes the absolute value of every cell in the matrix); 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Binary Operations. Those that perform algebraic and arithmetic operations require two or more datasets (e.g. ADD, which adds corresponding cells of two or more matrices); 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Inner Products. Those that perform arithmetic operations on various dimensions (i.e. rows, columns, matrices) of a single dataset (e.g. TOTAL, which sums values of a matrix broken out by row, column, level or combinations of these). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  When you choose Algebra from the menu, then a command window will open up. You can close the window by clicking on the close button. Commands are typed in the command window you can scroll back to previous commands by using the up and down arrows. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The difference in the two kinds of commands is reflected in their syntax. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Functions have this basic syntax: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  <output matrix> = <function>(<arguments>) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the documentation to follow, an item enclosed in angle brackets denotes a name or other input to be provided by the user.  Hence, <output matrix> refers to the name of a dataset to be supplied by the user.  Items enclosed in square brackets will denote optional arguments.  Anything else, such as an equal sign or parenthesis, is something to be typed verbatim. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An example of valid syntax for a function is this: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  y = inverse(x) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In the example, x is a pre-existing dataset in the current folder, inverse is the name of a function, and y is the name of a yet-to-be-created dataset to contain the inverse of the matrix in x.  Datasets may be named using their full pathnames, as in: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a:tdavis = transpose(c:\ucinet\data\davis) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Most functions will have a single argument consisting of the name of an input matrix.  Others will have two or more arguments, again consisting of the names of datasets.  For instance, the syntax for the ADD command is as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  <matrix> = add(<matrix1>,<matrix2>,...) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An example would be: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mpx = add(business,marriage,friend) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A few functions take other kinds of arguments.  For example, to generate an identity matrix with 5 rows and columns, you would type: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  junk = identity(5) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Procedures 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The syntax for procedures differs from functions in that there is no output matrix: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  <procedure><arguments> 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  An example is: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  display padgett 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Another example is: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  svd davis = u d v 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This requests a singular value decomposition of the matrix davis into three matrices (datasets) to be called u, d, and v

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Expressions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  One useful fact to remember is that whenever the syntax for a function or procedure calls for the name of a matrix, a function may be substituted instead.  For example, the command 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  y = inverse(transpose(inf)) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  requests that the inverse of the transpose of a matrix inf be calculated and saved as dataset y.  There is no limit to the amount of nesting.  For example, the following command is perfectly valid, though neither efficient nor very readable: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  b = prod(inv(prod(transp(x),x)),prod(transp(x),y)) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A less error-prone alternative would be the following series: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  xt  = transp(x)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  xtx = prod(xt,x)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  xty = prod(xt,y)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  b  = prod(inv(xtx),xty) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FURTHER INFORMATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Uniary FunctionsTransformer_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Binary FunctionsBetween_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Inner ProductsWithin_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ProceduresProcedures 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #240$241K242TOOLS > SCATTERPLOT> DRAW 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Plots one matrix column against another in the (x,y) plane. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Plots two specified columns of a matrix against each other.  The x co-ordinates (horizontal axes) are an element of the first column and the y co-ordinates (vertical axes) are the corresponding elements of the second column.  Points can be labeled using ASCII characters. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing matrix with data to be plotted. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Column to use for horizontal or x-axis: (Default = 1).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Column number for horizontal axis. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Column to use for vertical or y-axis: (Default = 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Column to use for vertical axis. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        File containing point labels, if any:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If blank then points are labeled by row number. If used, file should be ASCII and contain the labels.  The labels must be specified in a list, each separated by a comma, the list must contain the same number of labels as rows in the data matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE  A scatter plot with the tick marks on the axes.  Each point on the scatter plot is marked by the row of the column vectors or a label from the label file.  If two points have the same coordinates then the label corresponding to the highest row number is used.The scatterplot can be saved or printed. Simple editing can be achieved using the options button. The labels can be turned on or off and values can be attached to the points (or removed). The scales can also be changed. More advanced editing is possible by double clicking in the plot, this invokes the chart wizard. To find the label attached to a single point when all the labels are moved click on a single point, this will highlight all the points, then click a second time to highlight one vertex. Now double click on the vertex and the label will be highlighted in the chart designer. The save button and the save chart data option allow the user to save all the chart data into a file which can be reviewed using Tools>Scatterplot>Review. The chart itself can be saved as a windows metafile which can then be read into a word processing or graphics package.  Only one chart can be open at one time and the chart window will be closed if you click on any other UCINET window.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING Linear 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS This routine only works if the regional settings are set to UK or USA. If you do not have these regional settings and do not get a plot then change them in the settings control panel on your machine. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #243$244K245TOOLS > SCATTERPLOT  REVIEW 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Displays previously filed scatter plots. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Scatter plots can be saved as files and reviewed directly using this routine. They are saved with the extension sdf. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of scatterplot file to be displayed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE None but scatterplot is displayed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING N/A 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #246$247K248TOOLS > DENDROGRAM /TREE DIAGRAM> DRAW 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Generates a dendrogram or tree diagram from hierarchically nested partition data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION This routine allows for the creation of the hierarchical cluster diagrams from a UCINET generated partition matrix.  It is also possible to generate the diagrams from user defined partition matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing a partition indicator matrix.  A partition indicator matrix has rows which correspond to different partitions and columns which represent members of the groups.  A value of k in row i and column j means that actor j is in group k for the partition corresponding to row i.  All other actors in the same group should be assigned the same value in row i.  Each successive row must specify an increasingly finer (or coarser) partition.  The row labels (if specified) correspond to the levels of the partition. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE A hierarchical clustering diagram either a tree diagram or a dendrogram. The plot re-orders the actors so that they are located close to other actors in similar clusters. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING Linear 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #249$250K251TOOLS >DENDROGRAM/TREE DIAGRAM >REVIEW 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Displays previously filed cluster diagrams. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Dendrograms and tree diagrams can be saved as bitmap files and reviewed directly using this routine. They are saved with the extension bmp. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input bitmap filename:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of  file to be displayed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING N/A 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #252$253K254UNIARY OPERATIONS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ABSOLUTE - Syntax: abs(<mat>).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Takes the absolute value of every value in <mat>.  May be abbreviated to "ABS".  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = abs(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ARCTAN - Syntax: arc(<mat>).  Takes the arctangent of each value in <mat>.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = arc(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMON LOG - Syntax: log10(<mat>).  Takes the base 10 logarithm of each value of the argument.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = log10(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COSINE - Syntax: cos(<mat>).  Takes the cosine of each value in <mat>.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = cos(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          EXPONENT - Syntax: exp(<mat>).  Raises e (the base of natural logarithms) to the power given by each cell of the argument.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = exp(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FILL - Syntax: fill(<mat>,<nr>,<nc>).  Expands the matrix in <mat> to the dimensions given by <nr> and <nc> by duplicating values.  For example, given matrix X, the command 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1  2  3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          X = 4  5  6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               7  8  9 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          y = fill(x,5,6) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          yields:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1  2  3  1  2  3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4  5  6  4  5  6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Y = 7  8  9  7  8  9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1  2  3  1  2  3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4  5  6  4  5  6 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GENERALISED INVERSE - Syntax: ginv(<mat>).  Given a dataset <mat> containing a matrix X (with at least as many rows as columns), the function computes the inverse X^-1 such that XX^-1 = I, where I is the identity matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = ginv(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          IDENTITY - Syntax: id(<n>).  Generates an identity matrix with <n> rows and columns.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          i = id(100) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          INVERSE - Syntax: inv(<mat>).  Given a dataset <mat> containing a square non-singular matrix X, the function computes the inverse X^-1 such that XX^-1 = I, where I is the identity matrix. If the matrix is not square, or is not of full rank, use the generalized inverse ginv instead.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = inv(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG - See NATURAL LOG or COMMON LOG. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LINEAR - Syntax: lin(<mat>,<real>,<real>).  Given a data set containing a matrix then the function performs a linear transformation on every cell value.  If a cell value was x then the function forms real 1x + real 2.  If real 2 is omitted then it is assumed to be zero.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = lin(a:\atlanta\corrmat,3.2,4) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          creates a new matrix junk which has each cell transformed by multiplying by 3.2 and adding 4. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MATRIX - Syntax: mat(<real>[,<nr>][,<nc>],[<n1>]).  Converts a number into a matrix, or creates a matrix of constants.  If <nr>, <nc>, and <n1> are not specified, the function returns a 1-by-1 matrix containing the value <real>.  The parameter <n1> specifies the number of levels/matrices to create.  To specify <n1>, you must specify <nr> and <nc> as well. Examples: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = mat(3.92) {creates 1-by-1 matrix}

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = mat(4,10,10) {creates 10-by-10 matrix containing only 4s}

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = mat(4,10,10,2) {creates 2 10-by-10 matrices containing only 4s} 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This function is useful for adding a constant to a matrix.  For example, 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = add(freqs,mat(0.01,8,10)) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          adds the constant 0.01 to every cell of the 8-by-10 matrix contained in freqs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NATURAL LOG - Syntax: log(<mat>) or ln(<mat>).  Takes the natural logarithm of each value of the argument.  Examples: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = log(a:\atlanta\corrmat)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = ln(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NEGATIVE - Syntax: neg(<mat>).  Multiplies each value of <mat> by -1.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          revcorr = neg(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RECIPROCAL - Syntax: rec(<mat>).  Multiplies each value of the argument by -1.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = rec(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ROUND - Syntax: round(<mat>) or rnd(<mat>).  Rounds each value of <mat> to the nearest integer.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = rnd(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SINE - Syntax: sin(<mat>).  Computes sine of each value in <mat>.Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = sin(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SQUARE - Syntax: sqr(<mat>).  Computes square of each value in <mat>.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = sqr(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SQUARE ROOT - Syntax: sqrt(<mat>).  Computes square root of each value in <mat>.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = sqrt(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TRUNCATE - Syntax: trunc(<mat>) or trnc(<mat>).  Rounds each value of <mat> down to the largest whole number contained by the value.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          junk = trunc(a:\atlanta\corrmat) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FURTHER INFORMATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Binary OperationsBetween_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Uniary OperationsWithin_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ProceduresProcedures 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Matrix AlgebraCN_B.2   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #255$256K257BINARY OPERATIONS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        AVERAGE - Syntax: avg(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Takes the average value of corresponding cells across two or more matrices.Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = avg(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BOOLEAN PRODUCT - Syntax: bprod(<mat1>,<mat2>).  Boolean multiplication of two binary matrices.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        junk = bprod(business,marriage) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DIVIDE - Syntax: div(<mat1>,<mat2>).  Divides each cell of <mat1> by the corresponding cell of <mat2>.  Divisions by zero result in missing values.Example 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        junk = div(c:\atlanta\corrmat,mcorr) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        EQUAL - Syntax: eq(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Compares two or more matrices and puts a value of 1 where all matrices have the same value and a 0 where any are different.  For example, typing 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        junk = eq(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        gives a new binary matrix called junk which has 1s in those cells where a and b have the same value, and has 0s elsewhere. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GREATER THAN - Syntax: gt(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Compares two or more matrices, creating a new matrix which is 1 for all cells where the first matrix is strictly larger than all subsequent matrices, and 0 elsewhere. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = gt(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the example, the matrix c will have 1s only in those cells where a dominates b

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO - Syntax: ge(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Compares two or more matrices, creating a new matrix which is 1 for all cells where the first matrix is larger than or equal to all subsequent matrices, and 0 elsewhere. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = ge(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the example, the matrix c will have 1s only in those cells where a is not dominated by b

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LESS THAN - Syntax: 1t(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Compares two or more matrices, creating a new matrix which is 1 for all cells  where the first matrix is strictly less than all subsequent matrices, and 0 elsewhere. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = lt(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the example, the matrix c will have 1s only in those cells where a is dominated by b

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO - Syntax: le(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Compares two or more matrices, creating a new matrix which is 1 for all cells where the first matrix is less than or equal to all subsequent matrices, and 0 elsewhere. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = le(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the example, the matrix c will have 1s only in those cells where a is smaller than or equal to the value of b

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MAXIMUM - Syntax: max(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Takes the largest value of corresponding cells across two or more matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = max(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MINIMUM - Syntax: min(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Takes the smallest value of corresponding cells across two or more matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = min(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MULTIPLY - Syntax: mul(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Takes the average value of corresponding cells across two or more matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = mul(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PRODUCT - Syntax: prod(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Matrix multiplication of two matrices.  This is NOT element-wise multiplication of corresponding values (see MULTIPLY).Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        buskin = prod(business,marriage) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the example, the business matrix is pre-multiplied by marriage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SQUARED DIFFERENCE - Syntax: sqrdif(<mat1>,<mat2>,...). Takes the squared difference of corresponding cells across two or more matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = sqrdif(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        One application of this function is to compare a data matrix with a predicted matrix, based on a least squares criterion. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SUBTRACT - Syntax: sub(<mat1>,<mat2>,...).  Subtracts the values of corresponding cells of two or more matrices from the first matrix mentioned. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c = sub(a,b) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In the example, the values of b are subtracted from the values of a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FURTHER INFORMATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Uniary OperationsTransformer_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Inner ProductsWithin_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ProceduresProcedures 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Matrix AlgebraCN_B.2   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #258$259K260INNER PRODUCTS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WAVERAGE - Syntax: wavg(<mat1>,[R½C½L] [R½C½L]). Average values of <mat1>, with optional breakout by one or two dimensions.  Examples: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rowmeans = wavg(davis rows)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          colmeans = wavg(davis cols)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          density = wavg(davis)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          avgtie = wavg(newcomb rows cols) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The last example totals all matrices contained in thenewcomb dataset to get a single matrix.  In other words, it takes a 3-dimensional table (rows, columns and matrices) and aggregates across matrices to obtain a table with just rows and columns. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TOTAL - Syntax: tot(<mat1>,[R½C½L] [R½C½L]).  Adds values of  <mat1>, with optional breakout by one or two dimensions.  Examples: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rowsums = tot(davis rows)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          colsums = total(davis cols)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nties = tot(davis)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          allrels = tot(newcomb rows cols) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The last example totals all matrices contained in the newcomb dataset to get a single matrix.  In other workds, it takes a 3-dimensional table (rows, columns and matrices) and aggregates across matrices to obtain a table with just rows and columns. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WMAXIMUM - Syntax: wmax(<mat1> [r½c½1] [r½c½1]).  Takes the largest value of within a dataset, optionally broken out by one or more dimensions.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rowmax = wmax(ron1 rows)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          matmax = wmax(krack lev) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WMINIMUM - Syntax: wmin(<mat1> [r½c½1] [r½c½1]).  Takes the smallest value of within a dataset, optionally broken out by one or more dimensions.  Example: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rowmin = wmin(ron1 rows)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          matmin = wmin(krack lev) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TRANSPOSE - Syntax: transp(<mat> [<dim><dim>]).  Exchanges any two dimensions of a dataset.  If no dimensions are given, rows and columns are assumed.  Examples: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          tdavis = transp(davis)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cent2 = transp(cent cols levs) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FURTHER INFORMATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Uniary OperationsTransformer_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Binary operationsBetween_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ProceduresProcedures 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Matrix AlgebraCN_B.2   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #261$262K263PROCEDURES 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In this section we document each ALGEBRA procedure individually, giving the syntax and a brief description for each one.  The syntax gives the minimum abbreviation and any alternate spellings.  The procedures are arranged in alphabetical order by concept. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CHANGE FOLDER - Syntax: cd<drive:\folder>).  Change default folder (and/or drive).  Affects where UCINET will look for data and where data will be saved. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cd\ucinet\data

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            cd a: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DISPLAY - Syntax: disp <mnat> or dsp <mat>.  Displays all cells of <mat> to the screen. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dsp c:\ucinet\data\padgett

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dsp ginv(transp(davis)) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LET - Syntax: let <function call>.  Technically, the LET command is always implicit before any function statement.  For example, the following two commands are identical: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            xtx = prod(transp(x),x)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            let xtx = prod(transp(x),x) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The only reason to use LET is if your output dataset has the same name as an ALGEBRA procedure, which would confuse the interpreter.  For example, the following command would NOT create a dataset called "DSP": 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dsp = inverse(xtx) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Instead, the interpreter would assume that you wanted to display a matrix called "= inverse(xtx)".  However, the following would work: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            let dsp = inverse(xtx) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            QUIT - Syntax: quit or exit.  Leave ALGEBRA and close the matrix algebra windows.  Usage: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            exit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            quit 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION - Syntax: svd<amat> = <umat><dmat><vtmat>, where <amat> is an m-by-n data matrix of rank r, <umat> will be an m-by-r output matrix, <dmat> will be a diagonal r-by-r output matrix, and <vtmat> will be an n-by-r output matrix.  The program requires m ³ n.  Usage: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            svd davis = u d vt 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The <umat> and <vtmat> matrices are often referred to as "row scores" and "column scores" respectively.  The <dmat> matrix contains singular values down the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The singular value decomposition of a square, symmetric matrix gives row and column scores equal to the eigenvectors of the matrix, and the singular values are their eigenvalues.  The SVD of any matrix X gives row scores equal to the eigenvectors of XX' and column scores equal to the eigenvectors of X'X.  The singular values of X are the square of the eigenvalues of both XX' and X'X. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FURTHER INFORMATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Uniary OperationsTransformer_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Binary OperationsBetween_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Inner ProductsWithin_Functions 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Matrix AlgebraCN_B.2   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #264$265K266NETWORK > COHESION > DISTANCE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Constructs a distance or generalized distance matrix between all nodes of a graph.  Allows for transformation of this matrix from distance to nearness. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION The length of a path is the number of edges it contains.  The distance between two nodes is the length of the shortest path.  The generalized distance is the length of an optimum path.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This optimum can be any of the following:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The cost of a path is the sum of all values on the edges of a path.  The optimum is the cheapest cost. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The strength of a path is the strength of its weakest link.  The optimum is the strongest path. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The probability of a path is the product of the probabilities of its edges.  The optimum is the most probable path. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If there is more than one optimum path then the algorithm uses the shortest optimum path.  For a binary adjacency matrix distance and generalized distance will be equivalent. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The distance matrix can be converted to a nearness matrix by means of a nearness transformation.  This transformation can be achieved by taking reciprocals, linear transformations, exponentiation or frequency decays. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Type of Data: (Default = ADJACENCY)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Adjacency - standard binary data, distance corresponds to graph theoretic geodesic.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Strengths - values indicate cost or lengths of links between nodes. Optimum is strongest path.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Costs - values indicate strengths, capacities or cost. Optimum is the cheapest cost.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Probabilities - values indicate probability of link and restricted to [0,1].  Optimum is most probable path. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nearness transformation: (Default = NONE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Converts distance matrix to a nearness matrix by a variety of methods.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  None - no transformation is applied and raw distances are given as output. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Multiplicative - distances between nodes are divided into the largest possible distance.  New values are given by Yij = (N-1)/Dij. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Additive - distances between nodes are subtracted from the total number of nodes.  New values are given by Yij = N - Dij. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Linear - distances between nodes are transformed linearly into [0,1].  New values are given by Yij = 1 - (Dij - 1)/(N-1). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exponential - distances between nodes are transformed using exponential decay.  New values are given by Yij = bDij.  The attenuating factor b is selected by the user and should satisfy 0 < b < 1. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Freq Decay - Uses Burt's 1976 frequency decay function.  The nearness of i and j is one minus the proportion of actors that are as close to i as j is. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Attenuation Factor: (Default = 0.5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Value of the attenuation factor b when exponential is chosen.  Larger values give slower decay. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output dataset: (Default = 'GeodesicDistance')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of data file containing distance matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE Matrix of distances between all pairs of nodes. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS Note the distances correspond to the number of links and not the optimum values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Optimum values are calculated by NETWORK>COHESION>REACHABILITY1SBLQHA 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Doreian P (1974).  'On the connectivity of social networks'. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 3, 245-258. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Burt R (1976).  'Positions in networks'.  Social Forces, 55, 93-122. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #267$268K269NETWORK>COHESION>NO. OF GEODESICS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Counts the number of geodesics connecting all pairs of vertices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION A geodesic is a shortest path. There may be more than one shortest path connecting any two vertices. This procedure gives the number of shortest paths connecting all pairs of vertices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing network data. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output Filename: (Default = 'GeodesicsCount').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of dataset containing counts of geodesics for every pair of vertices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE An nxn matrix in which row i column j gives the number of geodesics connecting i to j. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^4). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #270$271K272NETWORK > COHESION > REACHABILITY 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Constructs a matrix of reachability values for every pair of nodes. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION The reachability for a pair of nodes is the value of an optimum path.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The algorithm produces a value in row i, col j of a matrix if node j is reachable from node i and a blank otherwise.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This value can be any of the following:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The length of the shortest path.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The cost of the cheapest path, where the cost is the sum of all the values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The strength of the strongest path, where the strength is the value of the weakest link. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The probability of the most 'probable' path, where the probability of a path is the product of the probabilities of its edges.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Type of Data: (Default = ADJACENCY)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Adjacency - standard binary data, distance corresponds to graph theoretic geodesic. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Strengths - values indicate cost or lengths of links between nodes.Optimum is strongest path. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Costs - values indicate strengths, capacities or cost.Optimum is the cheapest cost. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Probabilities - values indicate probability of link and restricted to [0,1]. Optimum is most probable path. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output dataset: (Default = 'Reachability')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of data file containing reachability matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Matrix of reachability values between all pairs of nodes. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(NLOGN) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS None but see comments on

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NETWORK>COHESION>DISTANCE2CQC8Q 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES Doreian P (1974).  'On the connectivity of Social Networks'.  Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 3, 245-258. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #273$274K275NETWORK > COHESION > MAX FLOW 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Compute the maximum flow (= the minimum cut) between all pairs of nodes in a network. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION In a valued or binary network the value of each edge (1 or 0 for binary networks) can represent a capacity. Let c(x) denote the capacity of each edge of a network N.  A flow in N between two nodes s and t is a function f such that 0 £ f(x) £ c(x) for every edge x and for every node z ¹ s or t, Sf(yz) =Sf(zw).  So that for each node, except s and t, the total amount of flow into the node equals the total flow leaving the node.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The total flow leaving s is the same as that going into t, this value is called the value of the flow.  The maximum flow is simply the maximum value possible between two vertices.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This procedure uses the algorithm due to Gomory and Hu to compute the maximum flow between all pairs of vertices of a symmetric graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph - symmetric matrix only with integer values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output Filename (Default = 'MaxFlow').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of data file containing maximum flows between all pairs of vertices. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE The Input dataset followed by an nxn matrix in which row i column j gives the value of the maximum flow from vertex i to vertex j (i¹j).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^4). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS The maximum flow in a network is equal to the minimum cut.  A cut between two vertices s and t is a collection of edges which contains an edge from every s-t path.  The value of a cut is the sum of the value of the edges. A minimum cut is the minimum value of all possible cuts between two vertices. For a binary network this value is called the local edge connectivity. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Ford L R and Fulkerson D R (1956).  'Maximum flow through a network'.  Canadian Journal of Mathematics, 8, 399-404. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gomory R E and Hu T C (1964).  'Synthesis of a communication network'.  Journal of SIAM (Appl Math), 12, 348. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #276$277NETWORK>COHESION>POINT CONNECTIVITY 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Compute the local point connectivity between all pairs of nodes in a network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION The local (point) connectivity of two non-adjacent vertices is the number of vertices that need to be deleted so that no path connects them, this is equal to the maximum number of vertex disjoint paths connecting them. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Filename (Default = 'PointConnectivity').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of data file containing maximum flows between all pairs of vertices. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE An nxn matrix in which row i column j gives the local point connectivity from vertex i to vertex j (i ¹ j).  This value is precisely the maximum number of vertex independent paths from i to j.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^4). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #278$279K280NETWORK > REGIONS > COMPONENTS>SIMPLE GRAPHS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Identify the components, of an undirected graph - and the weak or strong components of a directed graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION In an undirected graph two vertices are members of the same component if there is a path connecting them. In a directed graph two vertices are in the same weak component if their is a semi-path connecting them. Two vertices x and y are in the same strong component if there is a path connecting x to y and a path connecting y to x.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network data to be analyzed. Dat type: Directed graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Minimum Size to save: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Size of smallest component which is to be saved in the component by actor incidence matrix specified below. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kind of components: (Default = Strong)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                For directed data specify whether Strong or Weak components are required. For undirected data either choice will yield the components. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output sets: (Default = 'SubgroupComponentsSets')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain a component by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in row i column j means that node j is in component i.  This file is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output Partition: (Default = 'SubgroupComponentsPart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain a partition vector.  A j in the ith position means that node i is a member of component j.  This file is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Number of components found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                List of all nodes indicating which labeled component each node is in.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                List of components greater than minimum size, labeled - each component is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #281$282NETWORK > REGIONS > COMPONENTS > VALUED GRAPHS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Identify the weak components corresponding to each cut-off value of a weighted graph.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION In a valued graph, the set of dichotomized graphs corresponding to each possible weight form a nested sequence of graphs. The weak components of each of these would also be nested and can be combined to form an hierarchical clustering of weak components. Once two nodes have been placed in the same weak component of a dichotomized graph for a particular cut-off value they remain in the same weak component for all smaller cut-off values. This procedure produces a hierarchical clustering based on these facts.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS Input valued network

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing valued digraph. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output Dataset (Default = 'hicomp')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of dataset to contain the partition indicator matrix. Each column of this matrix gives the component to which each actor was assigned in a given level. The columns are labeled by the corresponding cut-off value.  A value of k in a column labeled x and row j means that actor j was in component k at cut-off value x.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Hierarchical clustering diagram of the components. The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row label i column label j means that vertex j was not in a weak component with any other vertex (i.e. it was an isolate) using a cut-off value of i.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j was in a non-trivial weak component with all vertices on the same row as j which can be found by tracing across that row without encountering a space. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^4), actually N^2 times number of different values.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #283$284K285NETWORK > REGIONS > BICOMPONENTS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Finds all the bi-components or blocks of a graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION A cutpoint of a graph is a vertex whose removal increases the number of components. A non-separable graph is a graph that is connected non-trivially and has no cutpoints. A block or bicomponent of a graph is a maximal non-separable subgraph. The name bi-component reflects the fact that it requires the deletion of two vertices to disconnect it. Bi-components overlap, but a vertex that is in more than one bi-component must be a cutpoint. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing graph to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output dataset (Default = 'Blocks')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file that will contain a block by actor incidence matrix. A 1 in column i row j means that node j is in bi-component i. This file is not displayed in the LOG FILE.. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE Number of bi-components found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      List of bi-components, labeled - each bi-component is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #286$287K288NETWORK > REGIONS > K-CORES 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE List all k-cores of a graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION A k-core in an undirected graph is a connected maximal induced subgraph which has minimum degree greater than or equal to k.  This procedure finds all k-cores for every possible value of k. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing data to be analyzed. Data type Graph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output dataset: (Default = 'Kcores')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which will contain a k-core by actor partition matrix. The partition by actor matrix is defined as follows:  a value of k in a column labeled i and row labeled j means that node j is in partition k for the i-core partition. From the remarks above it follows that if there is only one value k in the column labeled i then node j is not a member of any i-core.  Otherwise all other members of j's i-core will have a value of k in the same column. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE A single link hierarchical clustering dendrogram  the actors are re-ordered so that they are located close to other actors in similar k-cores. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the  beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  In the clustering diagram each level corresponding to a different value of 'k' in k-core. Behind the dendrogram is a clustering diagram representing the same thing. Each row is labeled by the possible values of k.  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row i column label j indicates that vertex j is not in any i-core.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j is in an i-core, all other members of j's i-core are found by tracing along row i in both directions from column j until a space is encountered in each direction.  The column labels corresponding to an 'X' which are connected to j's 'X' are all members of j's i-core. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS K-Cores are not necessarily cohesive subsets but they do identify areas of the graph which contain clique like structures. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Seidman S (1983).  'Network structure and minimum degree'.  Social Networks, 5, 269-287. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #289$290K291NETWORK > SUBGROUPS > CLIQUES 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Find all cliques in a network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION A clique is a maximally complete subgraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The program implements the Bron and Kerbosch (1973) algorithm to find all Luce and Perry (1949) cliques greater than a specified size.  The routine will also provide an analysis of the overlapping structure of the cliques.  This analysis gives information on the number of times each pair of actors are in the same clique, and gives a  hierarchical clustering based upon this information. It is also does the dual operation by examining the number of actors a pair of cliques has in common. This to is submitted to an hierarchical clustering routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing data to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minimum Size: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This gives the smallest group size which is to be considered a clique. The range is 1 to N. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Analyze pattern of overlaps?  (Default = YES).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes means that an analysis of clique overlap will be performed. This includes the construction of a clique co-membership matrix, and an hierarchical clustering which is saved in a partition indicator matrix as described below. The co-clique matrix is also constructed and this is also submitted to an hierarchical clustering routine.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No restricts the analysis to identifying cliques only. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Diagram Type: (Default = 'Tree diagram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When analyzing the overlap the clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Clique indicator matrix: (Default = 'CliquesSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains a clique by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in column i row j indicates that actor j is a member of clique i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Co-membership matrix: (Default = 'CliquesOver').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains clique overlap matrix described in LOG FILE below.  Note that if no analysis of pattern overlaps was chosen then this file is not created. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Partition indicator matrix: (Default = 'CliquePart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains partition indicator matrix derived from overlap analysis.  The partition indicator matrix corresponds to the hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE. A value of k in a column labeled i and row j means that actor j is in partition k and is in i cliques with every other member of partition k.  Actor k is always a member of partition k, and is a representative label for the group. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Number of cliques found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            List of cliques, labeled - each clique is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The following output is also produced if YES was inserted on the form in reply to the question 'Analyze pattern of overlaps?' The first part of the output will be the tree diagram or dendrogram corresponding to the clustering of the actor by actor co-membership matrix. In the matrix  a value of k in row i column j means that vertices i and j occurred in the same clique k times.  The ith diagonal entry gives the number of cliques which contain i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The tree diagram (or a dendrogram) re-orders the actors so that they are located close to other actors in similar clusters. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered and corresponds to the number of overlaps. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Behind the diagram is a window containing the number of cliques and a list as specified above. This is followed by a clustering diagram representing the same clustering as the tree diagram (or dendrogram).  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row label i column label j means that vertex j was not in i cliques with any other vertex.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j was in i cliques with all vertices on the same row as j which can be found by tracing across that row without encountering a space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is followed by the clique by clique co-membership matrix. In the matrix  a value of k in row i column j means that cliques i and j contain k actors in common.  The ith diagonal entry gives the number of actors in clique i. This is followed by a clustering diagram corresponding to an hierarchical clustering of the clique by clique co-membership matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING Algorithm is exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Luce R and Perry A (1949).  A method of matrix analysis of group structure.  Psychometrika 14, 95-116. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bron C and Kerbosch J (1973).  Finding all cliques of an undirected graph.  Comm of the ACM 16, 575-577. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #292$293K294NETWORKS > SUBGROUPS > N-CLIQUES 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Find all n-cliques in a network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION An n-clique of an undirected graph is a maximal subgraph in which every pair of vertices is connected by a path of length n or less. These are found using an adapted version of the Bron and Kerbosch (1973) algorithm.  The routine will also provide an analysis of the overlapping structure of the n-cliques.  This analysis gives information on the number of times each pair of actors are in the same n-clique and gives an hierarchical clustering based upon this information. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Value of N: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            All members of an n-clique are connected by a path of length n or less.  A value of 1 would give all Luce and Perry cliques;  the maximum value of N-1 would give the components of the graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minimum Size: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This gives the smallest group size which is to be considered an n-clique. The range is 1 to N. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Analyze pattern of overlaps?  (Default = YES).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes means that an analysis of n-clique overlap will be performed. This includes the construction of an n-clique co-membership matrix, and an hierarchical clustering which is saved in a partition indicator matrix as described below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No restricts the analysis to identifying n-cliques only. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Diagram Type: (Default = 'Tree diagram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When analyzing the overlap the clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) n-clique indicator matrix: (Default = 'NClqSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains a n-clique by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in column i row j indicates that actor j is a member of n-clique i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Co-membership matrix: (Default = 'NClqOver').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains n-clique overlap matrix described in LOG FILE below.  Note that if no analysis of pattern overlaps was chosen then this file is not created. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Partition indicator matrix: (Default = 'NClqPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains partition indicator matrix derived from overlap analysis.  The partition indicator matrix corresponds to the hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE. A value of k in a column labeled i and row j means that actor j is in partition k and is in i n-cliques with every other member of partition k.  Actor k is always a member of partition k, and is a representative label for the group. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Number of n-cliques found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            List of n-cliques, labeled - each n-clique is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The following output is also produced if YES was inserted on the form in reply to the question 'Analyze pattern of overlaps?' The first part of the output will be the tree diagram or dendrogram corresponding to the single link clustering of the n-clique overlap matrix. In the n-clique overlap matrix  a value of k in row i column j means that vertices i and j occurred in the same n-clique k times.  The ith diagonal entry gives the number of n-cliques which contain i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The tree diagram (or a dendrogram) re-orders the actors so that they are located close to other actors in similar clusters. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered and corresponds to the number of overlaps. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Behind the diagram is a window containing the number of n-cliques and a list as specified above. This is followed by a clustering diagram representing the same clustering as the tree diagram (or dendrogram).  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row label i column label j means that vertex j was not in i n-cliques with any other vertex.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j was in i n-cliques with all vertices on the same row as j which can be found by tracing across that row without encountering a space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING Algorithm is exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS Usually only 2-n-cliques or 3-n-cliques are of significance. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Luce R (1950).  Connectivity and generalized n-cliques in sociometric group structure.  Psychometrika 15, 169-190. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Bron C and Kerbosch J (1973).  Finding all n-cliques of an undirected graph.  Comm of the ACM 16, 575-577. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #295$296K297NETWORK > SUBGROUPS > N-CLAN 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Find all n-clans in a network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION An n-clan is an n-clique which has diameter less than or equal to n as an induced subgraph.  These are found by using the n-clique routine and checking the diameter condition.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The routine will also provide an analysis of the overlapping structure of the n-clans.  This analysis gives information on the number of times each pair of actors are in the same n-clan and gives an hierarchical clustering based upon this information. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Value of N: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            All members of an n-clan are in an n-clique and have the additional property that they are connected by a path of length n or less in which each vertex is also a member of the n-clique.  A value of 1 would give all Luce and Perry cliques;  the maximum value of N-1 would give the components of the graph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Minimum Size: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This gives the smallest group size which is to be considered an n-clan. The range is 1 to N. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Analyze pattern of overlaps?  (Default = YES).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes means that an analysis of n-clan overlap will be performed. This includes the construction of an n-clan co-membership matrix, and an hierarchical clustering which is saved in a partition indicator matrix as described below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No restricts the analysis to identifying n-clans only. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Diagram Type: (Default = 'Tree diagram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When analyzing the overlap the clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) n-clan indicator matrix: (Default = 'NClanSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains a n-clan by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in column i row j indicates that actor j is a member of n-clan i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Co-membership matrix: (Default = 'NClanOver').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains n-clan overlap matrix described in LOG FILE below.  Note that if no analysis of pattern overlaps was chosen then this file is not created. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Partition indicator matrix: (Default = 'NClanPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains partition indicator matrix derived from overlap analysis.  The partition indicator matrix corresponds to the hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE. A value of k in a column labeled i and row j means that actor j is in partition k and is in i n-clans with every other member of partition k.  Actor k is always a member of partition k, and is a representative label for the group. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Number of n-clans found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            List of n-clans, labeled - each n-clan is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The following output is also produced if YES was inserted on the form in reply to the question 'Analyze pattern of overlaps?' The first part of the output will be the tree diagram or dendrogram corresponding to the single link clustering of the n-clan overlap matrix. In the n-clan overlap matrix  a value of k in row i column j means that vertices i and j occurred in the same n-clan k times.  The ith diagonal entry gives the number of n-clans which contain i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The tree diagram (or a dendrogram) re-orders the actors so that they are located close to other actors in similar clusters. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered and corresponds to the number of overlaps. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Behind the diagram is a window containing the number of n-clans and a list as specified above. This is followed by a clustering diagram representing the same clustering as the tree diagram (or dendrogram).  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row label i column label j means that vertex j was not in i n-clans with any other vertex.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j was in i n-clans with all vertices on the same row as j which can be found by tracing across that row without encountering a space. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING Algorithm is exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS Usually only 2-clans or 3-clans are signified. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Mokken R (1979).  Cliques, clubs and clans.  Quality and Quantity 13, 161-173. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #298$299K300NETWORK > SUBGROUPS > K-PLEX 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Find all k-plexes in a network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION A k-plex is a maximal subgraph with the following property:  each vertex of the induced subgraph is connected to at least n-k other vertices, where n is the number of vertices in the induced subgraph.  The basic algorithm is a depth first search.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The routine will also provide an analysis of the overlapping structure of the k-plexes.  This analysis gives information on the number of times each pair of actors are in the same k-plex and gives an hierarchical clustering based upon this information. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Value of K: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The value of k specifies the relative minimum size of the degree of each vertex compared with the size of the k-plex.  A value of 1 corresponds to a Luce and Perry clique.  Every vertex in a k-plex of size n has degree at least n-k in the subgraph induced by the k-plex.  The range of k is 1 to N.  (A value of N would give the whole graph as the only k-plex). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Minimum Size: (Default = 3)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This gives the smallest group size which is to be considered a k-plex. The range is 1 to N, normally this should be at least K+2. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Analyze pattern of overlaps?  (Default = YES). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes means that an analysis of k-plex overlap will be performed. This includes the construction of an k-plex co-membership matrix, and an hierarchical clustering which is saved in a partition indicator matrix as described below. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No restricts the analysis to identifying k-plexes only. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Diagram Type: (Default = 'Tree diagram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  When analyzing the overlap the clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) k-plex indicator matrix: (Default = 'KPlexSet').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file which contains a k-plex by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in column i row j indicates that actor j is a member of k-plex i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) Co-membership matrix: (Default = 'KplexOvr').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file which contains k-plex overlap matrix described in LOG FILE below.  Note that if no analysis of pattern overlaps was chosen then this file is not created. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Output) Partition indicator matrix: (Default = 'KplexPrt').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file which contains partition indicator matrix derived from overlap analysis.  The partition indicator matrix corresponds to the hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE. A value of m in a column labeled i and row j means that actor j is in partition m and is in i k-plexes with every other member of partition m.  Actor m is always a member of partition m, and is a representative label for the group. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE Number of k-plexes found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  List of k-plexes, labeled - each k-plex is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The following output is also produced if YES was inserted on the form in reply to the question 'Analyze pattern of overlaps?' The first part of the output will be the tree diagram or dendrogram corresponding to the single link clustering of the k-plex overlap matrix. In the k-plex overlap matrix  a value of m in row i column j means that vertices i and j occurred in the same k-plex m times.  The ith diagonal entry gives the number of k-plexes which contain i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The tree diagram (or a dendrogram) re-orders the actors so that they are located close to other actors in similar clusters. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered and corresponds to the number of overlaps. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Behind the diagram is a window containing the number of k-plexes and a list as specified above. This is followed by a clustering diagram representing the same clustering as the tree diagram (or dendrogram).  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row label i column label j means that vertex j was not in i k-plexes with any other vertex.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j was in i k-plexes with all vertices on the same row as j which can be found by tracing across that row without encountering a space. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING Algorithm is exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS It is advisable to initially select k and the minimum size n so that k< (n+2)/2 - in this case the diameter of the k-plex is 2 (or less).  If a k-plex is connected and k ?? (n+2)/2 then the diameter is always less than or equal to 2k-n+1, however it should not be assumed that the k-plex is connected and this would need to be examined. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Seidman S and Foster B (1978).  A graph theoretic generalization of the clique concept.  J or Math Soc, 6, 139-154. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seidman S and Foster B (1978).  A note on the potential for genuine cross-fertilization between anthropology and mathematics.  Social Networks 1, 65-72. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #301$302K303NETWORK > SUBGROUPS > LAMBDA SETS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE List all lambda sets of a graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION The edge connectivity of a pair of vertices is the minimum number of edges which must be deleted so that there is no path connecting them. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A lambda set is a maximal subset of vertices with the property that the edge connectivity of any pair of vertices within the subset is strictly greater than the edge connectivity of any pair of vertices, one of which is in the subset and one of which is outside.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hence if l(a,b) represents the edge-connectivity of two vertices a and b from a graph G(V,E) then a subset S is a lambda set if it is the maximal set with the property that for all a,b,c e S and d e V-S then l(a,b) > l(c,d). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The algorithm employed first computes the maxima flow (i.e. the connectivity) between all pairs of vertices (see NETWORKS>COHESION>MAX FLOW3G02W15) and uses this information to construct the lambda sets. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) Partition Matrix: (Default = 'LambdaSetsPart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which contains partition indicator matrix which corresponds to the hierarchical clustering produced in the LOG FILE. A value of k in a column labeled i and row j means that actor j is in partition k;  the other members of the partition form a lambda set with minimum edge-connectivity i.  Actor k is always a member of partition k, and is a representative label for the group. This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) Lambda Matrix: (Default = 'LambdaSetsFlow')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of data file containing maximum flows between all pairs of vertices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) Permutation Vector: (Default = 'LambdaSetsPerm')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of data file which contains the permutation of the nodes used in constructing the single link hierarchical clustering diagram below. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE An hierarchical clustering dendrogram, each level corresponding to a different degree of minimum internal edge-connectivity.  This value characterizes the lambda set. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The scale at the top gives the level at which they are clustered. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the  beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  In the clustering diagram each level corresponding to a different value of 'k' in k-core. Behind the dendrogram is a clustering diagram representing the same thing.  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row labeled i column label j indicates that vertex j is not in a lambda set of minimum connectivity i.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j is a member of the lambda set, all other members of j's lambda set are found by tracing along row labeled i in both directions from column j until a space is encountered in each direction.  The column labels corresponding to an 'X' which are connected to j's X are all members of j's lambda set with minimum connectivity i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The single link hierarchical diagram is followed by a maximum flow matrix.  The maximum flow between i and j is given by the value in row i column j.  The diagonal is set equal to the number of vertices, theoretically this value should be infinite. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING 0(N^4). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS Note this algorithm works on integer valued graphs by the natural extension of connectivity to minimum weight cutsets. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Borgatti S P, Everett M G and Shirey P R (1990).  'LS Sets, Lambda Sets and other cohesive subsets'.  Social Networks 12, 337-357. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #304$305K306NETWORK >SUBGROUPS >FACTIONS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Optimizes a cost function which measures the degree to which a partition consists of clique like structures using a tabu search method. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Given a partition of a binary network of adjacencies into n groups, then a count of the number of missing ties within each group summed with the ties between the groups gives  a measure of the extent to which the groups form separate clique like structures. The routine uses a tabu search minimization procedure to optimize this measure to find the best fit. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of factions: (Default = 2)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of partitions into which the data needs to be split. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Maximum # of iterations in a series: (Default = 20)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The algorithm starts from an arbitrary partition and attempts to decrease the cost by taking the steepest descent.  If the cost cannot be reduced then the algorithm continues its search in the neighborhood of the current partition.  This search direction is a mildest ascent direction and from there new search directions are explored.  This exploration only continues for a fixed number of iterations in a series.  If no improvement is made after the fixed number of iterations the algorithm terminates with the current minimum. Increasing the parameter gives a more exhaustive and therefore slower search. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Length of time in penalty box: (Default = 15)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If the algorithm makes an ascending step then it is possible that the best possible descending step is the reverse of the direction just taken.  This parameter prohibits a move along the reverse direction for a set number of steps. The larger the value the more difficult it will be to come back to a previously explored local minimum, however it will also be more difficult to explore the vicinity of that minimum.  The default has been shown experimentally to be the most useful. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of random starts: (Default = 10 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The whole procedure is repeated with a different initial partition.  The best of these are then selected as a minimum. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Random Number Seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The random number seed generates the initial partition.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat the analysis with different initial configurations.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output partition dataset: (Default = 'FactionsPart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of dataset which contains a partition indicator vector. This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki,...) where ki assigns vertex i to faction ki so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to faction 1 and 3 and 5 to faction 2. This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output sets dataset: (Default ='FactionsSets')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of dataset which contains the sets information.   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE The value of the cost function. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The group assignments. A list of the factions labeled, each faction is specified by the vertices it contains.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A grouped adjacency matrix.  A blocked permuted adjacency matrix where the diagonal blocks correspond to the factions. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING Each iteration of the tabu search algorithm is O(N^2).  Random tests with default parameters as specified indicate O(N^2.5).   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The algorithm seeks to find the minima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still be a high value in which case the factions may not represent cohesive subgroups.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the minimum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima and does not locate the desired global minima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into the reported factions. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES de Amorim S G, Barth??lemy J P and Ribeiro (1990).  Clustering and Clique Partitioning:  Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search Approaches.  Research report from Groupe d'??tudes et de recherche en analyse des d??cisions.  Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Ecole Polytechnique, Universit?? McGill. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F Glover (1989).  Tabu Search - Part I.  ORSA Journal on Computing 1, 190-206. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F Glover (1990).  Tabu Search - Part II.  ORSA Journal on Computing 2, 4-32. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #307$308NETWORK >SUBGROUPS >F-GROUPS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Find mutually exclusive groups based upon weak transitivity. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION A tripple of three vertices x,y and z taken from a valued graph is weakly transitive if whenever there is a tie connecting x to y and y to z stronger than some fixed value s then there exists a tie connecting x and z greater than a smaller value w. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This routine checks for weak transitivity by taking the largest value in the graph for s and a user prescribed value for w. The value of s is reduced until a triple is found that violates the weak transitivity condition. The value of s is then used to dichotomize the graph. The components (weak components for digraphs) of this dichotomized graph form the mutually exclusive F-groups.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of  file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cut-off value for absent ties (Default =0.0)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Value below which ties are ignored. The value w in the desription above. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output dataset (Granovetter)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of which will contain the strong and weak tie matrix described in the LOG FILE.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output Frequencies dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file that will contain the number and percentage of absent weak and strong ties. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Value above which ties are considered strong. That is the value s in the above description.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The F-groups with more than 2 actors in them are then displayed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A matrix is then displayed. A value of zero indicates that a tie was below the cut-off value for absent ties ie below w. A value of 2 indicates a tie above the value of the strong tie, ie above s and ties that lie between these values are coded as 1. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A frequency table that counts the ties values in the new matrix is then presented. This gives frequencies and the frequencies expressed as a percentage. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #309$310K311NETWORK > EGO NETWORKS > DENSITY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Compute standard ego network measures for every actor in a network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION This routine systematically constructs the ego network for every actor within the network and computes a collection of ego network measures. For directed data both in and out networks can be considered separately or together. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input network:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file which contains network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Type of ego neighborhood: (Default = UNDIRECTED)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Choices are:  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UNDIRECTED-considers all actors connected to and from ego.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IN-NEIGHBORHOOD-considers only actors with a tie to ego.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OUT-NEIGHBORHOOD-considers only actors with a tie from ego. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset (Default = EgoNet)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing ego-by-variable matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE A table of ego network measures. All measures exclude ties involving ego itself. The measures include the following: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Size. The number of actors (alters) that ego is directly connected to. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ties. The total number of ties in the ego network (not counting ties involving ego). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pairs. The total number of pairs of alters in the ego network -- i.e., potential ties. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Density. The number of ties divided by the number of pairs, times 100. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Avgdist. The average geodesic (graph-theoretic) distance between pairs of alters. This is only computed for networks in which every alter is reachable from every other. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Diameter. The longest geodesic distance within the ego network (unless infinite). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NweakComp. The number of weak components in the ego network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PweakComp. The number of weak components as a percentage of the number of alters.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2StepReach. The number of alters expressed as a percentage that are within 2 links of ego. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ReachEffic. 2-step reach as a percentage of the number of alters plus the sum of the their network sizes.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING  O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #312$313K314NETWORKS > EGO NETWORKS > STRUCTURAL HOLES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Compute measures of structural holes. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Compute several measures of structural holes, including all of the measures developed by Ron Burt. The measures are computed for all nodes in the network, treating each one in turn as ego. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing network to analyze. Data type: Directed Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output structural holes dataset: (default = 'holes')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of actor-by-variable matrix to hold structural hole measures. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dyadic redundancy dataset: (default = 'redund').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of actor-by-actor matrix that indicates the extent to which the column actor (an alter) is a redundant contact for the row actor (ego).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dyadic constraint dataset: (default = 'const').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of actor-by-actor matrix that indicates the extent to which the row actor (ego) is constrained by each other actor its ego network. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOGFILE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Three tables are output. First is the set of monadic (nodal) structural hole measures based on redundancy and constraint. The following measures are displayed: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    effsize. Burt's measure of the effective size of ego's network (essentially, the number of alters minus the average degree of alters within the ego network, not counting ties to ego).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    efficiency. The effective size divided by the number of alters in ego's network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    constraint. Burt's constraint measure (equation 2.4, pg. 55 of Burt, 1992). Essentially a measure of the extent to which ego is invested in people who are invested in other of ego's alters.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hierarchy. Burt's adjustment of constraint (equation 2.9, pg 71), indicating the extent to which constraint on ego is concentrated in a single alter. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The second table is the dyadic redundancy matrix. For each ego (rows) it gives the extent to which each of its alters are tied to all of ego's other alters (i.e., the extent to which the alter is redundant). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The third table is the dyadic constraint matrix. For each ego (rows) it gives the extent to which it is constrained by each of its alters. Ego is contained by alter j if (a) j represents a large proportion of ego's relational investment, and (b) if ego is heavily invested in other people who are in turn heavily invested in j. In short,  j constrains Ego if ego is heavily invested in j directly and indirectly. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Burt, R.S. 1992. Structural Holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #315$316K317NETWORK > CENTRALITY > DEGREE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Calculates the degree and normalized degree centrality of each vertex and gives the overall network degree centralization. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION The number of vertices adjacent to a given vertex in a symmetric graph is the degree of that vertex.  For non-symmetric data the in-degree of a vertex u is the number of ties received by u and the out-degree is the number of ties initiated by u.  In addition if the data is valued then the degrees (in and out) will consist of the sums of the values of the ties.  The normalized degree centrality is the degree divided by the maximum possible degree expressed as a percentage. The normalized values should only be used for binary data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For a given binary network with vertices v1....vn and maximum degree centrality cmax, the network degree centralization measure is S(cmax - c(vi)) divided by the maximum value possible, where c(vi) is the degree centrality of vertex vi.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The routine calculates these measures and some descriptive statistics based on these measures.  Directed graphs may be symmetrized and the analysis is performed as above, or an analysis of the in and out degrees can be performed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued Graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Treat data as symmetric: (Default = Yes).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    If Yes directed data is automatically converted to undirected by taking the underlying graph.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No gives a separate analysis for in and out-degrees. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Count reflexive ties (diagonal values)? (Default = No).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No means that self loops are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset: (Default = 'FreemanDegree'). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file which will contain degree and normalized degree centrality of each vertex. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE A table which contains a list of the degree and normalized degree (n Degree) centralities expressed as a percentage for each vertex, together with the share. The share is the centrality measure of the actor divided by the sum of all the actor centralities in the network. These have been ordered so that the actor with the highest centrality appears first. Note the stored UCINET output file retains the original order. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance, minimum value and maximum value for each list generated.  This is followed by the degree network centralization index expressed as a percentage. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For directed data the tables are the same as for undirected except that separate values are calculated for in and out degrees. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Degree centrality measures network activity. For valued data the non-normalized values should be used and the degree centralization should be ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Freeman L C (1979).  'Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual clarification',  Social Networks 1, 215-239. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #318$319K320NETWORK > CENTRALITY > CLOSENESS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Calculates the farness and normalized closeness centrality of each vertex and gives the overall network closeness centralization. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION The farness of a vertex is the sum of the lengths of the geodesics to every other vertex.  The reciprocal of farness is closeness centrality.  The normalized closeness centrality of a vertex is the reciprocal of farness divided by the minimum possible farness expressed as a percentage. As an alternative to taking the reciprocal after the summation, the reciprocals can be taken before. In this case the closeness is the sum of the reciprocated distances so that infinite distances contribute a value of zero. This can also be normalized by dividing by the maximum value. In addition the routine also allows the use user to measure distance by the sums of the lengths of all the paths or all the trails. If the data is directed the routine calculates separate measures for in-closeness and out closeness.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For a given network with vertices v1....vn and maximum closeness centrality cmax, the network closeness centralization measure is S(cmax - c(vi)) divided by the maximum value possible, where c(vi) is the closeness centrality of vertex vi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The routine calculates centrality, network closeness centralization and some descriptive statistics based on these measures for symmetric and directed graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Type:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Choices are:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Freeman (geodesic paths) distances are lengths of geodesic paths, the standard Freeman measure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Reciprocal Distances distances are the reciprocal of the lengths of the geodesic paths.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          All paths distances between actors are the sums of the distances on all paths connecting them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          All trails distances between the actors are the sums of the distances on all trails connecting them.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Dataset: (Default = 'Closeness')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file which will contain farness and normalized closeness centrality of each vertex. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE A table which contains a list of the farness (or closeness) and normalized closeness centrality expressed as a percentage, for each vertex. These have been ordered so that the actor with the highest centrality appears first. Note the stored UCINET output file retains the original order. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance minimum value and maximum value for both lists.  This is followed by the closeness network centralization index expressed as a percentage. If the data is directed then separate in and out values are calculated. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^3) for Freeman and reciprocal distances, the other two can be exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS Closeness centrality be thought of as an index of the expected time-until-arrival for things flowing through the network via optimal paths.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For the routine to work any graph should be connected and any digraph strongly connected. If this is not the case the routine usess a value one higher than the maximum possible as the distance measure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES Freeman L C (1979).  'Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual clarification'.  Social Networks 1, 215-239. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #321$322K323NETWORK > CENTRALITY > BETWEENNESS > NODES 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Calculates the betweenness and normalized betweenness centrality of each vertex and gives the overall network betweenness centralization. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Let bjk be the proportion of all geodesics linking vertex j and vertex k which pass through vertex i.  The betweenness of vertex i is the sum of all bjk where i, j and k are distinct.  Betweenness is therefore a measure of the number of times a vertex occurs on a geodesic.  The normalized betweenness centrality is the betweenness divided by the maximum possible betweenness expressed as a percentage.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                For a given network with vertices v1....vn and maximum betweenness centrality cmax, the network betweenness centralization measure is S(cmax - c(vi)) divided by the maximum value possible, where c(vi) is the betweenness centrality of vertex vi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The routine calculates these measures, and some descriptive statistics based on these measures, for symmetric and unsymmetric graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset: (Default = 'FreemanBetweenness').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain betweenness and normalized betweenness centrality of each vertex. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE A table which contains a list of the betweenness and normalized betweenness centrality expressed as a percentage for each vertex.These have been ordered so that the actor with the highest centrality appears first. Note the stored UCINET output file retains the original order. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance, minimum value and maximum value for both lists.  This is followed by the betweenness network centralization index expressed as a percentage. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS Betweenness centrality measures information control. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Care should be taken in interpreting betweenness for directed data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Freeman L C (1979).  'Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification'.  Social Networks 1, 215-239. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #324$325NETWORKS > CENTRALITY > REACH CENTRALITY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Counts the number of nodes each node can reach in k or less steps. For k = 1, this is equivalent to degree centrality. For directed networks, both in-reach and out-reach are calculated.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION The input is a binary network. The output is a node by distance matrix X in which xij indicates the proportion of nodes that node i can reach in j or fewer steps.  In a connected network, each row will eventually reach 1 (100%). The routine also calculates the eccentricity of each node. That is the distance of the node in question to the one that is furthest away.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In addition, the routine calculates some descriptive statistics based on these measures for symmetric graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Dataset: (Default = 'ReachCentrality')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file which will contain reach proportions for each node at each level of distance. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE A table that gives the proportion of nodes reached by each node at each level of distance. The proportion is expressed as a value from zero to one. A value of x in row i column j means that 100x% of nodes are reachable from i in a path of length j or less. For directed data values for those that can be reached from the node and those that can reach the target node are reported. Descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance minimum value and maximum value for the proportion are given.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Finally the eccentricity of each node is given, for directed data both in and out eccentricity are calculated.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS When searching for key individuals who are well positioned to reach many people in a few number of steps, this measure provides a natural metric for assessing each node. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #326$327NETWORK > CENTRALITY > BETWEENNESS >LINES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Calculates the betweenness centrality of each line. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Let bjk be the proportion of all geodesics linking vertex j and vertex k which pass through edge i.  The betweenness of edge i is the sum of all bjk where j and k are distinct.  Betweenness is therefore a measure of the number of times an edge occurs on a geodesic.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset: (Default = 'EdgeBetweenness').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain the betweenness centrality of each edge. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE A matrix in which the i,j th entry gives the edge betweenness of the edge (i,j). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS Betweenness centrality measures information control.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Freeman L C (1979).  'Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification'.  Social Networks 1, 215-239. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #328$329NETWORK > CENTRALITY > BETWEENNESS >HIERARCHICAL REDUCTION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Produces a hierarchically nested set of vertices based on betweenness. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION The betweenness of each vertex is calculated and those with a score of zero are deleted, the procedure is then repeated on the reduced graph until all vertices have been deleted. Initially all vertices are placed in the hierarchy and then at each level the deleted vertices are removed.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Output) (Default = 'hierbet').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which will contain the partition vector. The vector consists of a single row with each column corresponding to a vertex. A value k in column i means that actor i was deleted after k iterations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Output) Partition (Default =hierbetpart)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of dataset to contain the partition-by-item incidence matrix. Each column of this matrix corresponds to a cluster  labeled by the level of the cluster.  A value of 1 in a column labeled x and row j means that actor j was in the cluster at level x.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE The partition vector described above. A cluster diagram in which the columns have been re-arranged so that actors in the same cluster at each level are consecutive. A value of 1 in a row labeled x and column labelled j means that actor j was in the cluster at level x.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Freeman L C (1979).  'Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification'.  Social Networks 1, 215-239. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #330$331K332NETWORK > EGO NETWORKS > BROKERAGE 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Calculates the brokerage measures proposed by Gould & Fernandez (1989).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Given (a) a graph, and (b) a partition of nodes, this procedure calculates measures of five kinds of brokerage. Brokerage occurs when, in a triad of nodes A, B and C, A has a tie to B, and B has a tie to C, but A has no tie to C. That is, A needs B to reach C, and B is therefore a broker. When A, B, and C may belong to different groups, 5 kinds of brokerage are possible. The five kinds are named using terminology from social roles. In the description below, the notation G(x) is used to indicate the group that node x belongs to. Important:  It is assumed that a-->b-->c. For example, a (the source node) gives information to b (the broker), who gives information to c (the destination node).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Coordinator. Counts the number of times b is a broker and G(a) = G(b) = G(c), that is, all three nodes belong to the same group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Consultant.  Counts the number of times b is a broker and G(a) = G(c), but G(b)¹ G(a); that is, the broker belongs to one group, and the other two belong to a different group.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gatekeeper.  Counts the number of times b is a broker and G(a) ¹ G(b) and G(b) = G(c), that is, the source node belongs to a different group.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Representative.  Counts the number of times b is a broker and G(a) = G(b) and G(c) ¹ G(b). That is, the destination node belongs to a different group.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Liaison.  Counts the number of times b is a broker and G(a) ¹ G(b) ¹ G(c). That is, each node belongs to a different group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            When b is not the only intermediary between a and c, it is possible to give b only partial credit. That is, if there are two paths of length two between a and c, one of which involves b, we can choose to give b only 1/2 point instead of a full point. This is an option in the program. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The routine calculates these measures for each node in the network, and also the total of the five.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The program also computes the expected values of each brokerage measure given the number of groups and the size of each group. That is, the expected values under the assumption that brokerage is independent of the group status of nodes. A final output divides the observed brokerage values by these expected scores.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Partition vector:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The name of an UCINET dataset that contains a partition of the actors. To partition the data matrix into groups specify a vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension (either row or column) and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to define the groups. All actors with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same group. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Method: (default = 'unweighted')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Choices are 'unweighted' and 'weighted'. Unweighted directs the program to simply count up the number of times that a given node b is in a brokering position, regardless of how many other nodes are serving the same function with the same pair of endpoints a and c. Weighted directs the program to give partial scores in inverse proportion to the number of alternatives.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Un-normalized Brokerage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of the file containing the raw count of scores for each type of brokerage. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Output) Normalized Brokerage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containg brokerage scores divided by the expected values. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE 1) A table giving the brokerage scores for each node.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2) A table giving the brokerage scores divided by the expected values.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3) A table giving the expected values.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING O(n^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS None  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCE Gould, J. and Fernandez, J. 1989. Structures of mediation: A formal approach to brokerage in transaction networks. Sociological Methodology :89-126.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #333$334K335NETWORK > CENTRALITY > FLOW BETWEENNESS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Calculates the flow betweenness and normalized flow betweenness centrality of each vertex and gives the overall network betweenness centralization. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Let mjk be the amount of flow between vertex j and vertex k which must pass through i for any maximum flow.  The flow betweenness of vertex i is the sum of all mjk where i, j and k are distinct and j < k.  The flow betweenness is therefore a measure of the contribution of a vertex to all possible maximum flows.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The normalized flow betweenness centrality of a vertex i is the flow betweenness of i divided by the total flow through all pairs of points where i is not a source or sink. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            For a given binary network with vertices v1....vn and maximum flow betweenness centrality cmax, the network flow betweenness centralization measure is S(cmax - c(vi)) divided by the maximum value possible, where c(vi) is the flow betweenness centrality of vertex vi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The routine calculates these measures, and some descriptive statistics based on these measures for symmetric, unsymmetric and valued graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued symmetric graph - integer values only. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output dataset: (Default = 'FlowBetweenness').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which will contain flow-betweenness and normalized flow betweenness centrality of each vertex. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE The maximum flow matrix.  This gives the maximum flow between all pairs of vertices - the diagonals give the network size. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A table which contains a list of the flow-betweenness and normalized flow betweenness (nFlowbet) centrality expressed as a percentage for each vertex.  Descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance, minimum value and maximum value for both lists.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is followed by the flow betweenness network centralization index expressed as a percentage. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING  O(N^4). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS  The measure is based upon the concept of information flow.  In valued data the values should in some way correspond to the capacity for flow, hence valued data should represent similarity. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Freeman L C, Borgatti S P and White D R (1991).  'Centrality in valued graphs: A measure of betweenness based on network flow'.  Social Networks 13, 141-154. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #336$337K338NETWORK > CENTRALITY > EIGENVECTOR 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Calculates the eigenvector of the largest positive eigenvalue as a measure of centrality. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Given an adjacency matrix A, the centrality of vertex i (denoted ci), is given by  ci =aSAijcj where a is a parameter.  The centrality of each vertex is therefore determined by the centrality of the vertices it is connected to. The parameter ?? is required to give the equations a non-trivial solution and is therefore the reciprocal of an eigenvalue.  It follows that the centralities will be the elements of the corresponding eigenvector.  The normalized eigenvector centrality is the scaled eigenvector centrality divided by the maximum difference possible expressed as a percentage.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            For a given binary network with vertices v1....vn and maximum eigenvector centrality cmax, the network eigenvector centralization measure is S(cmax - c(vi)) divided by the maximum value possible, where c(vi) is the eigenvector centrality of vertex vi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This routine calculates these measures and some descriptive statistics based on these measures. This routine only handles symmetric data and in these circumstances the eigenvalues provide a measure of the accuracy of the centrality measure.  To help interpretation the routine calculates all positive eigenvalues but only gives the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued Graph (Symmetric data only). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output dataset: (Default = 'BonacichCentrality').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which will contain eigenvector centrality measure for each vertex. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE A table of positive eigenvalues.  The eigenvalues are placed in descending order under the heading VALUE.  The table gives information on 'how dominant' the largest eigenvalue is.  The table gives the percentage and cumulative percentage of the total eigenvalue sum for each eigenvalue.  The ratio of each eigenvalue to the next largest is also presented. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is followed by a list of vertices which contains the eigenvector and normalized eigenvector centrality measure for every vertex.  These values should be interpreted in terms of an interval scale. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Finally the network eigenvector centralization index expressed as a percentage is given. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING  O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS  The ratio of the largest eigenvalue to the next largest should be at least 1.5 and preferably 2.0 or more for the centrality measure to be robust.  If this is not the case then a full factor analysis should be undertaken. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Bonacich P (1972).  Factoring and Weighting Approaches to status scores and clique identification.  Journal of Mathematical Sociology 2, 113-120. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #339$340K341NETWORK > CENTRALITY > POWER 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Compute Bonacich's power based centrality measure for every vertex and give an overall network centralization index for this centrality measure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Given an adjacency matrix A, the centrality of vertex i (denoted ci), is given by  ci =SAij(a+bcj) where a and b are parameters.  The centrality of each vertex is therefore determined by the centrality of the vertices it is connected to.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The value of a is used to Normalize the measure, the value of b is an attenuation factor which gives the amount of dependence of each vertex's centrality on the centralities of the vertices it is adjacent to.  The Normalization parameter is automatically selected so that the sum of squares of the vertex centralities is the size of the network.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The parameter b is selected by the user, negative values should be selected if an individual's power is increased by being connected to vertices with low power and positive values selected if an individual's power is increased by being connected to vertices with high power.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  For a given binary network with vertices v1....vn and maximum degree centrality cmax, the network degree centralization measure is S(cmax - c(vi)) divided by the maximum value possible, where c(vi) is the degree centrality of vertex vi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The routine calculates power centrality and some descriptive statistics of the measure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued Graph (Symmetric data only). 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Value of attenuation factor (Beta): (Default = 0.0).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A value of  0 gives a centrality measure directly proportional to the degree of each vertex.  Positive values give weight to being connected to powerful actors, negative values give weight to being connected to low powered actors.  Larger values in modulus gives greater weight to actors further away. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output dataset: (Default = 'BonacichPower').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file which contains power centrality measure for every vertex. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE A table which contains the power centrality of each actor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance, minimum value and maximum value for the measure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS It is advisable to select b so that its absolute value is less than the absolute value of the reciprocal of the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix.  An upper-bound on the eigenvalues can be obtained by the largest row or (column) sums of the matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Bonnacich P (1987).  Power and Centrality: A family of Measures. American Journal of Sociology 92, 1170-1182. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #342$343K344NETWORK>CONNECTIONS>HUBBEL/KATZ (INFLUENCE) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Calculate the influence measure between every pair of vertices using the models of Hubbell, Katz or Taylor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Successive powers of matrices provide measures of influence since they enumerate the number of possible walks of given length between all pairs of nodes. Since longer walks are assumed to contribute less in terms of influence, an attenuation factor is included and the sum of all walks is taken. Hubbell includes the identity matrix in the series whereas Katz does not. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For Hubbell the influence matrix is I + S(bA)^i that equals inverse of (I - bA) under certain conditions. It follows that for Katz the influence matrix is inverse of (I - bA) -I under the same condition. Taylor's measure is a normalized version of the Katz measure. For each power in the series subtract the column marginals from the row marginals and normalize by the total number of walks of that length. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Computational Method:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hubbel - influence matrix defined by inverse of (I - bA) where A is the adjacency matrix and b is the attenuation factor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Katz - influence matrix defined by inverse of (I - bA) - I where it is the adjacency matrix and b is the attenuation factor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Taylor - takes the Katz influence matrix and takes the column marginals from the row marginals and normalizes. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Attenuation Factor (Beta): (Default = 0.5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The value of the attenuation factor.  This value should be smaller than the reciprocal of the absolute value of the dominant eigenvalue.  This can be guaranteed by using the simple bound that all eigenvalues are smaller than the largest row (or column) sum. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Divide matrix by overall sum: (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dividing the initial matrix by the sum of all its elements guarantees that the series will converge. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output dataset:(Default = 'Influence')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which will contain the influence matrix.  Row i column j will give actor i's influence over actor j. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Influence matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Hubbell C H (1965).  'An input-output approach to clique identification'.  Sociometry, 28, 377-399. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Katz L (1953).  'A new status index derived from sociometric data analysis'.  psychometrika, 18, 34-43. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Taylor M (1969).  'Influence structures'.  Sociometry 32, 490-502. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #345$346K347NETWORK > CENTRALITY > INFORMATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Calculate the Stephenson and Zelen information centrality measure for each vertex, and give an overall network information centralization index. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION The weighted function of the set of all paths connecting vertex i to vertex j is any weighted linear combination of the paths such that the sum of the weights is unity.  Assuming that each link in a path is independent, and the variance of a single link is unity, it can be concluded that the variance of a path is simply its length.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The information measure between two vertices i and j is the inverse of the variance of the weighted function.  The information centrality of a vertex i is the harmonic mean of all the information measures between i and all other vertices in the network. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The routine calculates these measures and some descriptive statistics based on these measures for symmetric graphs. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Include diagonal in calculations? (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If NO self-loops are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output dataset: (Default = 'Information').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file which will contain information content and normalized information centrality of each vertex. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE A table which contains a list of the information content Together with descriptive statistics which give the mean, standard deviation, variance, minimum value and maximum value. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES Stephenson K and Zelen M (1991).  'Rethinking Centrality'.  Social Networks 13. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #348$349NETWORKS>CENTRALITY>MULTIPLE MEASURES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Computes four normalized centrality measures: degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Only normalized versions of the measures for undirected data are given . There are no descriptive statistics nor are there any centralization measures. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Output Dataset: (Default = 'Centrality')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file which will contain centrality measures for each node. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE A table of centrality measures.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES See individual measures. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #350$351GROUP > CENTRALITY > DEGREE > FIND  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Find a group with a specified size with the highest group degree centrality. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION The group degree centrality of a group of actors is the size of the set of actors who are directly connected to group members. This routine uses a simple greedy algorithm to optimize this measure for a fixed size group. Local minima are avoided by taking a number of different random starting configurations.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Desired Group Size (Default = 10).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Specified size of group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No. of starts: (Default = 100)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Number of random starts used to avoid local minima 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output dataset: ('BestDegGroup')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of UCINET dataset containing a group indicator vector. The rows give the actors and an actor is in the group with the largest group degree centrality if the entry in the vector is a 1. This vector is not shown in the LOGFILE. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE The fit is the percentage of actors (both within and outside) adjacent to group members. The starting fit, final fit and the number of actors together with the final number of actors connected to the group are reported. This is followed by a list of the members of the group with the highest group degree centrality. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Note that this routine just finds one group. There could be many others. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCE Everett, M.G. and Borgatti, S.P. (1999) The Centrality of Groups and Classes. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 23 181-202. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #352$353GROUP > CENTRALITY > DEGREE > TEST  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Performs a permutation test to assess whether a specified group has a high degree group centrality score. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION The group degree centrality of a group of actors is the size of the set of actors who are directly connected to group members. This routine uses a simple sampling procedure to test whether a specified group has a higher group degree centrality measure than those produced at random.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS Input Network:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Central Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of UCINET file containing a column vector which specifies the actors in the specified group. A 1 in row j indicates that actor j is in the group and a 0 indicates that the actor is not a member. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Number of permutations (Default = 5000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Number of permutations taken in the random sampling procedure. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE The group degree centrality for the specified data set, this is labelled as the observed # reached. The mean and standard deviation of the group centrality for the random samples. Finally the number of times, expressed as a p-value, that a random sample achieved a group centrality score as high or higher than the specified group.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCE Everett, M.G. and Borgatti, S.P. (1999) The Centrality of Groups and Classes. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 23 181-202. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #354$355K356NETWORK > CORE/PERIPHERY > CONTINUOUS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Fit a continuous (ratio-level) core/periphery model to a data network, and estimate the coreness of each actor. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Simultaneously fits a core/periphery model to the data network and estimates the degree of coreness or closeness to the core of each actor. This is done by finding a vector C such that the product of C and C transpose is as close as possible to the original data matrix.  In addition a number of measures which try to assess the degree to which the network falls into a core/periphery structure for different sizes of core are calculated. Each measure starts with the actor with the highest coreness score and places them in the core and all other actors are placed in the periphery. The core is then successively increased by moving the actor with the highest coreness score from the periphery into the core. This is continued until the periphery consists of a single actor. nDiff is a generalization of centralization and sums the differences between the actor in the core with the lowest coreness score with all those in the periphery and adds to this the sum of the difference between the actor with the highest score in the periphery and all the actors in the core. This value is then normalized. Diff is similar but places a weighting on the size of the core, this weighting is equal to the square root of the core size and so the measure gives greater value to smaller cores. The correlation measure correlates the given coreness scores with the ideal scores of a one for every core member and a zero for actors in the periphery. Finally, Ident is the same as the correlation measure but uses Euclidean distance in place of correlation.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Data are Pos or Neg: (Default = POSITIVE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Use positive to indicate that larger values imply a stronger relationship. Use negative to indicate that larger values in the data imply a more distant relationship. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Use Corr or Distance: (Default = CORR)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Which measure of fit to use. Corr measures the correlation between the data matrix and the product of C and C transpose. Distance uses Euclidean distance in place of correlation, in this case C is simply the principal eigenvector.  Minres is factor analysis without diagonals 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Prevent Negatives:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                It is possible for the best C to contain negative values, choosing yes prevents this happening.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Max # of iterations: (Default = 1000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The maximum number of iterations used in the optimization procedure. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Diagonal values valid: (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                If NO diagonal values are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output dataset: (Default = 'Coreness')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing coreness values. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE The correlation or Euclidean distance between the model and the data at the start and end of the optimization procedure together with the number of iterations required. Minres option just gives the final correlation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The coreness of each actor, this has been normalized so that the sum of squares is one. Followed by some descriptive statistics including gini coefficients and an heterogeneity measure. The gini coefficient measures how the scores are distributed over the population and measures the amount of inequality in the data. If everyone had the same score it gives a value of zero, if a single actor had a value of 1 and everyone else had a score of zero it gives a value of 1. The composite score is an adjusted measure which takes account of the fact that we are looking for core-periphery structures. The heterogeneity measure is based on a simple summing of proportions which measures the extent to which the scores are evenly distributed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is followed by a table of the four concentration measures which assess the extent to which the data fits a core periphery structure. Each column gives a different measure, the value in row i places the i actors with the highest coreness in the core and the remainder in the periphery.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This is followed by a recommended core size based on the correlation measure. See the comments below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Finally the expected values are given, this is C times C transpose and then normalized so that it has the same mean and standard deviation as the data.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING  O(N^3) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS  The concentration measures can need careful interpretation. If nDiff has a clear maxima which is not at 1 or n-1 then this indicates a solid core periphery structure. Often nDiff has a number of maxima indicating that there are a group of actors situated between the core and the periphery. If the user still wishes to specify a core then the other measures can be used. Diff is a biased measure and gives more weight to smaller cores and again if this has a clear maxima this can indicate a core. If this does not yield any conclusive results or there is no requirement to favor smaller cores then it is recommended that the correlation is used together with nDiff or Diff. The correlation measure can indicate an area in which to focus and the other measures can be used to fine tune the measure to identify a core size. Ident should be used in the same way as correlation but it places more weight on the absolute scores. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Borgatti SP and Everett M G (1999) Models of core/periphery structures. Social Networks 21 375-395

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Comrey AL (1962) The minimum residual method for factor analysis. Psychological Reports 11, 15-18. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #357$358K359NETWORK > CORE/PERIPHERY > CATEGORICAL 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Uses a genetic algorithm to fit a core/periphery model to the data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Simultaneously fits a core/periphery model to the data network, and identifies which actors belong in the core and which belong in the periphery. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Data are Pos or Neg: (Default = POSITIVE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Use positive to indicate that larger values imply a stronger relationship. Use negative to indicate that larger values in the data imply a more distant relationship. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Algorithm: (Default = CORR)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CORR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The fit function is the correlation between the permuted data matrix and an ideal structure matrix consisting of ones in the core block interactions and zeros in the peripheral block interactions. This value is maximized.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DENSITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The fit function is the density of the core block interactions.This value is maximized. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SXY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The fit function is the element wise product of the permuted data matrix and an ideal structure matrix consisting of ones in the core block interactions and zeros in the peripheral block interactions.This value is maximized. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                EMPTYPER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The fit function is the number of entries in the peripheral block interactions. This value is minimized. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Density of core-to-periphery blocks:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This sets the density of the core to periphery ties in the ideal structure matrix.. If left blank or the word missing is entered these ties are ignored. Any other value is entered into every cell in the off diagonal blocks of the ideal structure matrix.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Maximum # of iterations: (Default = 200)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sets the maximum number of iterations performed.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Population Size: (Default = 100)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Number of genes in the population.     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output partition: (Default = 'CLUSPART')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of output file which contains a cluster indicator vector.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to cluster ki where ki is either 1 or 2 where 1 is the core and 2 is the periphery, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to the core, and 3 and 5 to the periphery.  This vector is not displayed at output. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output cluster indicator matrix: (Default = 'CLUSTERS')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which contains a cluster by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in row i column j indicates that actor j is a member of cluster i, i = 1 or 2 with 1 representing the core and 2 the periphery.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE  The starting and the final correlation of the ideal structure and the permuted adjacency matrix (regardless of which option was chosen). A listing of the members of the core and the periphery. A blocked adjacency matrix dividing the actors into the core and periphery.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^2) per iteration. Correlation is considerably slower than the other options  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The algorithm seeks to find the minima (maxima) of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still be a high (low) value in which case the partition may not represent a core/periphery model.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the minimum (maximum) value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima (maxima) and does not locate the desired global minima (maxima). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into a core/periphery structure.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Borgatti SP and Everett M G (1999) Models of core/periphery structures. Social Networks 21 375-395 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #360$361K362NETWORK > ROLES & POSITIONS > STRUCTURAL > PROFILE  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Compute measures of structural equivalence based upon comparisons of rows and columns of data matrices and forms clusters based upon the results. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION The profile of an actor is the row vector corresponding to the actor in the adjacency matrix.  Multiple relations are permissible and the profile vector is the concatenation of each individual relation profile vector.  This matrix can be real or binary.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Structurally equivalent actors have the same profile except for the diagonal entries of the adjacency matrix.  This routine compares the profile vectors of all pairs of actors and hence computes a measure of profile similarity.  Measures of similarity can be made using Euclidean distance, Pearson correlation, exact matches or matches of positive entries only.  Euclidean distance produces a distance matrix and all the other options produce a similarity matrix.  This matrix is then analyzed by single link hierarchical clustering. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Multirelational. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Measure of profile similarity/distance: (Default = EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Euclidean Distance - The distance between the vectors in n-dimensional space, i.e. the root of the sum of squared differences. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Correlation - Pearson product correlation coefficient of every pair of profiles. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Matches - Proportion of exact matches between all pairs of profiles. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Positive Matches - Proportion of exact matches in which at least one element is positive, between all pairs of profiles. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Method of handling diagonal values: (Default = RECIPROCAL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Reciprocal - In considering adjacency matrix X and  comparing profile of actor i with actor j we replace the comparison of elements xii with xji and xij with xjj by the comparisons xii with xjj and xij with xji respectively. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ignore - Diagonals are treated as missing values so that the comparisons of xii with xji and xij with xjj are dropped. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Retain - Profile vectors are compared directly element by element, including the xii and xjj elements. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Include transpose in calculations?: (Default = YES).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Including transposes means that profiles correspond to rows and columns.  This is obviously not necessary for symmetric data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                For binary data: convert to geodesic distances: (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Converts binary data to geodesic data before performing an analysis. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Diagram Type: (Default = 'Dendrogram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Output) Equivalence matrix: (Default = 'SE').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of data file containing actor by actor equivalence matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (Output) Partition dataset: (Default = 'SEPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of data file containing partition indicator matrices derived from single link hierarchical clustering.  A value of k in row labeled x and column j means that actor j is in partition k at level x.  Actor k is always a member of partition k, and is a representative label for the group. This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Single link hierarchical clustering dendrogram (or tree diagram) of the structural equivalence matrix. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left.  The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Behind the plot is the actor by actor structural equivalence matrix. This is followed by an alternative clustering diagram representing the same information as above.  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in column label j at level x means that actor j is not in any cluster at level x.  An x indicates that actor j is in a cluster at this level together with those actors which can be traced across that row without encountering a space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES Burt R (1976).  Positions in Networks.  Social Forces, 55, 93-122. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #363$364K365NETWORK > ROLES & POSITIONS > STRUCTURAL EQUIVALENCE > CONCOR 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Partitions network data by splitting blocks based upon the CONvergence of iterated CORrelations (CONCOR). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Given an adjacency matrix, or a set of adjacency matrices for different relations, a correlation matrix can be formed by the following procedure.  Form a profile vector for a vertex i by concatenating the ith row in every adjacency matrix;  the i,jth element of the correlation matrix is the Pearson correlation coefficient of the profile vectors of i and j.  This (square, symmetric) matrix is called the first correlation matrix.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The procedure can be performed iteratively on the correlation matrix until convergence.  Each entry is now 1 or -1.  This matrix is used to split the data into two blocks such that members of the same block are positively correlated, members of different blocks are negatively correlated. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CONCOR uses the above technique to split the initial data into two blocks.  Successive splits are then applied to the separate blocks.  At each iteration all blocks are submitted for analysis, however blocks containing two vertices are not split.  Consequently n-partitions of the binary tree can produce up to 2n blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Note that any similarity matrix can be used as input. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Multirelational. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Include transpose in calculations?:  (Default = YES).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For non-symmetric data each vertices profile would depend on its out ties only (since we only consider rows).  The in-ties can be considered by adding the transpose of the data matrices as additional relations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Method of handling diagonal values: (Default = RECIPROCAL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reciprocal - In considering adjacency matrix X and  comparing profile of actor i with actor j we replace the comparison of elements xii with xji and xij with xjj by the comparisons xii with xjj and xij with xji respectively. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ignore - Diagonals are treated as missing values so that the comparisons of xii with xji and xij with xjj are dropped. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Retain - Profile vectors are compared directly element by element, including the xii and xjj elements. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Max depth of splits (not blocks):  (Default =2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      How far down the binary tree splits are to be taken.  A value of n can produce up to 2n blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Convergence criteria: (Default = 0.2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In practice iterations are not taken to convergence but taken to within a tolerance TOL.  Convergence is accepted on values of 1.0 - TOL and -1.0 + TOL.  Smaller values of TOL increase computation time but create more robust solutions. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Maximum iterations: (Default = 25).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The maximum number of iterations performed on the correlation matrix before terminating through lack of convergence. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input is corr mat: (Default ='No')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      If the input dataset is a correlation matrix already then set to 'yes'.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Output) Partition dataset:  (Default = 'ConcorCPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which contains partition by actor indicator matrix.The indicator matrix has the same number of rows as specified by the 'Max # of partitions' the number of columns equals the size of the network. The value k in row i column label j means that vertex labeled j is in block k at level i (that is the ith partition).  All other members of block k can be found by simply locating all column labels which correspond to an entry of k in the matrix. This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Output) Permuted dataset:  (Default = 'ConcorCCPerm').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which contains permuted vertex vector.  Permuted vector is such that vertices in the same block are grouped together. This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Output) First correlation matrix:  (Default = 'Concor1stCorr').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file which contains the correlation matrix constructed after the first iteration. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE The correlation matrix constructed during the first iteration. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Blocks represented in terms of a clustering dendrogram. The blocks are given for each level specified in 'Max # of partitions'. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. Hence to find all members of vertex i's block at level k simply locate the value of k on the line connected to i then all actors that can be reached from this point by tracing to the left are in i's block. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Behind the dendrogram is the correlation matrix constructed during the first iteration. Followed by an alternative cluster diagram. Members of the same block are connected by row of X's.  Hence to find all members of vertex i's block at level k simply locate the X in column label i at level k and trace along in both directions until a space is encountered.  All column labels corresponding to the Xs found are members of i's block.  A '·' indicates a singleton block. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      A blocked adjacency matrix.  The rows and columns of the original adjacency matrix are permuted into blocks.  The adjacency matrix is displayed in terms of the matrix blocks it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The correlation coefficient R-squared of the partitioned data matrix and an ideal structure matrix.  The structure matrix has the same dimension as the data matrix but each cell in a block is set to the average value of the corresponding block in the data matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING Each iteration is O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS The algorithm splits every non-trivial block at every level.  The user may wish to reject a split at some level - since the history of all splits are given it is a simple matter to recombine clusters if the user so wishes. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Breiger R, Boorman S and Arabie P (1975).  An algorithm for clustering relational data, with applications to social network analysis and comparison with multi-dimensional scaling.  Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 12, 328-383. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #366$367NETWORKS>ROLES & POSITIONS>STRUCTURAL EQUIVALENCE>OPTIMIZATION>BINARY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Optimizes a cost function which measures the degree to which a partition forms structurally equivalent blocks using a tabu search method. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION A partition of a network divides the adjacency matrix into matrix blocks. For perfect structural equivalence each block should consist of  zeros or all ones. The number of errors in a block are the least number of changes required to make either all zeros or all ones. The sum of the errors of all the matrix blocks gives a measure or cost function of the degree of structural equivalence for a given partition. The routine attempts to optimize this cost function to try and find the best partition of the vertices into a specified number of blocks.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of blocks: (Default = 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of groups or blocks into which the vertices are to be assigned.  The number of  matrix blocks will be the square of this number. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output sets dataset: (Default = 'SbmSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of file which contains a block by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in row i column j indicates that actor j is a member of block i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output Partition Dataset: (Default = 'SbmPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of output file which contains a partition indicator vector.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to block ki, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1 and 3 and 5 to block 2. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Additional

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Are diagonal values valid? (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Whether diagonals are to be included in cost function. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Maximum # of iterations in a series: (Default = 50)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The algorithm starts from an arbitrary partition and attempts to decrease the cost by taking the steepest descent.  If the cost cannot be reduced then the algorithm continues its search in the neighborhood of the current partition. This search direction is a mildest ascent direction and from there new search directions are explored.  This exploration only continues for a fixed number of iterations in a series.  If no improvement is made after the fixed number of iterations the algorithm terminates with the current minimum. Increasing the parameter gives a more exhaustive and therefore slower search. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Random Number Seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The random number seed generates the initial partition.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat the analysis with different initial configurations.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Length of time in penalty box: (Default =25)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            If the algorithm makes an ascending step then it is possible that the best possible descending step is the reverse of the direction just taken.  This parameter prohibits a move along the reverse direction for a set number of steps.  The larger the value the more difficult it will be to come back to a previously explored local minimum, however it will also be more difficult to explore the vicinity of that minimum. The default has been shown experimentally to be the most useful. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of random starts: (Default = 5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The whole procedure is repeated with a different initial partition.  The best of these are then selected as a minimum. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE The number of errors and the R-squared value for the initial partition. The R-squared value is the correlation coefficient of the partitioned data matrix and an ideal structure matrix.  The structure matrix has the same dimension as the data matrix but each block is set to a one or zero corresponding to the nearest block in the data matrix.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The final number or errors the R-squared value and the errors in each block after the optimization. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            List of blocks.  Each block is labeled and is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The blocked adjacency matrix.  The rows and columns of the original adjacency matrix are permuted into blocks.  The adjacency matrix is displayed in terms of the matrix blocks it contains. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING Each iteration of the tabu search algorithm is O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The algorithm seeks to find the minima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still have a high value in which case the blocking may not conform very closely to structural equivalence.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the minimum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima and does not locate the desired global minima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into the reported blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Panning W (1982).  'Fitting blockmodels to data'.  Social Networks 4, 81-101. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Glover F (1989).  Tabu Search - Part I.  ORSA Journal on Computing 1, 190-206. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Glover F (1990).  Tabu Search - Part II.  ORSA Journal on Computing 2, 4-32. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #368$369K370NETWORKS>ROLES & POSITIONS>STRUCTURAL EQUIVALENCE>OPTIMIZATION>VALUED 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Optimizes a cost function which measures the degree to which a partition forms structurally equivalent blocks using a tabu search method. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION A partition of a network divides the adjacency matrix into matrix blocks.  The variance of the elements of a matrix block gives a measure of an extent to which the elements within the matrix block conform to structural equivalence.  The sum of the variances of all the matrix blocks gives a measure or cost function of the degree of structural equivalence for a given partition. The routine attempts to optimize this cost function to try and find the best partition of the vertices into a specified number of blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Number of blocks: (Default = 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Number of groups or blocks into which the vertices are to be assigned.  The number of  matrix blocks will be the square of this number. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output sets dataset: (Default = 'SbmSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file which contains a block by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in row i column j indicates that actor j is a member of block i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Output Partition Dataset: (Default = 'SbmPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of output file which contains a partition indicator vector.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to block ki, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1 and 3 and 5 to block 2. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Additional

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Are diagonal values valid? (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whether diagonals are to be included in cost function. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Maximum # of iterations in a series: (Default = 50)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The algorithm starts from an arbitrary partition and attempts to decrease the cost by taking the steepest descent.  If the cost cannot be reduced then the algorithm continues its search in the neighborhood of the current partition. This search direction is a mildest ascent direction and from there new search directions are explored.  This exploration only continues for a fixed number of iterations in a series.  If no improvement is made after the fixed number of iterations the algorithm terminates with the current minimum. Increasing the parameter gives a more exhaustive and therefore slower search. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Random Number Seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The random number seed generates the initial partition.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat the analysis with different initial configurations.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Length of time in penalty box: (Default =25)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  If the algorithm makes an ascending step then it is possible that the best possible descending step is the reverse of the direction just taken.  This parameter prohibits a move along the reverse direction for a set number of steps.  The larger the value the more difficult it will be to come back to a previously explored local minimum, however it will also be more difficult to explore the vicinity of that minimum. The default has been shown experimentally to be the most useful. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Number of random starts: (Default = 5)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The whole procedure is repeated with a different initial partition.  The best of these are then selected as a minimum. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE The correlation coefficient R-squared of the partitioned data matrix and an ideal structure matrix.  The structure matrix has the same dimension as the data matrix but each cell in a block is set to the average value of the corresponding block in the data matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  List of blocks.  Each block is labeled and is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The blocked adjacency matrix.  The rows and columns of the original adjacency matrix are permuted into blocks.  The adjacency matrix is displayed in terms of the matrix blocks it contains. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING Each iteration of the tabu search algorithm is O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The algorithm seeks to find the minima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still have a high value in which case the blocking may not conform very closely to structural equivalence.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the minimum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima and does not locate the desired global minima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into the reported blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Panning W (1982).  'Fitting blockmodels to data'.  Social Networks 4, 81-101. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Glover F (1989).  Tabu Search - Part I.  ORSA Journal on Computing 1, 190-206. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Glover F (1990).  Tabu Search - Part II.  ORSA Journal on Computing 2, 4-32. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #371$372K373NETWORK > ROLES > EXACT > OPTIMIZATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Optimizes a cost function that gives an approximate measure of the degree to which a partition corresponds to automorphically equivalent sets using a tabu search. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Two vertices u and v of a labelled graph G are automorphically equivalent if all the vertices can be relabelled to form an isomorphic graph with the labels of u and v interchanged. Given a partition of the network then the partition divides the adjacency matrix into blocks. For an automorphic partition the cell values for a row or column within a block will have the same distribution of values. An approximate measure of the extent to which these blocks conform to automorphic equivalence is given by the following procedure. For each block calculate the variance of the sum of squares of each row and the variance of the sum of squares of each column. The approximate automorphic cost is the sum of all these variances for every block. The routine attempts to optimize this cost function to try and find the best partition of the vertices into a specified number of blocks. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of blocks (Default = 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of groups or blocks into which the vertices are to be assigned. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Are diagonal values valid (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Whether diagonals are to be included in cost function. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For binary data:  convert to geodesic distances (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No performs an analysis on raw adjacency matrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes converts the adjacencies to distances and uses this as the input data. If there is no path connecting two vertices then the distance of n is used, where n is the number of vertices in the network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Maximum # of iterations in a series (Default = max(2,n/3)).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The algorithm starts from an arbitrary partition and attempts to decrease the cost by taking the steepest descent. If the cost cannot be reduced then the algorithm continues its search in the neighborhood of the current partition. This search direction is a mildest ascent direction and from there new search directions are explored. This exploration only continues for a fixed number of iterations in a series. If no improvement is made after the fixed number of iterations the algorithm terminates with the current minimum. Increasing the parameter gives a more exhaustive and therefore slower search. The recommended default value is automatically entered on the form once the input data has been selected. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Length of time in penalty box (Default = 10).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If the algorithm makes an ascending step then it is possible that the best possible descending step is the reverse of the direction just taken. This parameter prohibits a move along the reverse direction for a set number of steps. The larger the value the more difficult it will be to come back to a previously explored local minimum, however it will also be more difficult to explore the vicinity of that minimum. The default of 10 has been shown experimentally to be the most useful. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Number of random starts (Default = 10 - 2logn).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The whole procedure is repeated with a different initial partition. The best of these are then selected as a minimum. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Random Number Seed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The random number seed generates the initial partition. UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run. This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat the analysis with different initial configurations. The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output Partition Dataset (Default = 'ABMPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of output file to contain a partition indicator vector. This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to block ki, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1 and 3 and 5 to block 2. This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output Indicator Dataset: (Default = 'ABMSets').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which contains a block by actor incidence matrix.  A 1 in row i column j indicates that actor j is a member of block i.  This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE The value of the cost function or Fit. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        List of blocks. Each block is labelled and is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The blocked adjacency matrix. The rows and columns of the original adjacency matrix are permuted into blocks. The adjacency matrix is displayed in terms of the matrix blocks it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING Each iteration of the tabu search algorithm is O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The algorithm seeks to find the minima of the cost function. Even if successful this result may still have a high value in which case the blocking may not conform very closely to automorphic equivalence. In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions that also produce the minimum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions. Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima and does not locate the desired global minima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations. If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into the reported blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Glover F (1989). Tabu Search - Part I. ORSA Journal on Computing 1, 190-206. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Glover F (1990). Tabu Search - Part II. ORSA Journal on Computing 2, 4-32. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #374$375NETWORKS>ROLES&POSITIONS>AUTOMORPHIC>ALL PERMUTATIONS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Partitions the vertices of a graph into orbits by exhaustive search. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Two vertices u and v of a labelled graph G are automorphically equivalent if all the vertices can be relabelled to form an isomorphic graph with the labels of u and v interchanged. Automorphic equivalence  is an equivalence relation and therefore partitions the vertices into equivalence classes called orbits. This routine finds the orbits by examining all possible relabelings of the graph. For a graph of n vertices there are n! possible Permutations of the labels. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) Orbit Dataset (Default = 'AllAutomorphismsOrbits').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of output file to contain orbit indicator vector. This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to orbit ki, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to orbit 1 and 3 and 5 to orbit 2. This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output Automorphism  Dataset): (Default = AllAutomorphismsAuto').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which that gives all automorphisms of the graph. The automorphisms are specified in a numbered list with the original labelling at the head. A value of k in row m column n means that for automorphism number m vertex n was relabelled k.This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE The number of Permutations examined. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The number of relabellings that produced an isomorphism. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The percentage of all permutations that produced an isomorphic graph (the hit rate). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A list of the orbits. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING Exponential. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS Computation time for this routine is very slow. It is inadvisable to try this on graphs with more than 10 vertices, impossible on graphs with more than 15. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #376$377K378NETWORK > ROLES > EXACT >EXCATREGE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Computes a single link hierarchical clustering and a measure of regular equivalence for binary or nominal data using exact categorical REGE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Two actors are exactly regularly equivalent if they are exactly equally related to equivalent others.  Nominal data is any integer valued adjacency matrix in which the value represents a coding of the relationship in terms of a category.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For example, we could use 1 to represent close friend, 2 to represent friend and 3 to represent works with.  The values 1, 2 and 3 DO NOT measure the strength of the relationship, they simply refer to the categories. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Two actors are regularly equivalent for nominal data if in addition to the normal regularity condition they relate to equivalent others in the same category. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The exact categorical REGE algorithm searches for matches in successive neighborhoods.  For binary data in the first iteration, vertices are classified as sinks, sources or repeaters.  At the next iteration the neighborhoods of all the vertices are considered, two vertices would be classified differently if one neighborhood contained a representative of one of these categories while the other did not.  The next iteration classifies the vertices in terms of the neighborhood's classification in the previous iteration.  The process continues until stable (a maximum of n different categories are possible in a graph of n vertices). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        For nominal data the initial categories are included at the first iteration.  The process is easily extended to multiple relations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        From this procedure a similarity matrix can be formed with entries which give the value of the iteration at which vertices were separated into different categories. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Initially the procedure places all vertices in the same category;  or into user specified categories.  Subsequent iterations split the groups into hierarchical clusters. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph - integer values.  Multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dataset with starting partition (if any):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A null return will initially place all vertices in a single cluster. For user specified partition enter the name of a data file which contains a partition indicator matrix.  A partition indicator matrix has each row as a separate partition.  Each row is of the form (k1,k2,...,ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to partition ki so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to partition 1 and 3 and 5 to partition 2.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Convert data to geodesic distances: (Default = 'YES')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes performs the analysis on the geodesic distance matrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No uses the raw adjacencies. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Diagram Type: (Default = 'Dendrogram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Output) Equivalence matrix: (Default = 'EXCATREGEQUIV').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which contains actor by actor regular similarity matrix described in LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output partition matrix: (Default = 'EXCATREGPART').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which contains a partition indicator matrix corresponding to the single link hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE.  A value of k in a row labeled i and column j means that vertex j is in partition k at level i.  Vertex k is always a member of partition k and is a representative label for the group. This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Single link hierarchical clustering dendrogram (or tree diagram) of the regular similarity measure. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. Each level corresponds to an iteration, level 1 represents the initial clustering specified in PARAMETERS.  The top level gives strict regular equivalence clusters.  The higher the level the greater the degree of regular equivalence The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Behind the dendrogram is an alternative cluster diagram. The columns have been rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row labeled i column label j indicates that vertex j is in a singleton cluster at level i.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j is in a non-trivial cluster at level i, all other members of j's cluster are found by tracing along the row labeled i in both directions from column j until a space is encountered in each direction.  The column labels corresponding to an 'X' which are connected to j's X are all members of j's cluster at level i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        An actor by actor exact similarity matrix.  A k in row i column j means that actor i and j were separated at level k, provided k is less than the value on the diagonal.  If k is equal to the value on the diagonal then i and j are exactly regularly equivalent. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Everett M G (1996) and S.P.Borgatti Exact colorations of graphs and digraphs.  Social Networks 18, 319-331. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #379$380K381NETWORK > ROLES  & POSITIONS> EXACT > MAXSIM  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Calculate a measure of approximate exact equivalence for valued data.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The measure is the Euclidean distance of independently sorted profiles.  Binary data is automatically converted to a distance matrix before analysis. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION A coloring of a graph G is exact if whenever two vertices u and v of G are colored the same they have the same color neighborhoods with exactly the same number of each color.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The sorted profile of vertex i of a valued network is the row vector of i with the elements placed in ascending order.  The maxsim distance is the Euclidean distance between the sorted profile of a pair of vertices.  For directed data the column profiles are automatically concatenated on to the row profiles.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Binary data is automatically converted to a reciprocal distance matrix so that the i,jth entry contains the reciprocal of the distance between i and j. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing network to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. Binary data is automatically converted to a reciprocal distance matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Treat diagonal values as valid?  (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        If NO diagonals are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Diagram Type: (Default = 'Dendrogram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Output dataset: (Default = 'MaxSim').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file which will contain maxsim distance matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE Single link hierarchical clustering dendrogram (or tree diagram) of the maxsim distance matrix. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left.  The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Behind the plot is the actor by actor maxsim matrix. This is followed by an alternative clustering diagram representing the same information as above.  The columns are rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in column label j at level x means that actor j is not in any cluster at level x.  An x indicates that actor j is in a cluster at this level together with those actors which can be traced across that row without encountering a space. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS This algorithm is not suitable for data in which the values have low variance or are sparse. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The algorithm (by Borgatti and Everett) is an adaptation of an algorithm due to Everett and Borgatti (1988). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Everett M G (1985).  'Role similarity and complexity in social networks'.  Social Networks 7, 353-359. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Everett M G and Borgatti S P (1988).  'Calculating role similarities: An algorithm that helps determine the orbits of a graph'.  Social Networks 10, 71-91. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #382$383K384NETWORKS > ROLES & POSITIONS > MAXIMAL REGULAR > REGE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Compute a measure of regular equivalence using the standard REGE algorithm. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Two actors are regularly equivalent if they are equally related to equivalent others.  REGE is an iterative algorithm, within each iteration a search is implemented to optimize a matching function.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The matching function between vertices i and j is based upon the following.  For each k in i's neighborhood search for an m in j's neighborhood of similar value.  A measure of similar values is based upon the absolute difference of magnitudes of ties.  This measure is then weighted by the degree of equivalence between k and m at the previous iteration.  It is this match that is optimized.  This is summed for all members of i's neighborhood over all relations and normalized to provide the current iteration's measure of equivalence between i and j.  The procedure is repeated for all pairs of vertices for a fixed number of iterations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The result of this iterative procedure is a symmetric similarity matrix which provides a measure of regular equivalence.  This matrix is automatically submitted to a single link hierarchical clustering routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing data to be analyzed Data type: Valued graph.  Multirelational.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Undirected data will give a trivial result with all non-isolate vertices being equivalent. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Maximum number of iterations: (Default = 3).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Number of iterations to be performed.  Larger values increase the differentiation between vertices. A value of 3 has often been used and is now customary.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Convert data to geodesic distances: (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              YES performs the analysis on the valued distance matrix.  If symmetric data is to be analyzed then this option will provide a non-trivial analysis of the data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Diagram Type: (Default = 'Dendrogram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Output) similarity matrix: (Default = 'Rege').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file which contains REGE measure of regular equivalence described in LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (Output) Partition Matrix: (Default = 'Regepart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file which contains a partition indicator matrix corresponding to the single link hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE.  A value of k in a row labeled i and column j means that vertex j is in partition k at level i.  Vertex k is always a member of partition k and is a representative label for the group. This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE Single link hierarchical clustering dendrogram (or tree diagram) of the regular similarity measure. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Behind the dendrogram is an alternative cluster diagram. The columns have been rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row labeled i column label j indicates that vertex j is in a singleton cluster at level i.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j is in a non-trivial cluster at level i, all other members of j's cluster are found by tracing along the row labeled i in both directions from column j until a space is encountered in each direction.  The column labels corresponding to an 'X' which are connected to j's X are all members of j's cluster at level i. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An actor by actor REGE similarity matrix.  Values vary between 0 and 100.  A value of 100 indicates strict regular equivalence. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^5). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS  The values obtained for non-equivalent vertices are not robust measures of equivalence.  The number of iterations affects these values there is little correlation between the values from one iteration to the next, even at the rank order level. This situation is improved if the number of iterations are increased. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              For these reasons users with binary or nominal data are advised to use CATEGORICAL  REGE1AR.P.G 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES White D R (1984).  REGE: A regular graph equivalence algorithm for computing role distances prior to block modelling.  Unpublished manuscript.  University of California, Irvine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              White D R and Reitz K P (1983).  Graph and semi-group homomorphisms on networks of relations.  Social Networks 6, 193-235. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #385$386K387NETWORKS > ROLES > REGULAR EQUIVALENCE > CATREGE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPOSE Computes a single link hierarchical clustering and a measure of regular equivalence for binary or nominal data using categorical REGE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Two actors are regularly equivalent if they are equally related to equivalent others.  Nominal data is any integer valued adjacency matrix in which the value represents a coding of the relationship in terms of a category.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For example, we could use 1 to represent close friend, 2 to represent friend and 3 to represent works with.  The values 1, 2 and 3 DO NOT measure the strength of the relationship, they simply refer to the categories. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Two actors are regularly equivalent for nominal data if in addition to the normal regularity condition they relate to equivalent others in the same category. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The categorical REGE algorithm searches for matches in successive neighborhoods.  For binary data in the first iteration, vertices are classified as sinks, sources or repeaters.  At the next iteration the neighborhoods of all the vertices are considered, two vertices would be classified differently if one neighborhood contained a representative of one of these categories while the other did not.  The next iteration classifies the vertices in terms of the neighborhood's classification in the previous iteration.  The process continues until stable (a maximum of n different categories are possible in a graph of n vertices). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For nominal data the initial categories are included at the first iteration.  The process is easily extended to multiple relations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    From this procedure a similarity matrix can be formed with entries which give the value of the iteration at which vertices were separated into different categories. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Initially the procedure places all vertices in the same category;  or into user specified categories.  Subsequent iterations split the groups into hierarchical clusters. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph - integer values.  Multirelational. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dataset with starting partition (if any):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A null return will initially place all vertices in a single cluster. For user specified partition enter the name of a data file which contains a partition indicator matrix.  A partition indicator matrix has each row as a separate partition.  Each row is of the form (k1,k2,...,ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to partition ki so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to partition 1 and 3 and 5 to partition 2.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Convert data to geodesic distances: (Default = 'YES')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes performs the analysis on the geodesic distance matrix.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No uses the raw adjacencies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Note for undirected data the partitioning would be trivial and in this case the YES option should be selected. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Diagram Type: (Default = 'Dendrogram')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The clustering diagram can either be a Tree Diagram or a Dendrogram. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Output) Equivalence matrix: (Default = 'CATREGEQUIV').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file which contains actor by actor regular similarity matrix described in LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Output partition matrix: (Default = 'CATREGPART').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Name of file which contains a partition indicator matrix corresponding to the single link hierarchical clustering displayed in the LOG FILE.  A value of k in a row labeled i and column j means that vertex j is in partition k at level i.  Vertex k is always a member of partition k and is a representative label for the group. This matrix is not displayed in the LOG FILE.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOG FILE Single link hierarchical clustering dendrogram (or tree diagram) of the regular similarity measure. The level at which any pair of actors are aggregated is the point at which both can be reached by tracing from the start to the actors from right to left. Each level corresponds to an iteration, level 1 represents the initial clustering specified in PARAMETERS.  The top level gives strict regular equivalence clusters.  The higher the level the greater the degree of regular equivalence The diagram can be printed or saved. Parts of the diagram can be viewed by moving the mouse to the split point in a tree diagram or the beginning of a line in the dendrogram and clicking. The first click will highlight a portion of the diagram and the second click will display just the highlighted portion. To return to the original right click on the mouse. There is also a simple zoom facility simply change the values and then press enter. If the labels need to be edited (particularly the scale labels) then you should take the partition indicator matrix into the spreadsheet editor remove or reduce the labels and then submit the edited data to Tools>Dendrogram>Draw.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Behind the dendrogram is an alternative cluster diagram. The columns have been rearranged and labeled.  A '·' in row labeled i column label j indicates that vertex j is in a singleton cluster at level i.  An 'X' indicates that vertex j is in a non-trivial cluster at level i, all other members of j's cluster are found by tracing along the row labeled i in both directions from column j until a space is encountered in each direction.  The column labels corresponding to an 'X' which are connected to j's X are all members of j's cluster at level i. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    An actor by actor exact similarity matrix.  A k in row i column j means that actor i and j were separated at level k, provided k is less than the value on the diagonal.  If k is equal to the value on the diagonal then i and j are regularly equivalent. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Borgatti S P and Everett M G (1989).  The class of all regular equivalences: algebraic structure and computation.  Social Networks 11, 65-88. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Borgatti S P and Everett M G (1993). Two algorithms for computing regular equivalence, Social Networks 15, 361- 376. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #388$389K390NETWORKS > ROLES > MAX REGULAR > OPTIMIZATION 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPOSE Optimizes a cost function which measures the degree to which a partition forms regularly equivalent sets for binary data using a tabu search method. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Two actors are regularly equivalent if they are equally related to equivalent others.  Given a partition of a network then the partition divides the adjacency matrix into matrix blocks.  In a binary matrix the partition is regular if each block either contains all zeros (a zero block) or at least one 1 in every row and every column (a one-block).  A measure of the extent to which a partition is regular is therefore given by the minimum number of changes required to the elements of the adjacency matrix to satisfy this criteria.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This cost function assumes that any block above a certain specified density will be changed to a one-block and below this density to a zero-block.  The routine attempts to optimize this cost function to try and find the best partition of the vertices into a specified number of blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Number of blocks: (Default = 2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Number of groups or blocks into which the vertices are to be assigned. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Are diagonal values valid: (Default = NO).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Whether diagonals are to be included in cost function. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Maximum # of iterations in a series: (Default = max(2,n/3)).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The algorithm starts from an arbitrary partition and attempts to decrease the cost by taking the steepest descent.  If the cost cannot be reduced then the algorithm continues its search in the neighborhood of the current partition.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This search direction is a mildest ascent direction and from there new search directions are explored.  This exploration only continues for a fixed number of iterations in a series.  If no improvement is made after the fixed number of iterations the algorithm terminates with the current minimum.  Increasing the parameter gives a more exhaustive and therefore slower search. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Length of time in penalty box: (Default = 10).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If the algorithm makes an ascending step then it is possible that the best possible descending step is the reverse of the direction just taken.  This parameter prohibits a move along the reverse direction for a set number of steps.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The larger the value the more difficult it will be to come back to a previously explored local minimum, however it will also be more difficult to explore the vicinity of that minimum.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The default of 10 has been shown experimentally to be the most useful. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Number of random starts: (Default = 10 - 2logn).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The whole procedure is repeated with a different initial partition.  The best of these are then selected as a minimum. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Random Number Seed:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The random number seed generates the initial partition.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat the analysis with different initial configurations.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cut off value for zero blocks: (Default = 0.010).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In evaluation of cost, blocks with density equal to or below this value will be measured from zero-blocks and above this value from one-blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Partition Dataset: (Default = 'RBMPart').

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of output file which contains a partition indicator vector.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to block ki, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to block 1 and, 3 and 5 to block 2.  This vector is not displayed in the LOG FILE. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Output Sets Dataset: (Default = 'RBMSets')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Name of the output file to contain the block by actor incidence matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          LOG FILE The value of the cost function or fit.  A value of zero represents exact regular equivalence. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          List of blocks.  Each block is labeled and is specified by the vertices it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The blocked adjacency matrix.  The rows and columns of the original adjacency matrix are permuted into blocks.  The adjacency matrix is displayed in terms of the matrix blocks it contains. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TIMING Each iteration of the tabu search algorithm is O(N^2). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The algorithm seeks to find the minima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still have a high value in which case the blocking may not conform very closely to regular equivalence.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the minimum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local minima and does not locate the desired global minima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into the reported blocks. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES Glover F (1989).  Tabu Search - Part I.  ORSA Journal on Computing 1, 190-206. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Glover F (1990).  Tabu Search - Part II.  ORSA Journal on Computing 2, 4-32. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Batagelj V, Doreian P and Ferligoj A (1992).  An optimization approach to regular equivalence.  Social Networks 14, 121-135. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #391$392K393NETWORKS > PROPERTIES > TRANSITIVITY 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PURPOSE Gives the density of transitive triples in a network. For valued networks the density of transitive triples defined more generally is given. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Three vertices u,v,w taken from a directed graph are transitive if whenever vertex u is connected to vertex v and vertex v is connected to vertex w then vertex u is connected to vertex w.  The density of transitive tripes is the number of triples which are transitive divided by the number of paths of length 2, i.e. the number of triples which have the potential to be transitive.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This definition can be extended to valued data.  Strong transitivity occurs only if the final edge is stronger than the two in the original path.  This can be relaxed so that the user can define the minimum value of the final edge (weak transitivity).  For distances transitivity can be defined in terms of the number of triples satisfying the triangle inequality, and for probabilities in terms of the product of probabilities of the edges. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Type of transitivity: (Default = ADJACENCY)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Choices are: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Adjacency - A triple xik,xij,xjk is transitive if xik is 1 whenever xij and xjk are both 1. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Strong - A triple xik,xij,xjk is transitive if xik ³ min(xij,xjk). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Weak - A triple xik,xij,xjk is transitive if whenever min(xij,xjk) ³ s then xik ³ w for user-specified s and w. s is the strong tie value and w the weak tie value. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Euclidean - A triple xik,xij,xjk is transitive if xik £ xij + xjk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Stochastic - A triple xik,xij,xjk is transitive if xik ³ xij * xjk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Min  value of Strong tie:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Value of  s for WEAK option described above. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Min value of Weak tie:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Value of w for WEAK option described above. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Output Dataset: (Default = 'Transitivity')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Name of file which will contain value of density of transitivity triples, where the density is the number of transitive triples divided by the number of triples. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LOG FILE Number of non-vacuous transitive triples, number of triples, number of triples in which i -j-k is a path, then the number of non-vacuous transitive triples expressed as a percentage of  number of triples and number of triples in which i -j-k is a path. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TIMING O(N^3). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                COMMENTS For valued data the following choices are recommended: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Similarities - STRONG, WEAK.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Distances, costs, dissimilarities - EUCLIDEAN.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Probabilities, correlations - STOCHASTIC. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #394$395K396NETWORK > PROPERTIES > DENSITY 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PURPOSE Calculate the density of a network or matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION The density of a binary network is the total number of ties divided by the total number of possible ties.  For a valued network it is the total of all values divided by the number of possible ties.  In this case the density gives the average value.  The routine will perform the analysis for non-square matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Input dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Valued graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Utilize diagonal values:  (Default = NO)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For square matrices NO means that diagonal entries are ignored. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Row partitioning / Blocking (if any):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The name of an Ucinet dataset.To partition the rows of the data matrix into blocks, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the rows of the matrix. All rows with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same block of the matrix.  Densities will then be computed separately for each block. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Column partitioning / Blocking (if any):

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The name of an Ucinet dataset.To partition the rows of the data matrix into blocks, specify a blocking vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to sort the rows of the matrix. All rows with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same block of the matrix.  Densities will then be computed separately for each block. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output densities: (Default = 'DENSITY')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of data file which will contain density. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output standard deviations: (Default = 'DENSITYSD')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of data file which will contain the standard deviations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Output pre-image: (Default = 'DENSITYMODEL')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Name of data file which will contain the pre-image matrix. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LOG FILE Density value for each relation. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #397$398NETWORK>PROPERTIES>E-I INDEX 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPOSE Calculate the E-I index of a partition of a network and perform a permutation test to evaluate its significance. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Given a partition of a network into a number of mutually exclusive groups then the E-I index is the number of ties external to the groups minus the number of ties that are internal to the group divided by the total number of ties. This value can range from 1 to -1, but for a given network density and group sizes its range may be restricted and so it can be rescaled. The index is also calculated for each group and for each individual actor. A permutation test is performed to see whether the network E-I index is significantly higher or lower than expected. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Input Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of UCINET dataset to analyzed. Data type: Valued Graph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Attribute

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The name of an UCINET dataset that contains a partition of the actors. To partition the data matrix into groups specify a vector by giving the dataset name, a dimension (either row or column) and an integer value. For example, to use the second row of a dataset called ATTRIB, enter "ATTRIB ROW 2". The program will then read the second row of ATTRIB and use that information to define the groups. All actors with identical values on the criterion vector (i.e. the second row of attrib) will be placed in the same group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of random perms: (Default= 10000)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Number of permutations used in the permutation test. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Diagonal Values Valid (Default = 'NO')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Whether to include the diagonal values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Random Number Seed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The random number seed sets off the random permutations.  UCINET generates a different random number as default each time it is run.  This number should be changed if the user wishes to repeat an analysis.  The range is 1 to 32000. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Output Dataset (Default = IndE-I)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Name of UCINET file that contains the E-I index for each individual actor. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LOG FILE Recoding of the attribute vector used to partition the dataset followed by a blocked density matrix corresponding to the groups. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A table which gives the whole network results, these include the frequencies in the observed data followed by a column that gives these frequencies as a percentage of the total number of ties in the data, the third column gives the maximum possible given the group sizes, the final column headed density gives the observed divided by the maximum possible for the internal and external ties with the final entry in the E-I column giving the value of the E-I index if all the observed ties had been evenly spread within and between the groups ie the expected value. The important values from the table are then reproduced together with the rescaled E-I index. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The results of the permutation test are presented in a table. The observed values are repeated in column 1, the next 4 cols give the minimum, mean, maximum and standard deviation derived from the permutation test. This is followed by the number of times the random test obtains a value greater than or equal to the observed and less than or equal to the observed. This are expressed as a probability and can be used as p values. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A table with the group level ties and E-I index. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Finally a table with the individual ties and E-I index. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            TIMING  O(N) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COMMENTS  None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Krackhardt, David and Robert N. Stern (1988). Informal networks and organizational crises: an experimental simulation. Social Psychology Quarterly 51(2), 123-140. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #399$400NETWORK>PROPERTIES>CLUSTERING COEFFICIENT 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Calculate the clustering coefficient of every actor and the clustering and weighted clustering coefficient of the whole network. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION The clustering coefficient of an actor is the density of its open neighborhood. The overall clustering coefficient is the mean of the clustering coefficient of all the actors. The weighted overall clustering coefficient is the weighted mean of the clustering coefficient of all the actors each one weighted by its degree. This last figure is exactly the same as the transitivity index of each transitive triple expressed as a percentage of the triples in which there is a path from i to j. See NETWORKS>PROPERTIES>TRANSITIVITY.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Input network dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of file containing dataset to be analyzed. Data type: Digraph. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (output) Node-level coefficients (Default = 'ClusteringCoefficients')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Name of UCINET file that will contain the clustering coefficients for each actor together with their degree. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE The overall clustering coefficient and the weighted overall clustering coefficient.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A table with the actor level clustering coefficient together with their degree. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING O(N^2) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Watts D J (1999) Small worlds. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #401$4022-MODE>CATEGORICAL CORE/PERIPHERY 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PURPOSE Uses a genetic algorithm to fit a core/periphery model to two mode data. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Simultaneously fits a core/periphery model to the data network, and identifies which actors belong in the core and which belong in the periphery and which events belong in the core and which events belong in the periphery. The rows and columns are partitioned independently. The fit is simply the correlation between the data matrix and an idealized structure matrix in which there is a one in the core block interactions and a zero in the peripheral block interactions. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of file containing two-mode network to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Row Partition: (Default = 'rowCPpart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of output file which contains a cluster indicator vector for the row partition.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to cluster ki and ki is either 1 or 2 where 1 is the core and 2 is the periphery, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to the core, and 3 and 5 to the periphery.  This vector is not displayed at output. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Column Partition: (Default = 'colCPpart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Name of output file which contains a cluster indicator vector for the column partition.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to cluster ki and ki is either 1 or 2 where 1 is the core and 2 is the periphery, so that (1 1 2 1 2) assigns vertices 1, 2 and 4 to the core, and 3 and 5 to the periphery.  This vector is not displayed at output. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LOG FILE The starting and the final correlation of the ideal structure and the permuted incidence matrix . A blocked incidence matrix dividing the actors and events independently into the core and periphery.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIMING O(N^2) per iteration.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The algorithm seeks to find the maxima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still be a low value in which case the partition may not represent a core/periphery model.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the maximum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local maxima and does not locate the desired global maxima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into a core/periphery structure.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Borgatti SP and Everett M G (1999) Models of core/periphery structures. Social Networks 21 375-395 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Borgatti SP and Everett M G (1997) Network analysis of 2-mode data. Social Networks 19 243-269  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #403$4042-MODE > FACTIONS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PURPOSE Uses a genetic algorithm to simultaneously cluster rows and columns of a 2-mode matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Clusters rows and columns of a 2-mode matrix X by finding a pair of corresponding 2-class partitions such that if row i and column j are in corresponding classes, then we expect xij to be a large value. In contrast, if i and j are not in corresponding classes, then we expect xij to be small. The fit is simply the correlation between the data matrix and an idealized structure matrix in which there are large values within classes and small values between classes.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PARAMETERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Input dataset:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of file containing two-mode network to be analyzed. Data type: Matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Row Partition: (Default = 'rowfactionspart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of output file which contains a cluster indicator vector for the row partition.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to cluster ki and ki is either 1 or 2. This vector is not displayed at output. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Column Partition: (Default = 'colfactionspart')

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Name of output file which contains a cluster indicator vector for the column partition.  This vector has the form (k1,k2,...ki...) where ki assigns vertex i to cluster ki and ki is either 1 or 2. This vector is not displayed at output. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LOG FILE The starting and the final correlation of the ideal structure and the permuted incidence matrix . A blocked incidence matrix dividing the rows and columns independently into two clusters each.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TIMING O(N^2) per iteration.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENTS Care should be taken when using this routine. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The algorithm seeks to find the maxima of the cost function.  Even if successful this result may still be a low value in which case the partition may not have found cohesive clusters.   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In addition there may be a number of alternative partitions which also produce the maximum value;  the algorithm does not search for additional solutions.  Finally it is possible that the routine terminates at a local maxima and does not locate the desired global maxima. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              To test the robustness of the solution the algorithm should be run a number of times from different starting configurations.  If there is good agreement between these results then this is a sign that there is a clear split of the data into subgroups.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See Factions17PGDO..   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES Borgatti SP and Everett M G (1997) Network analysis of 2-mode data. Social Networks 19 243-269. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #405$406K407DL LANGUAGE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The DL Protocol is specified below the commands are given in blue followed by a description of their usage. Examples of importing are given in the UCINET users guide.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DL 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Identifies the file as a Data Language file. This is a required command. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX DL 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Must be the first word in the data file. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Specifies the number of rows and columns in a matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX N = <integer> 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Should be placed before any phrases that can only be interpreted if the number of rows or columns is already known. For example, it should be placed before any command regarding labels. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NR 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Specifies the number of rows in a matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX NR = <integer> 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Should be placed before any commands that depend on the number of rows, such as the ROW LABELS command. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NM 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Specifies the number of matrices in a dataset. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX NM = <integer> 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Should be placed before any commands that depend on the number of matrices, such as the MATRIX LABELS command. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ROW LABELS: 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Indicates the start of a series of row labels. The labels may be up to 18 characters in length (if longer they are truncated). They must be separated by spaces, carriage returns, equal signs or commas. Labels with embedded spaces are not advisable, but can be entered by surrounding the label in quotes (e.g., "Humpty Dumpty"). Labels are automatically converted to uppercase.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX ROW LABELS: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Must not precede a dimension command like N or NR. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COLUMN LABELS: 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Indicates the start of a series of column labels. The labels may be up to 18 characters in length (if longer they are truncated). They must be separated by spaces, carriage returns, equal signs or commas. Labels with embedded spaces are not advisable, but can be entered by surrounding the label in quotes (e.g., "Humpty Dumpty"). Labels are automatically converted to uppercase.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX COLUMN LABELS: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Must not precede a dimension command like N or NC. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LABELS: 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Indicates the start of a series of labels applicable to both the rows and the columns. Warning: The matrix must be square! The labels may be up to 18 characters in length (if longer they are truncated). They must be separated by spaces, carriage returns, equal signs or commas. Labels with embedded spaces are not advisable, but can be entered by surrounding the label in quotes (e.g., "Humpty Dumpty"). Labels are automatically converted to uppercase.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX LABELS: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Must not precede a dimension command like N. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    MATRIX LABELS: 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Signals the start of a series of matrix labels. The labels may be up to 19 characters in length (if longer they are truncated). They must be separated by spaces, carriage returns, equal signs or commas. Labels with embedded spaces are NOT advisable, but can be entered by surrounding the label in quotes (e.g., "Humpty Dumpty"). Labels are automatically converted to uppercase.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX MATRIX LABELS: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS Must not precede a dimension command like NM. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EMBEDDED 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION If present, this keyword always follows the word LABELS, as in ROW LABELS EMBEDDED or LABELS EMBEDDED. It indicates that dimension labels are found embedded in the data itself. For example in the case of ROW LABELS EMBEDDED, it means the first item (up to a blank or comma) in every line of the data is a row label. In the case of COL LABELS EMBEDDED, it indicates that the first line of data should be treated as column labels. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX ROW LABELS EMBEDDED

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COLUMN LABELS EMBEDDED

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    MATRIX LABELS EMBEDDED

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LABELS EMBEDDED 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FORMAT 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Identifies the layout of the data. The following formats are available:   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FULLMATRIX. Indicates the data are in the form of a matrix. This is the default format. Example (with DIAGONAL = PRESENT): 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 2 0 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 2 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 0 0 2 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UPPERHALF. The data consist of the values xij where j > i or j ³ i. Only the values in the upper right triangle of a square matrix are included. The diagonal may or may not be included, depending on the value of the DIAGONAL parameter. Example (with DIAGONAL = PRESENT): 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2 0 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOWERHALF. The data consist of the values xij where j < i or j £ i. Only the values in the lower left triangle of a square matrix are included. The diagonal may or may not be included, depending on the value of the DIAGONAL parameter. Example (with DIAGONAL = PRESENT): 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 0 0 2 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NODELIST1. This is used to read 1/0 matrices only. Each line of data consists of a row number (call it i) followed by a list of column numbers (call each one j) such that xij = 1. For example, the following matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 0 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 0 0 1 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is coded this way: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1  3 2 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4  1 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2  2 4 1 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NODELIST1B. This is used to read 1/0 matrices only. Each line of data corresponds to a matrix row (call it i). The first number on the line is the number of non-zero cells in that row. This is followed by a list of column numbers (call each one j) such that xij = 1. For example, the following matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 0 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 0 0 1 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is coded this way: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3  1 2 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3  1 2 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2  1 4 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Note that rows must appear in numerical order, and none may be skipped (unlike the NODELIST1 format). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EDGELIST1. This format is used to read in data forming a matrix in which the rows and columns refer to the same kinds of objects (e.g., an illness-by-illness proximity matrix, or a person-by-person network). The 1-mode matrix X is built from pairs of indices (a row and a column indicator). Pairs are typed one to a line, with indices separated by spaces or commas. The presence of a pair i,j indicates that there is a link from i to j, which is to say a non-zero value in xij. Optionally, the pair may be followed by a value representing an attribute of the link, such as its strength or quality. If no value is present, it is assumed to be 1.0. If a pair is omitted altogether, it is assigned a value of 0.0. For example, the following matrix,  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 5 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 1 0 0 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is coded this way: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 3  5.0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 4  3.0 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Node labels may be used instead of node numbers, as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Amy  Cathy   5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Denise  Bonnie

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Amy  Denise  3 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    If the datafile includes a LABELS statement with the labels (Amy, Cathy, Bonnie, Denise), in that order, the matrix will look like the matrix shown above. However, if a LABELS statement is not present, then the program will assign labels to rows/columns in the order in which they are encountered {Amy, Cathy, Denise, Bonnie}. So the matrix will look like this: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 3 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 1 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    If you do include labels as part of a LABELS statement, they must match the labels in the data exactly. Otherwise, the labels in the data will be considered additional nodes. Also, since the EDGELIST1 format automatically accepts labels as part of the data, the LABELS=EMBEDDED statement is not necessary (but doesn't hurt).  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EDGELIST2. This is used to read in data forming a matrix in which the rows and columns refer to different kinds of objects (e.g., illnesses and treatments). The 2-mode matrix X is built from pairs of indices (a row and a column indicator). Pairs are typed one to a line, with indices separated by spaces or commas. The presence of a pair i,j indicates that there is a link from row i to column j, which is to say a non-zero value in xij. Optionally, the pair may be followed by a value representing an attribute of the link, such as its strength or quality. If no value is present, it is assumed to be 1.0. If a pair is omitted altogether, it is assigned a value of 0.0. For example, the following matrix,  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 9 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is coded this way: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1  6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 1  3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 2  9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 1  7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 2  4 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The row index is always given first, followed by the column index. Index labels may be used instead of index numbers, as follows: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    afghan size 6

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    beagle size 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chow ferocity 9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    chow size 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    afghan ferocity 4 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    For further details concerning labels, see the description of the EDGELIST1 format. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BLOCKMATRIX. This format is used to read highly structured matrices, such as those representing simple models of real data. Values for blocks of adjacent cells are given. For example, the matrix 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 2 1 1 1 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    is written like this: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rows 1 to 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cols 1 to 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    value = 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rows 1 to 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cols 1 to 5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    value = 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rows 5 6 7 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    cols 5 to 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    value = 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    diagonal 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    value = 2  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The first three lines of data assign a value of 0 to all cells in the matrix. The next three lines, isolate the top left quadrant of the matrix and assign all cells a value of 1. The next three lines do the same for the bottom right quadrant. The last two lines give a value of 2 to every cell along the main or 0th diagonal.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The keywords ROWS, COLUMNS, VALUE, and DIAGONAL may be abbreviated to the first letter. Lists of row and column indices may use conventions like ALL, FIRST <n>, and LAST <n>. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARTITION. This format is used to read collections of partitions, such as pile sorts. For example, the equivalence matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 1 1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 1 1 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 1 1 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 0 0 1 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    are coded as follows: 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    dl n=4 nm=2 format=partition

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    data:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 2 3


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The first line of data ("1 2") indicates that items 1 and 2 belong in the same class or pile. The second line indicates that 3 and 4 belong together. The pound sign (#) separates one partition from another.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX FORMAT = <keyword>

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    where <keyword> is one of the following: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FULLMATRIX|FM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UPPERHALF|UH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LOWERHALF|LH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NODELIST1|NL1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NODELIST2|NL2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NODELIST1B|NL1B

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EDGELIST1|EL1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EDGELIST2|EL2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BLOCKMATRIX|BM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PARTITION|PT|PS|PR 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The vertical bar separates alternative spellings. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DIAGONAL 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION For square matrices, indicates whether the main diagonal is present or absent. The default is present. If absent, the program expects that diagonal values will have been omitted from the file. Example of a 4-by-4 matrix with no diagonal: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 3 4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5   7 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 1   3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 5 6   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SYNTAX DIAGONAL = PRESENT|ABSENT 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMMENTS None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #408$409BERNARD & KILLWORTH FRATERNITY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DATASET BFRAT 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Two 58x58 matrices: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BKFRAB symmetric, valued.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BKFRAC non-symmetric, valued (rankings). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BACKGROUND Bernard & Killworth, later with the help of Sailer, collected five sets of data on human interactions in bounded groups and on the actors' ability to recall those interactions. In each study they obtained measures of social interaction among all actors, and ranking data based on the subjects' memory of those interactions. The names of all cognitive (recall) matrices end in C, those of the behavioral measures in B. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    These data concern interactions among students living in a fraternity at a West Virginia college. All subjects had been residents in the fraternity from three months to three years. BKFRAB records the number of times a pair of subjects were seen in conversation by an "unobtrusive" observer (who walked through the public areas of the building every fifteen minutes, 21 hours a day, for five days). BKFRAC contains rankings made by the subjects of how frequently they interacted with other subjects in the observation week. A value of 1 representing no interaction up to a maximum value of 5. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Bernard H, Killworth P and Sailer L. (1980). Informant accuracy in social network data IV. Social Networks, 2, 191-218. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bernard H, Killworth P and Sailer L. (1982). Informant accuracy in social network data V. Social Science Research, 11, 30-66. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Romney K and Weller S. (1984). Predicting informant accuracy from patterns of recall among individuals. Social Networks, 6, 59-78. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #410$411BERNARD & KILLWORTH HAM RADIO 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DATASET BKHAM 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Two 44x44 matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BKHAMB symmetric, valued.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BKHAMC non-symmetric, valued (rankings). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BACKGROUND Bernard & Killworth, later with the help of Sailer, collected five sets of data on human interactions in bounded groups and on the actors' ability to recall those interactions. In each study they obtained measures of social interaction among all actors, and ranking data based on the subjects' memory of those interactions. The names of all cognitive (recall) matrices end in C, those of the behavioral measures in B. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BKHAMB records amateur HAM radio calls made over a one-month period, as monitored by a voice-activated recording device. BKHAMC contains rankings by the operators of how frequently they talked to other operators, judged retrospectively at the end of the one-month sampling period. A value of 0 meaning no interaction up to a maximum of 9. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES In addition to the references in the previous section, see: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Killworth B and Bernard H. (1976). Informant accuracy in social network data. Human Organization, 35, 269-286. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bernard H and Killworth P. (1977). Informant accuracy in social network data II. Human Communication Research, 4, 3-18. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Killworth P and Bernard H. (1979). Informant accuracy in social network data III. Social Networks, 2, 19-46. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #412$413BERNARD & KILLWORTH OFFICE 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DATASET BKOFF 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Two 40x40 matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BKOFFB symmetric, valued.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BKOFFC non-symmetric, valued (rankings) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BACKGROUND Bernard & Killworth, later with the help of Sailer, collected five sets of data on human interactions in bounded groups and on the actors' ability to recall those interactions. In each study they obtained measures of social interaction among all actors, and ranking data based on the subjects' memory of those interactions. The names of all cognitive (recall) matrices end in C, those of the behavioral measures in B. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                These data concern interactions in a small business office, again recorded by an "unobtrusive" observer. Observations were made as the observer patrolled a fixed route through the office every fifteen minutes during two four-day periods. BKOFFB contains the observed frequency of interactions;  BKOFFC contains rankings of interaction frequency as recalled by the employees over the two-week period. The rankings go from 1 for the most frequent to 39 for the least frequent. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCES See citations to the previous datasets. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #414$415BERNARD & KILLWORTH TECHNICAL 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DATASET BKTEC 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Two 34x34 matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BKTECB symmetric, valued

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BKTECC non-symmetric, valued (rankings). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BACKGROUND Bernard & Killworth, later with the help of Sailer, collected five sets of data on human interactions in bounded groups and on the actors' ability to recall those interactions. In each study they obtained measures of social interaction among all actors, and ranking data based on the subjects' memory of those interactions. The names of all cognitive (recall) matrices end in C, those of the behavioral measures in B. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      These data concern interactions in a technical research group at a West Virginia university. BKTECB contains a frequency record of interactions, made by an observer every half-hour during one five-day work week. BKTECC contains the personal rankings of the remembered frequency of interactions in the same period. The rankings go from 1 for the most frequent up to 36 for the least frequent. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES See citations to the previous datasets. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #416$417DAVIS SOUTHERN CLUB WOMEN 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DATASET DAVIS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION One 18x14 matrix, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BACKGROUND These data were collected by Davis et al in the 1930s. They represent observed attendance at 14 social events by 18 Southern women. The result is a person-by-event matrix: cell (i,j) is 1 if person i attended social event j, and 0 otherwise. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Breiger R. (1974). The duality of persons and groups. Social Forces, 53, 181-190. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Davis, A et al. (1941). Deep South. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #418$419K420OPTIONS > LOGFILE OPTIONS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PURPOSE Toggle output made from over-write to append;  or change the name of the log file. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION The output from running any routine is placed in an ASCII file called OUTPUT.LOG.  It is this file that is used in all of the commands under the menu heading OUTPUT.  This file is usually over-written each time a new routine is run, UCINET does allow the user to append each run to this file and therefore keep a complete log of all output. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PARAMETERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE OVERWRITES or APPENDS: (Default = OVERWRITE).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  OVERWRITE causes the current contents of the log file to be deleted each time a new option from the menu is run. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  APPEND causes the output from each procedure to be added to the log file. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LOG FILE None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIMING Constant. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  COMMENTS None. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES None. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #421$422GAGNON & MACRAE PRISON 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DATASET PRISON 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION One 67x67 matrix, non-symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BACKGROUND In the 1950s John Gagnon collected sociometric choice data from 67 prison inmates. All were asked, "What fellows on the tier are you closest friends with?"  Each was free to choose as few or as many "friends" as he desired. The data were analyzed by MacRae and characterized by him as "less clear cut" in their internal structure than similar data from schools or residential populations. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCE MacRae J. (1960). Direct factor analysis of sociometric data. Sociometry, 23, 360-371. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #423$424KAPFERER MINE 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DATASET KAPMINE 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Two 15x15 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              KAPFMM symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              KAPFMU symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              BACKGROUND Bruce Kapferer (1969) collected data on men working on the surface in a mining operation in Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia). He wanted to account for the development and resolution of a conflict among the workers. The conflict centered on two men, Abraham and Donald;  most workers ended up supporting Abraham. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kapferer observed and recorded several types of interactions among the workers, including conversation, joking, job assistance, cash assistance and personal assistance. Unfortunately, he did not publish these data. Instead, the matrices indicate the workers joined only by uniplex ties (based on one relationship only, KAPFMU) or those joined by multiple-relation or multiplex ties (KAPFMM). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES Kapferer B. (1969). Norms and the manipulation of relationships in a work context. In J Mitchell (ed), Social networks in urban situations. Manchester:  Manchester University Press. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Doreian P. (1974). On the connectivity of social networks. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 3, 245-258. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #425$426KAPFERER TAILOR SHOP 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DATASET KAPTAIL 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION Four 39x39 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KAPFTS1 symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KAPFTS2 symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KAPFTI1 non-symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KAPFTI2 non-symmetric, binary 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BACKGROUND Bruce Kapferer (1972) observed interactions in a tailor shop in Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia) over a period of ten months. His focus was the changing patterns of alliance among workers during extended negotiations for higher wages. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The matrices represent two different types of interaction, recorded at two different times (seven months apart) over a period of one month. TI1 and TI2 record the "instrumental" (work- and assistance-related) interactions at the two times;  TS1 and TS2 the "sociational" (friendship, socioemotional) interactions. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The data are particularly interesting since an abortive strike occurred after the first set of observations, and a successful strike took place after the second. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCE Kapferer B. (1972). Strategy and transaction in an African factory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #427$428KNOKE BUREAUCRACIES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DATASET KNOKBUR 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION Two 10x10 matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KNOKM non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KNOKI non-symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BACKGROUND In 1978, Knoke & Wood collected data from workers at 95 organizations in Indianapolis. Respondents indicated with which other organizations their own organization had any of 13 different types of relationships. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Knoke and Kuklinski (1982) selected a subset of 10 organizations and two relationships. Money exchange is recorded in KNOKM, information exchange in KNOKI. See Knoke & Kuklinski (1982) for details. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES Knoke D. and Wood J. (1981). Organized for action: Commitment in voluntary associations. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Knoke D. and Kuklinski J. (1982). Network analysis, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #429$430KRACKHARDT OFFICE CSS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DATASET KRACKAD non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                KRACKFR symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Each file contains twenty-one 21x21 matrices. Matrix n gives actor n's perception of the whole network. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BACKGROUND David Krackhardt collected cognitive social structure data from 21 management personnel in a high-tech, machine manufacturing firm to assess the effects of a recent management intervention program. The relation queried was "Who does X go to for advice and help with work?" (KRACKAD) and "Who is a friend of X?" (KRACKFR). Each person indicated not only his or her own advice and friendship relationships, but also the relations he or she perceived among all other managers, generating a full 21 by 21 matrix of adjacency ratings from each person in the group. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCE Krackhardt D. (1987). Cognitive social structures. Social Networks, 9, 104-134. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #431$432NEWCOMB FRATERNITY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DATASET NEWFRAT 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION Fifteen 17x17 matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NEWC0 - NEWC15 (except NEWC9) non-symmetric, valued (rankings). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BACKGROUND These 15 matrices record weekly sociometric preference rankings from 17 men attending the University of Michigan in the fall of 1956;  data from week 9 are missing. A "1" indicates first preference, and no ties were allowed. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The men were recruited to live in off-campus (fraternity) housing, rented for them as part of the Michigan Group Study Project supervised by Theodore Newcomb from 1953 to 1956. All were incoming transfer students with no prior acquaintance of one another. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REFERENCES Newcomb T. (1961). The acquaintance process. New York: Holt, Reinhard & Winston. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Nordlie P. (1958). A longitudinal study of interpersonal attraction in a natural group setting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      White H., Boorman S. and Breiger R. (1977). Social structure from multiple networks, I. Blockmodels of roles and positions. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 730-780. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #433$434PADGETT FLORENTINE FAMILIES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DATASET PADGETT and PADGW 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION PADGETT 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Two 16x16 matrices: 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PADGB symmetric binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PADGM symmetric binary 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PADGW 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            One 16x3 matrix, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BACKGROUND Breiger & Pattison (1986), in their discussion of local role analysis, use a subset of data on the social relations among Renaissance Florentine families (person aggregates) collected by John Padgett from historical documents. The two relations are business ties (PADGB - specifically, recorded financial ties such as loans, credits and joint partnerships) and marriage alliances (PADGM). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            As Breiger & Pattison point out, the original data are symmetrically coded. This is acceptable perhaps for marital ties, but is unfortunate for the financial ties (which are almost certainly directed). To remedy this, the financial ties can be recoded as directed relations using some external measure of power - for instance, a measure of wealth. PADGW provides information on (1) each family's net wealth in 1427 (in thousands of lira);  (2) the number of priorates (seats on the civic council) held between 1282-1344; and (3) the total number of business or marriage ties in the total dataset of 116 families (see Breiger & Pattison (1986), p 239). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Substantively, the data include families who were locked in a struggle for political control of the city of Florence in around 1430. Two factions were dominant in this struggle: one revolved around the infamous Medicis (9), the other around the powerful Strozzis (15). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCES Breiger R. and Pattison P. (1986). Cumulated social roles: The duality of persons and their algebras. Social Networks, 8, 215-256. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Kent D. (1978). The rise of the Medici: Faction in Florence, 1426-1434. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #435$436READ HIGHLAND TRIBES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DATASET GAMA 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Two 16-by-16 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GAMAPOS symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GAMANEG symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BACKGROUND Hage & Harary (1983) use the Gahuku-Gama system of the Eastern Central Highlands of New Guinea, described by Read (1954), to illustrate a clusterable signed graph. Read's ethnography portrayed an alliance structure among three tribal groups containing balance as a special case;  among Gahuku-Gama the enemy of an enemy can be either a friend or an enemy. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The signed graph has been split into two matrices: GAMAPOS for alliance ("rova") relations, GAMANEG for antagonistic ("hina") relations. To reconstruct the signed graph, multiply GAMANEG by -1, and add the two matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Hage P. and Harary F. (1983). Structural models in anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (See p 56-60). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Read K. (1954). Cultures of the central highlands, New Guinea. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 10, 1-43. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #437$438ROETHLISBERGER & DICKSON BANK WIRING ROOM 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DATASET WIRING 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Six 14x14 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RDGAM symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RDCON symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RDPOS symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RDNEG symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RDHLP non-symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RDJOB non-symmetric, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BACKGROUND These are the observational data on 14 Western Electric (Hawthorne Plant) employees from the bank wiring room first presented in Roethlisberger & Dickson (1939). The data are better known through a scrutiny made of the interactions in Homans (1950), and the CONCOR analyses presented in Breiger et al (1975). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The employees worked in a single room and include two inspectors (I1 and I3), three solderers (S1, S2 and S3), and nine wiremen or assemblers (W1 to W9). The interaction categories include: RDGAM, participation in horseplay;  RDCON, participation in arguments about open windows;  RDPOS, friendship;  RDNEG, antagonistic (negative) behavior; RDHLP, helping others with work; and RDJOB, the number of times workers traded job assignments. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Breiger R., Boorman S. and Arabie P. (1975). An algorithm for clustering relational data with applications to social network analysis and comparison with multidimensional scaling. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 12, 328-383. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Homans G. (1950). The human group. New York: Harcourt-Brace. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Roethlisberger F. and Dickson W. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #439$440SAMPSON MONASTERY 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DATASET SAMPSON 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Ten 18x18 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPLK1 non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPLK2 non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPLK3 non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPDLK non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPES  non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPDES non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPIN  non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPNIN non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPPR  non-symmetric, valued (rankings)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SAMPNPR non-symmetric, valued (rankings) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              BACKGROUND Sampson recorded the social interactions among a group of monks while resident as an experimenter on vision, and collected numerous sociometric rankings. The labels on the data have the abbreviated names followed by the codings used by Breiger and Boorman in all their work. During his stay, a political "crisis in the cloister" resulted in the expulsion of four monks (Nos. 2, 3, 17, and 18) and the voluntary departure of several others - most immediately, Nos. 1, 7, 14, 15, and 16. (In the end, only 5, 6, 9, and 11 remained). All the numbers used refer to the Boorman and Breiger numbering and are not row or column labels. Hence in the end Bonaventure, Berthold, Ambrose and Louis all remanied. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Most of the present data are retrospective, collected after the breakup occurred. They concern a period during which a new cohort entered the monastery near the end of the study but before the major conflict began. The exceptions are "liking" data gathered at three times: SAMPLK1 to SAMPLK3 - that reflect changes in group sentiment over time (SAMPLK3 was collected in the same wave as the data described below). Information about the senior monks was not included. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Four relations are coded, with separate matrices for positive and negative ties on the relation. Each member ranked only his top three choices on that tie. The relations are esteem (SAMPES) and disesteem (SAMPDES), liking (SAMPLK) and disliking (SAMPDLK), positive influence (SAMPIN) and negative influence (SAMPNIN), praise (SAMPPR) and blame (SAMPNPR). In all rankings 3 indicates the highest or first choice and 1 the last choice. (Some subjects offered tied ranks for their top four choices). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES Breiger R., Boorman S. and Arabie P. (1975). An algorithm for clustering relational data with applications to social network analysis and comparison with multidimensional scaling. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 12, 328-383. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sampson, S. (1969). Crisis in a cloister. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Cornell University. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #441$442SCHWIMMER TARO EXCHANGE 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DATASET TARO 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION One 22-by-22 matrix, symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BACKGROUND These data represent the relation of gift-giving (taro exchange) among 22 households in a Papuan village. Hage & Harary (1983) used them to illustrate a graph Hamiltonian cycle. Schwimmer points out how these ties function to define the appropriate persons to mediate the act of asking for or receiving assistance among group members. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES Hage P. and Harary F. (1983). Structural models in anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Schwimmer E. (1973). Exchange in the social structure of the Orokaiva. New York: St Martins. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #443$444STOKMAN-ZIEGLER CORPORATE INTERLOCKS 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DATASET SZCID, SZCIG 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION SZCID: One 16x16 matrix, symmetric, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SZCIG: One 15-by-15 matrix, symmetric, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BACKGROUND These data come from a six-year research project, concluded in 1976, on corporate power in nine European countries and the United States. Each matrix represents corporate interlocks among the major business entities of two countries - the Netherlands (SZCID) and West Germany (SZCIG). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The volume describing this study, referenced below, includes six chapters on network theoretical and analytical issues related to data of this type. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES Ziegler R., Bender R. and Biehler H. (1985). Industry and banking in the German corporate network. In F. Stokman, R. Ziegler & J. Scott (eds), Networks of corporate power. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1985. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Stokman F., Wasseur F. and Elsas D. (1985). The Dutch network: Types of interlocks and network structure. In F. Stokman, R. Ziegler & J. Scott (eds), Networks of corporate power. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1985. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                #445$446THURMAN OFFICE 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DATASET THUROFF 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DESCRIPTION Two 15x15 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                THURA non-symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                THURM symmetric, binary 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BACKGROUND Thurman spent 16 months observing the interactions among employees in the overseas office of a large international corporation. During this time, two major disputes erupted in a subgroup of fifteen people. Thurman analyzed the outcome of these disputes in terms of the network of formal and informal associations among those involved. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                THURA shows the formal organizational chart of the employees and THURM the actors linked by multiplex ties. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REFERENCE Thurman B. (1979). In the office: Networks and coalitions. Social Networks, 2, 47-63. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      #447$448WOLFE PRIMATES 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DATASET WOLF, WOLFI 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DESCRIPTION WOLF: Two 20x20 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WOLFK non-symmetric, binary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WOLFN symmetric, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WOLFI: One 20x4 matrix, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BACKGROUND These data represent 3 months of interactions among a troop of monkeys, observed in the wild by Linda Wolfe as they sported by a river in Ocala, Florida. Joint presence at the river was coded as an interaction and these were summed within all pairs (WOLFN). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WOLFK indicates the putative kin relationships among the animals: 18 may be the granddaughter of 19. WOLFI contains four columns of information about the individual animals:  (1) ID number of the animal; (2) age in years; (3) sex; (4) rank in the troop. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            #449$450ZACHARY KARATE CLUB 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DATASET ZACHARY 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DESCRIPTION Two 34x34 matrices. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ZACHE symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ZACHC symmetric, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BACKGROUND These are data collected from the members of a university karate club by Wayne Zachary. The ZACHE matrix represents the presence or absence of ties among the members of the club;  the ZACHC matrix indicates the relative strength of the associations (number of situations in and outside the club in which interactions occurred). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zachary (1977) used these data and an information flow model of network conflict resolution to explain the split-up of this group following disputes among the members. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            REFERENCE Zachary W. (1977). An information flow model for conflict and fission in small groups. Journal of Anthropological Research, 33, 452-473. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  #451$452KRACKHARDT HIGH-TECH MANAGERS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DATASET Krack-High-Tec, High-Tec-Attributes 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESCRIPTION Krack-High-Tec Three 21x21matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ADVICE non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FRIENDSHIP non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REPORTS_TO non-symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  High-Tec-Attributes One 21x4 valued matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BACKGROUND These are data collected from the managers of a high-tec company. The company manufactured high-tech equipment on the west coast of the United States and had just over 100 employees with 21 managers. Each manager was asked to whom do you go to for advice and who is your friend, to whom do you report was taken from company documents. In addition attribute information was collected. This consisted of the managers age (in years), length of service or tenure (in years), level in the corporate hierarchy (coded 1,2 and 3; 1=CEO, 2 = Vice President, 3 = manager) and department (coded 1,2,3,4 with the CEO in department 0 ie not in a department). This data is used by Wasserman and Faust in their network analysis book. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES Krackhardt D. (1987). Cognitive social structures. Social Networks, 9, 104-134. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wasserman S and K Faust (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        #453$454FREEMAN'S EIES DATA 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DATASET Freeman's_EIES, Freeman's_EIES_Attribute 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DESCRIPTION Freeman's_EIES Three 34x34 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIME_1 non-symmetric, valued.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TIME_2 non-symmetric, valued.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NUMBER_OF_MESSAGES non-symmetric, valued. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Freeman's_EIES_Attribute One 34x2 valued matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BACKGROUND This data arose from an early experiment on computer mediated communication. Fifty academics interested in interdisciplinary research were allowed to contact each other via an Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES). The data collected consisted of all messages sent plus acquaintance relationships at two time periods (collected via a questionnaire).The data includes the 32 actors who completed the study. In addition attribute data on primary discipline and number of citations was recorded. TIME_1 and TIME_2 give the acquaintance information at the beginning and end of the study. This is coded as follows: 4 = close personal fiend, 3= friend, 2= person I've met, 1 = person I've heard of but not met, and 0 = person unknown to me (or no reply). NUMBER_OF MESSAGES is the total number of messages person i sent to j over the entire period of the study. The attribute data gives the number of citations of the actors work in the social science citation index at the beginning of the study together with a discipline code: 1 = Sociology, 2 = Anthropology, 3 = Mathematics/Statistics, 4 = other. This data is used by Wasserman and Faust in their network analysis book. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REFERENCES Freeman, S C and L C Freeman (1979). The networkers network: A study of the impact of a new communications medium on sociometric structure. Social Science Research Reports No 46. Irvine CA, University of California. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wasserman S and K Faust (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              #455$456COUNTRIES TRADE DATA 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DATASET Trade, Trade_Attribute 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DESCRIPTION Trade Five 24x24 matrices 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MANUFACTURED_GOODS non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FOODS non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CRUDE_MATERIALS non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MINERALS non-symmetric, binary.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              DIPLOMATIC_EXCHANGE non-symmetric, binary. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Trade_Attribute One 24x4 valued matrix. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              BACKGROUND This data has been selected by Wasserman and Faust (1994) from a list of 63 countries given by Smith and White (1988). The selection was intended to be a representative sample of countries which spanned the globe physically, economically and politically and was used by them in their network analysis book. The data records interaction of the countries with respect to trade of four goods, namely:manufactured goods, food and live animals, crude materials (not food) and minerals and fuels. The final matrix records exchange of diplomats between the countries. All trade (including the diplomats) is from the row to the column. The Trade_Attribute data lists average population growth between 1970 and 1981, average GNP growth (per capita) over the same period,  secondary school enrollment ratio in 1981, and energy consumption in 1981 (in kilo coal equivalents per capita). 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REFERENCES Smith D and D White (1988). Structure and dynamics of the global economy: Network analysis of international trade 1965-1980. Unpublished Manuscript. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wasserman S and K Faust (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    #457$458CAMP 92 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DATASET CAMP92 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESCRIPTION One 18x18 valued matrix (rankings) 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BACKGROUND These data were collected by Steve Borgatti, Russ Bernard, Bert Pelto and Gery Ryan at the 1992 NSF Summer Institute on Research Methods in Cultural Anthropology. This was a 3 week course given to 14 carefully selected participants. Network data were collected at the end of each week. These data were collected at the end of the second week. The data were collected by placing each person's name on a card and asking each respondent to sort the cards in order of how much interaction they had with that person since the beginning of the course (known informally as "camp"). This results in rank order data in which a "1" indicates the most interaction while a "17" indicates the least interaction. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REFERENCES None 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          #459$460GALASKIEWICZ'S CEO'S AND CLUBS 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DATASET Galask 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DESCRIPTION One 26x15 affiliation matrix 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BACKGROUND This data gives the affiliation network of 26 CEO's and their spouses of major corporations and banks in the Minneapolis area to 15 clubs, corporate and cultural boards. Membership was during the period 1978-1981. This data is used by Wasserman and Faust.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          REFERENCES Galaskiewicz J (1985). Social Organization of an Urban Grants Economy. New York. Academic Press. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wasserman S and K Faust (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1# Contents

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2$ Contents

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3K Contents

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4# Scribble11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5$ Data->Describe>Import Labels

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6K Labels, Import

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7# 23NRG_

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8$ File ->Delete UCINET File

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9K File, Delete

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10# Scribble17

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11$ File->Rename UCINET File

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12# Scribble18

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13$ File-> Copy UCINET Dataset

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14K File, Rename

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    15# R61FJK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16$ Introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17K Introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18# Scribble30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19$ datasets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    20# Data_Edit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21$ Data -> Edit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    22K Edit;Spreadsheet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23# BCVDVS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24$ Data -> Random -> Matrix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25K Matrices, Random;Random, Matrices

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    26# X0SZYN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    27$ Data -> Random -> Sociometric

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28K Random Sociometric Digraphs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    29# FVNVK4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30$ Data -> Random -> Burnoulli

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31K Bernoulli Random Networks;Random networks from Bernoulli distribution

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32# 6MBX.OF

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    33$ Data -> Random -> Multinomial

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    34K Multinomial Random Networks;Random networks (Multinomial);Random networks from User defined probabilities;User defined random networks

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    35# 42IWBU9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36$ Data -> Import >DL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37K Data, Importing (DL, Ucinet 3.0, Raw);Importing DL files;Importing Raw files;Importing Ucinet 3.0 files

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    38# Scribble1052

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39$ DATA > IMPORT>MULTIPLE DL FILES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40# Scribble1055

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41$ DATA > IMPORT > PAJEK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    42# FH1LSL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    43$ Data -> Import (Krackplot)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    44K Data, Importing (Krackplot);Importing Krackplot files

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    45# Scribble1061

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46$ DATA > IMPORT>VNA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    47# Scribble1062

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    48$ DATA > IMPORT>RAW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    49# Scribble1064

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50$ DATA > IMPORT>EXCEL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    51# Scribble1065

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    52$ Data > Import > Negopy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53K Negopy files; Importing, Negopy files; Data, Importing Negopy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    54# 13.XSV

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    55$ Data -> Export >DL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    56K Data, Exporting (DL, Raw);Exporting DL files;Exporting Raw files

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57# Scribble1072

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    58$ DATA>EXPORT >KRACKPLOT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    59# Scribble1074

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60$ DATA>EXPORT >MAGE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61# Scribble1075

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62$ DATA>EXPORT > PAJEK > NETWORK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    63# Scribble1077

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64$ DATA>EXPORT > PAJEK > CATEGORICAL ATTRIBUTE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    65# Scribble1079

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    66$ DATA>EXPORT > PAJEK > QUANTITATIVE ATTRIBUTE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67# Scribble1083

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    68$ DATA>EXPORT > METIS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    69# Scribble1084

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    70$ DATA > EXPORT>RAW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    71# 1GE_ZSR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    72$ Data -> Export -> Ucinet 3.0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73K Data, Exporting (Ucinet 3.0);Exporting Ucinet 3.0 files

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    74# Scribble1086

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    75$ Data->Export>Excel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    76K Data,Export,Excel

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    77# 1RDS4U

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78$ Data -> Attribute

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79K Attribute data;Create a network from attribute data;Data, Attribute

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80# EWTGD5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81$ Data -> Affiliations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82K Affiliations;Create a network from affiliation data;Data, Affiliations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    83# Data_CSS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    84$ Data -> CSS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    85K CSS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    86# 19OIV8O

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    87$ Data -> Display

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    88K Datasets,Displaying;Displaying Datasets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    89# DZ05J3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    90$ Data -> Describe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    91K Datasets, Describing;Describing Datasets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    92# G4RLJE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    93$ Data -> Extract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    94K Datasets, extract;Extract datasets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    95# Scribble1142

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    96$ DATA >EXTRACT MAIN COMPONENT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    97# Scribble1144

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    98$ DATA>SUBGRAPHS FROM PARTITIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    99# Scribble1145

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100$ Data -> Egonet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    101# Scribble1147

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    102$ DATA >REMOVE ISOLATES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    103# Scribble1149

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    104$ DATA >REMOVE PENDANTS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    105# Scribble1150

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    106$ DATA > UNPACK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    107# Scribble1160

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    108$ DATA>JOIN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    109# Scribble1170

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    110$ DATA > PERMUTE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    111# Scribble1180

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    112$ DATA > SORT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    113# _18W94

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    114$ Data -> Transpose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    115K Data, transpose;Transposing datasets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    116# Data_Sets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    117$ Data ->Partition to Sets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    118K Data, Partition to sets;Data, Sets;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    119# U8GU5C

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    120$ Data -> Reshape

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    121K Data, reshape;Reshaping datasets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    122# 2Q420H_

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    123$ Data -> Create Node Sets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    124K Data, Create Node Sets;Node Sets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    125# Transform_Block

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    126$ Transform -> Block Image

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    127K Block Image;Partition into blocks;Transform, Block

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    128# 55.H.N

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    129$ Transform -> Collapse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    130K Collapse;Transform, Collapse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    131# 1JHUPID

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    132$ Transform -> Recode

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    133K Recode;Transform, Recode

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    134# 1KOKZC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    135$ Transform -> Reverse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    136K Reverse;Transform, Reverse

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    137# ALLO20

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    138$ Transform -> Dichotomize

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    139K Dichotomize;Transform, Dichotomize

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    140# THT336

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    141$ Transform -> Diagonal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    142K Transform;Transform, Diagonal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    143# 6BZ4MO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    144$ Transform -> Symmetrize

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    145K Symmetrize;Transform, Symmetrize

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    146# 1MMZZRM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    147$ Transform -> Normalize

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    148K Normalize;Transform, Normalize

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    149# Scribble2085

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    150$ Transform>Arithmetic operations>Within datasets>Aggregations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    151# Scribble2087

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    152$ Transform>Arithmetic operations>Within datasets>Aggregations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    153# L0X.1V

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    154$ Transform -> Bipartite

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    155K Bipartite;Transform, Bipartite

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    156# 3UWQ.K

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    157$ Transform -> Incidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    158K Converting adjacency matrix to incidence matrix;Incidence matrix;Transform, Incidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    159# I9SXPX

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    160$ Transform -> Linegraph

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    161K Line graph;Transform, Line graph

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    162# 388HKD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    163$ Transform -> Multigraph

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    164K Binary graphs;Multigraph;Transform, Multigraph

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    165# 7GQ5GR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    166$ Transform -> Multiplex

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    167K Converts a multirelational graph into a multiplex graph;Multiplex graph;Transform, Multiplex

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    168# 2N78POP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    169$ Transform -> Semigroup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    170K Digraph;Multirelation graph;Semigroups;Transform, Semigroup

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    171# 12UGZOC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    172$ Tools -> MDS -> Metric

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    173K Multidimensional Scaling Metric;Scaling, MDS, Metric

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    174# 165LOZ0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    175$ Tools -> MDS -> Non-Metric

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    176K Multidimensional Scaling Non-Metric;Scaling, MDS, Non-Metric

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    177# 3J.X0E

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    178$ Tools -> Cluster -> Hierarchical

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    179K Cluster;Cluster, Hierarchical;Hierarchical Clustering;Johnson's Hierarchical Clustering

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    180# 2CVTID

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    181$ Tools -> Cluster -> Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    182K Cluster;Cluster, Optimisation;Clustering;Clustering, Hierarchical

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    183# KOQFGA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    184$ Tools -> 2 mode -> SVD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    185K Mode, SVD;SVD;Tools, 2 Mode, SVD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    186# C_KCHZ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    187$ Tools -> 2 mode -> Factor Analysis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    188K Factor Analysis;Tools, 2 mode, Factor Analysis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    189# GSDEZM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    190$ Tools -> 2 mode -> Correspondence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    191K Correspondence Analysis;Scaling, Correspondence;Tools, 2 mode, correspondence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    192# 0XWX4H

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    193$ Tools -> Similarities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    194K Similarities;Tools, Similarites

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    195# 157BH3O

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    196$ Tools -> Dissimilarities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    197K Dissimilarities;Tools, Dissimilarities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    198# XXUPYB

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    199$ Tools -> Stats -> Univariate

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    200K Tools, Univariate;Univariate Statistics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    201# 1Q0RKW5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    202$ Tools -> Stats -> Matrix -> QAP-Correlation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    203K QAP Correlation;Stats, Qap Correlation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    204# 423UDI3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    205$ Tools -> Stats -> Matrix -> QAP-Regression

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    206K QAP Regression;Stats, Qap-Regression

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    207# Scribble3112

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    208$ TOOLS > STATISTICS > AUTOCORRELATION > CATEGORICAL > JOIN COUNT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    209# Scribble3116

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    210$ TOOLS > STATISTICS > AUTOCORRELATION > CATEGORICAL > CONTIGENCY TABLE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    211# XVF8ZJ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    212$ Tools -> Stats -> Autocorr -> Categorical -> Anova / Density

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    213K Autocorrelation, Categorical;Categorical

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    214# 63TL1U

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    215$ Tools > Statistics > Autocorrelation > Interval/Ratio

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    216K Autocorrelation, Quantitative;Quantitative

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    217# 1OY.6X0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    218$ Tools -> Stats -> Vector -> Regression

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    219K Regression;Stats, Regression

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    220# 1FMJCH0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    221$ Tools -> Stats -> Vector -> Anova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    222K Anova;Stats, Anova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    223# 7N80AX

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    224$ Tools -> Stats -> Vector -> TTest

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    225K Stats, TTest;TTest

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    226# Scribble3162

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    227$ Tools>stats>Compare Densities>Paired

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    228# Scribble3165

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    229$ TOOLS > STATISTICS >COMPARE>DENSITIES>THEORETICAL PARAMETER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    230# Scribble3167

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    231$ TOOLS>STATISTICS>COMPARE AGGREGATE PROXIMITY MATRICES>

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    232# Scribble3169

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    233$ TOOLS>STATISTICS>COMPARE AGGREGATE PROXIMITY MATRICES>

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    234# 1VKP_Z4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    235$ Tools -> Stats -> P1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    236K P1;Stochastic, P1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    237# CN_B.2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    238$ Tools > Matrix -> Algebra

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    239K Algebra Package;Matrix Algebra Package;Tools, Matrix, Algebra

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    240# H4E5Y_

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    241$ Tools -> Scatterplot -> Draw

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    242K Scatterplot;Tools, Scatterplot

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    243# LQ07JD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    244$ Tools -> Scatterplot Review

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    245K Review;Scatterplot, Review

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    246# 0EIW7Z

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    247$ Tools -> Dendrogram -> Draw

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    248K Dendrogram;Tools, Dendrogram

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    249# 3Z9RMZ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    250$ Tools -> Dendrogram -> Review

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    251K Dendrogram, Review;Review

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    252# Transformer_Functions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    253$ UNIARY OPERATIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    254K Algebra, Uniary Operations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    255# Between_Functions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    256$ BINARY OPERATIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    257K Algebra, Binary Operations;Binary Operations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    258# Within_Functions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    259$ INNER PRODUCTS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    260K Algebra, Within Functions;Within Functions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    261# Procedures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    262$ Procedures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    263K Algebra, Procedures;Procedures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    264# 2CQC8Q

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    265$ Network -> Cohesion -> Distance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    266K Cohesion, Distance;Distance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    267# Scribble4005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    268$ Network->Cohesion>No. of Geodesics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    269K Geodesic; Shortest Path

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    270# 1SBLQHA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    271$ Network -> Cohesion -> Reachability

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    272K Cohesion, Reachability;Reachability;Reachability values

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    273# 3G02W15

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    274$ Network -> Cohesion -> Max Flow

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    275K Cohesion, Flow;Flow;Maximum flow;Minimum cut

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    276# Scribble4025

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    277$ Network > Cohesion > Point Connectivity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    278# L1VTGD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    279$ Network -> Regions -> Components

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    280K Components;Regions, Components

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    281# Scribble4035

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    282$ Network->Regions->Components>Valued Graphs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    283# 2308NT4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    284$ Network -> Regions -> Bicomponents

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    285K Bicomponents;Regions,Bicomponents

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    286# 6MMPFP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    287$ Network -> Regions -> K-Core

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    288K K-Cores;Regions, K-Core

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    289# GIHZ2H

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    290$ Networks -> Subgroups -> Cliques

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    291K Cliques;Subgroups, Cliques

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    292# ATTEPV

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    293$ Networks -> Subgroups -> N-Cliques

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    294K N-Cliques;Subgroups, N-Cliques

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    295# 13_T_V_

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    296$ Networks -> Subgroups -> N-Clan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    297K N-Clan;Subgroups, N-Clan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    298# 1PDB_FW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    299$ Networks -> Subgroups -> K-Plex

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    300K K-Plex;Subgroups, K-Plex

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    301# TNJ1TT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    302$ Networks -> Subgroups -> Lambda Sets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    303K Lambda Sets;Subgroups, Lambda Sets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    304# 17PGDO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    305$ Networks -> Subgroups -> Factions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    306K Factions;Subgroups, Factions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    307# Scribble4115

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    308$ NETWORK >SUBGROUPS >F-GROUPS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    309# 14U2RGZ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    310$ Networks -> Ego Networks -> Density

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    311K Density;Ego Networks, Density

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    312# Scribble4126

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    313$ Networks > Ego Networks > Structural Holes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    314K Structural Holes; Ego networks, structural holes; constraint; redundancy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    315# 3AVA_ZR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    316$ Networks -> Centrality -> Degree

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    317K Centrality, Degree;Degree

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    318# OEKY47

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    319$ Networks -> Centrality -> Closeness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    320K Centrality, Closeness;Closeness;Farness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    321# PVN0N9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    322$ Networks -> Centrality -> Betweeness>Nodes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    323K Betweeness;Centrality, Betweeness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    324# Scribble4152

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    325$ Networks > Centrality > Reach Centrality

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    326# Scribble4155

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    327$ NETWORK > CENTRALITY > BETWEENNESS >LINES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    328# Scribble4156

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    329$ NETWORK > CENTRALITY > BETWEENNESS >HIERARCHICAL REDUCTION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    330# Scribble4157

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    331$ Networks -> Ego Networks -> Brokerage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    332K brokerage; Gould; coordinator; consultant; liaison; gatekeeper; representative

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    333# 1LI6NW4

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    334$ Networks -> Centrality -> Flow Betweeness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    335K Centrality, Flow Betweeness;Flow betweeness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    336# 24D9ZJJ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    337$ Networks -> Centrality -> Eigenvector

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    338K Centrality, Eigenvector;Eigenvector

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    339# 2AHTPD8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    340$ Networks -> Centrality -> Power

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    341K Bonacich Power;Centrality, Bonacich Power

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    342# 3LZBKIP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    343$ Networks -> Centrality -> Influence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    344K Centrality, Influence;Centrality,Hubbel;Centrality,Katz;Influence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    345# 76WQ.E

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    346$ Networks -> Centrality -> Information

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    347K Centrality, Information;Information;Stephenson and Zelen information centrality measure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    348# Scribble4212

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    349$ Networks > Centrality > Multiple Measures

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    350# Scribble4215

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    351$ GROUP > CENTRALITY > DEGREE > FIND

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    352# Scribble4217

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    353$ GROUP > CENTRALITY > DEGREE > TEST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    354# 1GL1DJ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    355$ Networks -> Core/Periphery -> Coreness

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    356K Coreness;Core/Periphery,Continuous model;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    357# A8LAPO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    358$ Networks -> Core/Periphery -> Partition

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    359K Categorical;Core/Periphery,categorical;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    360# 67XK_R

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    361$ Networks -> Roles -> Structural Equivalence -> Profile Similarity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    362K Profile Similarity;Structural Equivalence, Profile Similarity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    363# LF_V5J

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    364$ Networks -> Roles -> Structural Equivalence -> Concor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    365K Concor;CONvergence of iterated CORrelations (Concor);Structural Equivalence, Concor

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    366# Scribble4255

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    367$ NETWORKS>ROLES & POSITIONS>STRUCTURAL EQUIVALENCE>OPTIMISATION>BINARY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    368# 19MEPQK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    369$ Networks ->Roles& Positions -> Structural Equivalence -> Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    370K Structural Equivalence, Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    371# 7FC_M

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    372$ Networks -> Roles -> Exact -> Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    373K Exact, Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    374# Scribble4285

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    375$ NETWORKS>ROLES&POSITIONS>AUTOMORPHIC>ALL PERMUTATIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    376# 1AR.P.G

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    377$ Networks -> Roles -> Regular Equivalence -> ExCatRege

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    378K Categorical;Regular Equivalence, Catergorical; Exact Regular Equivalence, ExCatRege

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    379# HMOYXH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    380$ Network -> Roles ->Exact->MAXSIM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    381K Maxsim;Roles, Exact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    382# CA_62B

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    383$ Networks -> Roles -> Max Regular -> Rege

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    384K Continuous;Regular Equivalence, Rege

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    385# 1AR.P.G

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    386$ Networks -> Roles -> Regular Equivalence -> CatRege

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    387K Categorical;Regular Equivalence, Catergorical;Regular Equivalence, CatRege

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    388# 5V5D_NE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    389$ Networks -> Roles -> Max Regular -> Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    390K Regular Equivalence, Optimisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    391# 18MS9T

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    392$ Networks -> Properties -> Transitivity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    393K Properties, Transitivity;Transitive triples;Transitivity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    394# G75BZO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    395$ Networks -> Properties -> Density

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    396K Density;Properties, Density

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    397# Scribble4360

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    398$ NETWORK>PROPERTIES>E-I INDEX

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    399# Scribble4370

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    400$ NETWORK>PROPERTIES>CLUSTERING COEFFICIENT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    401# Scribble4380

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    402$ 2-MODE>CATEGORICAL CORE/PERIPHERY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    403# Scribble4390

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    404$ 2-Mode > Factions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    405# .YXWXN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    406$ dl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    407K DL, data language, import

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    408# Scribble5010

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    409$ BERNARD & KILLWORTH FRATERNITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    410# Scribble5020

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    411$ BERNARD & KILLWORTH HAM RADIO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    412# Scribble5025

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    413$ BERNARD & KILLWORTH OFFICE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    414# Scribble5027

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    415$ BERNARD & KILLWORTH TECHNICAL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    416# Scribble5029

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    417$ DAVIS SOUTHERN CLUB WOMEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    418# 17LQ8UO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    419$ Options -> Logfile Options

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    420K Logfile, Options;Options, Logfile

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    421# Scribble5031

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    422$ GAGNON & MACRAE PRISON

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    423# Scribble5041

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    424$ KAPFERER MINE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    425# Scribble5051

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    426$ KAPFERER TAILOR SHOP

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    427# Scribble5061

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    428$ KNOKE BUREAUCRACIES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    429# Scribble5071

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    430$ KRACKHARDT OFFICE CSS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    431# Scribble5081

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    432$ NEWCOMB FRATERNITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    433# Scribble5091

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    434$ PADGETT FLORENTINE FAMILIES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    435# Scribble5101

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    436$ READ HIGHLAND TRIBES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    437# Scribble5111

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    438$ ROETHLISBERGER & DICKSON BANK WIRING ROOM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    439# Scribble5121

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    440$ SAMPSON MONASTERY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    441# Scribble5131

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    442$ SCHWIMMER TARO EXCHANGE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    443# Scribble5141

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    444$ STOKMAN-ZIEGLER CORPORATE INTERLOCKS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    445# Scribble5151

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    446$ THURMAN OFFICE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    447# Scribble5161

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    448$ WOLFE PRIMATES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    449# Scribble5171

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    450$ ZACHARY KARATE CLUB

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    451# Scribble5181

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    452$ KRACKHARDT HIGH-TECH MANAGERS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    453# Scribble5191

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    454$ FREEMAN'S EIES DATA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    455# Scribble5201

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    456$ COUNTRIES TRADE DATA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    457# Scribble5206

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    458$ CAMP 92

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    459# Scribble5211

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    460$ Galaskiewicz's CEO's

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