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30  Word Definition Sample Item Source  
31  accurate correct Why is an accurate measurement necessary? Sciencesaurus  
32  advantage a factor or circumstance that benefits its possessor Describe an advantage camels have over many other animals that enables them to survive long in the desert. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/advantage  
33  analyze to separate something into its parts in order to examine them; to study or examine carefully Analyze the problem for possible solutions. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
34  apparent appearing such, but not necessarily so; seeming What is the cause of the apparent movement of the sun throughout the day? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry  
35  assess determine the value, significance, or extent of; appraise Assess the proposed solution to the erosion problem by identifying one benefit and one drawback. http://www.thefreedictionary.com  
36  balance 1.  device used to measure mass; it works by balancing an "unknown" with a standard mass that is known   2.  a state of equilibrium, as in an ecosystem 1.  What is the mass of the beaker shown on the balance?      2.  How will the introduction of a new predator affect the balance of organisms in the forest ecosystem? Physical Science [p.708], Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, M. Thompson, C. McLaughlin & R. Smith, 1995  
37  bar graph A graph which answers the question: "What is the measurement for each item?"  Note:  a bar graph is appropriate when each item is has a discrete or categorical value . Use the data in your data table to construct a bar graph of the experiment's results. http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/discussions/HistogramsVsBarGraph/  
38  beneficial providing benefits or advantages Describe one way a mutation might be beneficial to an organism. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
39  bias a mental leaning, inclination, or prejudice Describe one method scientists used to prevent bias in their experiment. Comm Arts Glossary  
40  calculate to ascertain by computation; reckon Calculate the area of the circle below. http://www.answers.com/  
41  category a collection of things sharing a common attribute Be sure to include category labels on the horizontal axis. http://wordnet.princeton.net  
42  characteristic A feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait. Identify two characteristics of the plant. http://www.answers.com/  
43  chart a visual display of information Examine the chart below and identify the surface with the least friction. http://wordnet.com  
44  classify to arrange in classes or categories Examine the rock in the picture and classify it as igneous or sedimentary.  Justify your answer. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
45  composed to form by continuum, make up Table salt is composed of which two elements? Merriam-Webster  
46  compare to examine the character or qualities of especially in order to discover resemblances or differences Compare the hand skeleton of the whale and the hand skeleton of the human, describing two ways they are similar. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
47  compass rose a symbol on a compass or map that is circular with graded points for the directions; also called rose Use the compass rose to identify where the tree is in relation to the house. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
48  component one element of a larger system A hardware component can be a device as small as a transistor. www.answers.com  
49  conclusion The result or outcome of an act or process.  Use the data table and the graph above to write an appropriate conclusion for this experiment. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/conclusion  
50  conduct to do, manage, or lead What equipment will be needed when you conduct your experiment? www.answers.com/topic/conduct  
51  confirm to support or establish the certainty or validity of Does the data from the experiment confirm Linda's conclusion? http://www.thefreedictionary.com/confirm  
52  constants [in experimental design] all factors that remain the same and have a fixed value, for example, amount of light and water Identify two other variables that will need to be held constant in order for the experiment to be valid. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
53  contrast  
Identify the degree of difference 
Contrast the physical adaptations of the snowshoe hare compared to the dessert hare. http://www.accessscience.com/search     McGraw-Hill  Encyclopedia of science and technology on-line  
54  contribute to give or supply in common with others; to help bring about a result How did the work of Mendel contribute to our understanding of inheritance? www.thefreedictionary.com  
55  control a standard of comparison for checking the results of an experiment The control in the experiment on the effect of different fertilizers was the group of plants grown with no fertilizer at all. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
56  controlled (experiment) an investigation that holds all factors the same except for the independent variable; a "fair test" Why is a controlled experiment essential in determining cause and effect?    
57  construct to make or form by combining or arranging parts or elements Identify two materials birds might use to construct a nest. http:www.m-w.com/dictionary  
58  credible sources (credible) offering reasonable grounds for being believed; (source) a point of origin or procurement Of the following list, which is the most credible source for information about global warming: Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
59  credit To bring honor or distinction to  Watson and Crick are given credit for the description of how DNA molecules are formed. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/credit  
60  cultural perspectives a point of view or way of looking at things based on the ideas, skills, arts, tools and way of life of a certain people at a certain time The cultural perspective of scientists often influences the questions asked or methods used in research. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
61  daily happening every day The data was collected daily. www.answers.com/topic/daily  
62  data the pieces of observable information collected in an investigation Identify the data that Tom and Susan would need to collect in their experiment. ScienceSaurus p. 449, 10. Wilmington, MA:Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
63  data table A chart made of columns and rows for recording information Construct a data table that could be used to record the data from your experiment. ScienceSaurus p 450  
64  demonstrate To present by experiments, examples, or practical application; explain or illustration. 
Describe how Kim might demonstrate the effect of friction on the speed of a toy car. http://www.answers.com/  
65  dependent variable the variable that responds [in an experiment], for example, height of bean plants Identify the dependent variable in Kim's experiment on the effect of friction on speed. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
66  depend  to be controlled or determined by; to rely upon Scientists depend on the control of an experiment to ensure they can determine the effect of the experimental variable. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
67  describe to represent or give an account of in words; to give an account of something by giving details of its characteristics Describe how Kim might demonstrate the effect of friction on the speed of a toy car. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
68  design constraint something that limits the design or plan within certain parameters With the following design constraints, demonstrate how friction affects the motion of an object.    
69  design 1. to conceive or fashion in the mind; invent     2. to formulate a plan for; devise Design an experiment that would test your hypothesis. http://www.answers.com/  
70  detrimental causing damage or harm; injurious Describe one way a mutation might be detrimental to the survival of an organism. http://www.thefreedictionary.com  
71  development 1.  the act of developing  2.  the state of being developed Describe the development of the frog from an egg to an adult. http://www.thefreedictionary.com  
72  devices pieces of equipment or mechanisms designed to serve special purposes Identify a device for measuring the weight of an object http:www.m-w.com/dictionary  
73  diagram a drawing, plan, or chart that helps explain a thing by showing all its parts, how it is put together, or how it works Make a diagram to show how a sedimentary rock might form. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
74  differences Noticeable changes or effects  Describe two differences between the young and the adult Monarch butterfly. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/difference  
75  differentiate to make a distinction between Differentiate between a carnivore and an herbivore. http://www.answers.com/  
76  digital of, pertaining to, or using data in the form of numerical digits Which is easier to read, a digital scale or a balance scale?  Explain your reasoning. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
77  discovery the act or process of discovering; something discovered The discovery of the mid-Atlantic rift system provided support for the theory of Plate Tectonics. www.m-W.com/dictionary  
78  distinguish To perceive as being different or distinct; to be aware of a difference between two or more groups or things; to show that two or more groups or things are different from each other What are two ways scientists distinguish  between plants and animals? http://www.answers.com/  
79  enhance heighten or intensify qualities, powers, value; improve (something already of good quality) Rosiland Franklin's x-rays of DNA enhanced Watson's and Crick's understanding of DNA. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
80  equal arm balance an instrument for determining weight, typically by the equilibrium of a bar with a fulcrum Use the equal arm balance to determine the mass of the object. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
81  equipment the clothes, machines, tools etc. necessary for a particular kind of work or activity Name two pieces of equipment that would be necessary to conduct the experiment above. Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary (Beta Version)  
82  errors in observation Incorrect or false knowledge due to the act or noting or recording something                                The odd results in Trial 3 could be the result of errors in observation.  How do multiple trials help minimize the effects of these kinds of errors? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/search;_ylt=AofryA.Pf.WroYo9WNJgbuqqgMMF?p=errors  
83  estimate to determine roughly the size, extent, or nature of How do scientists use sampling to estimate the number of hawks in Missouri? Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
84  ethical being in accordance with accepted principles of right and wrong that govern the conduct of a group of people Did the way the scientists conducted the experiment raise any ethical concerns? www.answers.com  
85  evaluate to consider or examine something in order to judge its value, quality, importance, extent or condition Read through Liam's experimental procedure and evaluate whether or not it will produce valid results. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
86  Evidence Information that helps you figure out whether or not something is true; observable support for an explanation, inference or prediction Describe two pieces of evidence for the theory of Plate Tectonics. "Word Mastery Series Essential Words Glossary SCIENCE.  New Leaf Publication. 2005. ISBN: 0-9764217-3-9. page 2  
87  experiment a scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis Write a new question that could be the basis of a scientific experiment. Sciencesaurus  
88  explanation Something that explains; a statement made to clarify something and makes it understandable What is a possible explanation for the unusual results in Trial 3? Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
89  extension an additional part of anything How do the extensions of a jellyfish help it capture food? Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
90  extrapolate to infer an unknown from something that is known Students should be able to use their line graph to extrapolate the next data point. www.dictionary.com  
91  fair test a test in which everything about the things being tested is equal, except the item being tested Why is it important that scientists conduct a fair test? www.curriuculumonline.ie/index.asp  
92  faulty reasoning forming an imperfect conclusion People who once believed the Earth was flat were guilty of faulty reasoning. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
93  finite having bounds; limited There is a finite amount of fossil fuels on the planet. www.answers.com  
94  formulate To devise or invent; to express or communicate something carefully or in specific words Formulate a reasonable hypothesis for the experiment you have designed. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2002.  
95  frequency 2. rate of occurrence  3. Physics: a. the number of periods or regularly occurring events of any given kind in a unit of time, usually in one second, b. the number of cycles or completed alternations per unit of time of a wave or oscillation 2. In a hybrid cross, what is the frequency of black-coated guinea pigs to white-coated guinea pigs?   3.  Examine the electromagnetic spectrum in the picture and compare the frequency of red visible light and blue visible light. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
96  function 2.  what something is used for; "the function of an auger is to bore holes"  3. the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; "the function of a teacher"   7. serve a purpose, role, function; "The table functions as What is the function of the liver in the human body? wordnet.princeton.edu  
97  gender the property of belonging to a certain class such as a person's sex The father determines the gender of a human. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
98  graduated cylinder a tall narrow container with a volume scale used especially for measuring liquids Record the volume shown in the graduated cylinder above. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
99  grid 1.  a pattern of regularly spaced horizontal and vertical lines  [do we need the others?] Use the grid below to construct a line graph with the data from the experiment. WordNet*3.0, c. 2006 by Princeton University  
100  hand lens a lens that makes the item seen through it look larger; magnifying glass Use the hand lens to make observations of the penny. Merriam-Webster  
101  horizontal [X] axis the line along the bottom of a graph on which the scale for the independent variable is placed Label the horizontal axis. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
102  hypothesis a prediction about the relationship between the variables that can be tested, for example, If older compost is applied, then plant growth will be increased Write a reasonable hypothesis for the question you have suggested. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
103  illustrate give one or more concise examples; provide a visual feature intended to explain Which pair of organisms above illustrates commensalism? http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
104  identify choose, select, name Identify the producer in the food chain.  Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
105  Independent variable the variable that is purposefully changed by the experimenter, such as age of compost Identify the independent variable in Kim's experiment on the effect of friction on speed. ScienceSaurus  
106  Individual Existing as a distinct entity 
Identify the individual simple machine in the complex machines above. http://www.answers.com/  
107  infer To conclude from evidence or premises.  To reason from circumstance    Examine the jaw and teeth of this animal.  What can you infer about the food the animal eats? www.thefreedictionary.com  
108  influence to affect the nature, development or condition of; modify Explain how choosing a grass plot to study by something other than random selection could influence the results. www.answers.com  
109  interact act reciprocally: act on each other How do the fox and the wolf interact within their habitat? Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
110  interpret to explain the meaning of; to understand in one's own way Interpret the data in the data table above. Sciencesaurus  
111  intrinsic inherent, relating to the essential nature of a thing All metals have the intrinsic ability to bend. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
112  investigation A detailed inquiry or systematic examination     Write a testable question that could be the basis of a new investigation. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/investigation  
113  justify to demonstrate or prove to be just, right, or valid     Synonym: warrant Do you think recycling is necessary?  Justify your opinion. www.thefreedictionary.com  
114  key a legend that explains the coding used to distinguish between graphic representations of multiple variables on a single graph Be sure to provide a key for your graph.    
115  label Noun:  3. a word or phrase indicating that what follows belongs in a particular category or classification [we need the definition for a verb also]                                 Verb:  1. To attach a label to   2.  To identify or designate with a label Draw arrows from the labels to the simple machines they match.  Or   Label the reproductive parts of the flower in the diagram. Noun:  Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)                          Verb:  The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition  
116  law A statement describing a relationship observed to be invariable between or among phenomena for all cases in which the specific conditions are met: the law of gravity Newton's laws of motion let us predict how objects will behave. www.thefreedictionary.com  
117  line graph a graph used to show change over time with points connected by line segments Use the data in the data table to construct a line graph for the experiment Natika conducted. Cavanagh, M. (2000). Math to Know p. 454. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
118  line of best fit a smooth line drawn [on a graph] so that the totals of the distances between the line and the points above and below it are equal Students are allowed to use an appropriate line of best fit on the high school assessment.    
119  location a point or extent in space What is the location of the high pressure system in the weather map below? www.dictionary.com  
120  magnifier Hand held lens than enlarges images.   Also known as hand lens; magnifier; magnifying glass.  
 
Use the magnifier to identify the external features. http://www.accessscience.com/search     McGraw-Hill  Encyclopedia of science and technology on-line  
121  map legend an explanation of the symbols used on a map Use the map legend to estimate the distance between City A and City B. www.geogriahistory.com/bartram_vocabulary.htm  
122  mass Noun: the amount of matter in an object or substance Verb: to measure the amount of matter in an object or substance Predict the mass of the system after the nail has rusted.  Or  Mass the chemicals carefully before doing the experiment.. Sciencesaurus  
123  materials the elements, constituents, or substances of which something is composed or can be made What organic materials can be found in forest soils? Merriam-Webster Online   
124  mean the sum of data divided by the number of data measurements [one kind of average] Twenty is the mean of 13, 37, 26, 14 and 10. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
125  mechanism Biology The involuntary and consistent response of an organism to a given stimulus.    An instrument or a process, physical or mental, by which something is done or comes into being:                                Sexual reproduction is a mechanism for change within a population. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/mechanism;_ylt=Ag38FSFuDv7r6jl3_hn7dkisgMMF  
126  median the value that falls in the middle of a set of data Fourteen is the median of 13, 37, 26, 14, 10. Sciencesaurus  
127  microscope a science tool that uses lenses to make tiny things look larger so they can be observed How did the invention of the microscope help doctors in their fight against communicable diseases? ScienceSaurus p. 468, 51. Wilmington, MA:Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
128  minute very small The microscope helps scientists see minute organisms www.m-W.com/dictionary  
129  monitor to watch closely for purposes of control, surveillance, etc.; keep track of; check continually Stream scientists monitor the dissolved oxygen on a daily basis to check the health of the stream. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
130  multiple trials repeating an investigation in order to ensure validity [a minimum of 3 to 5 trials is accepted in classroom investigations but students should be made aware that this would not be sufficient for purposes of actual scientific testing] Why are multiple trials important to an experiment? http://www.answers.com/  
131  non-standard measurement Non-standard or arbitrary measurement is measurement that is different from the norm.  Examples of non-standard measurement are paper clips, buttons, pencils, eraser, or coins. Identify two objects that could be used to make non-standard measurements. www.numbernut.com  
132  non-standard units Units that are not set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value or quality. Units that are not serving as accurate bases for comparison. Why were non-standard units, such as hands, replaced by standard units like meters? www.numbernut.com  
133  object a material thing that can be soon or touched; the person or thing to which action or feeling is directed Which object above is biodegradable?  or  The object of our investigation will be competition for nesting sites. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
134  observe/ observations to watch carefully especially with attention to details or behavior for the purpose of arriving at a judgment Scientists observe many animals over long periods of time.  Their observations help them make valid inferences about what is normal behavior and what is not. Merriam-Webster Online   
135  order n.  A condition of logical or comprehensible arrangement among the separate elements of a group  Arrange the organisms in order from simplest to most complex. Merriam-Webster online  
136  peers a person who has equal standing with another Write an experiment that your peers would be able to correctly repeat. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
137  percent one part of a hundred What percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/percent;_ylt=Asj1pwOXpfZkvqOmig.6vPisgMMF  
138  phenomenon an occurrence, circumstance or fact that is perceptible by the senses The phenomenon of the Northern Lights has intrigued people for thousands of years. www.answers.com  
139  pictograph a graph that uses pictures or symbols to show data Make a pictograph to show the kinds of pets we have in our classroom. Cavanagh, M. (2000). Math to Know p. 460. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
140  position condition with reference to place; location; situation Look at the diagram of the Earth and the sun.  Draw the Earth and its axis to show the position it will be in relative to the sun six months from now. www.dictionary.com  
141  predict make a precise guess based upon reason and study of the situation Predict what the different amounts of sunlight will have on a plant. picasso.cobb12.org  
142  primary 1. of first rank or importance or value; "primary goals" or "primary effect"  What gas is a primary contributor to global warming?  Or   Name a primary consumer in the food pyramid above. www.wordnet.princeton.org  
143  prior knowledge (prior) earlier in time or order; (knowledge) the fact or condition of being aware of something How does your prior knowledge affect your ability to formulate a reasonable hypothesis? Merriam-Webster Online   
144  problem A question to be considered, solved, or answered  What are two ways human beings contribute to the problem of global warming? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/problem;_ylt=AnmFVVaOd4odVFZmMxj4LmusgMMF  
145  procedure a series of steps taken to accomplish an end Write a procedure that could be followed to test your hypothesis. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
146  properties characteristics of a substance including pysical traits [the way an object sounds, feels, looks, smells and tastes] and chemical traits [how a substance responds to interactions with matter or energy] What are two properties of metals scientists use to identify them? Sciencesaurus  
147  proximity nearness, sense, or fact of being near or next; closeness How does a city's proximity to the ocean affect its climate? American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2002.  
148  qualitative Information expressed in qualities or characteristics, usually found with the five senses Make five qualitative observations using your senses Word Mastery Series Essential Words Glossary SCIENCE.  New Leaf Publication. 2005. ISBN: 0-9764217-3-9. page 71  
149  quantitative data Information expressed in numbers or amounts, usually found using a tool or measuring instrument Use quantitative data to support a reasonable explanation. Word Mastery Series Essential Words Glossary SCIENCE.  New Leaf Publication. 2005. ISBN: 0-9764217-3-9. page 72  
150  ramification a development or consequence growing out of and sometimes complicating a problem, plan or statement The environmental ramifications of global warming are finally being seriously discussed. www.thefreedictionary.com  
151  range 1.  the difference between the lowest and highest values in the data set   2. to extend over or occupy 1.  The populations range from 3 bluebirds per square mile to 25 per square mile.   2. Lions range over a large expanse of grassland. Sciencesaurus  
152  ratio the relationship in quantity, amount, or size between two or more things What is the ration of tall plants to short plants in the Punnett square shown below? Merriam-Webster Online   
153  recognize to take notice of in some definite way; to perceive to be something or someone previously known How can we recognize the difference between carnivores and herbivores? www.m-W.com/dictionary  
154  reasonable showing reason or sound judgment; fair, not excessive or extreme Is 450 kg a reasonable measurement for the mass of an adult male?  Or  Is Jim's conclusion reasonable, based on the data? www.goggle.com  
155  reasoning arguments used in thinking Which conclusion below is more valid?  Explain your reasoning. www.answers.com  
156  relationship a state of affairs existing between two or more subjects; the connections between systems, subsystems, or parts of systems described by the concepts and principles of science that may range from the correlational to causal What is the relationship between the fox and the mouse in the food web above? http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
157  reliability dependability and suitability; an attribute of any investigation that describes the consistency of producing the same observations or data How does using different equipment affect the reliability of the experiment's results? Comm Arts Glossary  
158  reliable data reliable: yielding the same or comparable results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials            data: factual information, especially information organized for analysis or used to reason or make decisions Would the experiment as it is described produce reliable data? http://www.answers.com/  
159  replicate To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat. Why is it important for scientists to be able to replicate an experiment? http://www.answers.com/  
160  reproducible yields a specific quality or result when copied Science is based on observations and data obtained from controlled experiments and these experiments must be reproducible by other scientists before they are accepted as valid. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
161  residue 1.  the remainder of something after the removal of parts or a part     2. matter remaining after completion of an abstractive chemical or physical process, such as evaporation, combustion, distillation or filtration Identify the residue at the bottom of your test tube. www.thefreedictionary.com  
162  risk a chance or possibility of danger, loss, injury, or other adverse consequences The Food and Drug Administration requires people in drug trials to be informed of the risks to them when they use the new drug Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
163  scale a series of equal intervals and values placed on each axis of a graph Your graph should have an appropriate number scale written along the axis. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
164  scenario an outline for the way something might happen or is planned to happen Read the following scenario to answer questions about experimental design. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
165  scientific credibility the condition of being credible or believable Gregor Mendel gained scientific credibility after his death with the discover of units of inheritance called chromosomes. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
166  scientific explanation A theory, hypothesis, inference or conclusion, based on observable evidence and scientific principles Some primitive peoples explained thunder as the gods rolling heavy balls.  What is a scientific explanation of thunder?    
167  scientific inquiry the processes of formulating scientifically-oriented questions, giving priority to evidence, formulating explanations, evaluating explanations in light of alternative explanations, and communicating and justifying proposed explanations Theories are developed as a result of scientific inquiry. National Research Council  
168  scientific method The principles and empirical processes of discovery and demonstration considered characteristic of or necessary for scientific investigation, generally involving the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, exper There is no single scientific method. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/scientific+method  
169  scientific models a simplified version of some part of the natural world that helps explain how it functions; a representation of a system, subsystem, or parts of a system that can be used to predict or demonstrate the operation or qualities of the system. Scientific models of sea-floor spreading helped support the theory of plate tectonics. Great Source Education Group  
170  significance the quality of being important What could be the significance of fewer students going into engineering? www.answers.com  
171  similarities the state of being similar; likeness, resemblance What are two similarities shared by frogs and fish? www.dictionary.com  
172  Simple investigation Testable question, hypothesis, plan an experiment, collect data, and write a conclusion. Use the following steps to conduct a simple investigation:  Make a prediction, Write a testable question, Conduct an experiment, Record data, Write a conclusion   http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/sources
173 social priorities Social: of or relating to society or its organization, concerned with the mutual relations   Priority: precedence, especially established by order of importance or urgency Social priorities often make conservation difficult. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
174  solution [to a problem] the answer to a problem What is a possible solution to the problem of deer overpopulation? New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language  
175  sort To arrange according to class, kind, or size; classify  Sort the pictures into living or nonliving. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/sort;_ylt=AvEgXEa2x2HjzGRivvjQi12sgMMF  
176  source person or document which provided information What was the source of your information? www.answers.com  
177  spring scale a balance that measure weight by the tension on a helical spring A spring scale depends upon the force of gravity acting upon the object being weighed. http://www.wordwebonline.com  
178  standard measurement a number and a unit that define a quantity such as length, volume or mass Why are standard measurements essential in science? ScienceSaurus  
179  standard units a measurement unit that many people agree to use, such as the inch and the centimeter What is the standard unit of measurement for weight in the metric system? ScienceSaurus  
180  stationary a. standing still; not moving b. having a fixed position; not movable c. established in one place; not migratory d. remaining in the same condition or state; not changing Identify the body of water that is stationary. http://dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)  
181  structure a part of something; how something is put together Identify two structures that invertebrates use for support or protection. Sciencesaurus  
182  substance the essential material forming a thing, a particular kind of material having uniform properties, the real meaning or essence of a thing The substance of inheritance is DNA. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
183  support to provide with substantiation Does Jana's data support her conclusion?  Explain your reasoning. Merriam-Webster Online   
184  system an orderly, interconnected, complex arrangement of parts Name three parts of the circulatory system    or   Does the diagram represent a closed system or an open system? New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language  
185  technique a method used in dealing with something Why is it important to use the same technique each time  to determine the mass of the plant? www.answers  
186  technological advances Progress affected by or resulting from scientific and industrial progress   Identify two technological advances that have allowed us to learn about the universe outside our solar system. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/technological http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/knowledge
187 testable question a question that can be tested by experiment or observation Explain why this is not a testable question: "Which is better, organic fertilizer or chemical fertilizer?" ScienceSaurus p. 416. Wilmington, MA:Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
188  theory a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena and is capable of generating hypotheses and testable predicti Give one reason why Wegener's theory of continental drift was replaced by the current theory of plate tectonics. http://wordnet.princeton.net  
189  thrive to grow vigorously; flourish In which soil will the tree thrive, the soil with humus or the soil without humus? www.thefreedictionary.com  
190  trace 1.  a. A visible mark, such as a footprint, made or left by the passage of a person, animal, or thing.  b. Evidence or an indication of the former presence or existence of something; a vestige. An extremely small amount. 
3.  A constituent, such as a chemi
  http://www.answers.com/  
191  trial repetitions of data collection protocols in an investigation Explain why multiple trials are necessary in an experiment.    
192  transfer to move from one place to another  2. Describe the transfer of enegy in the food web below. http://wordnet.princeton.net  
193  transform 1.  to make a thorough or dramatic change in the form, outward appearance, character; to undergo a change; 2. change the voltage etc. of (a current) Give an example of electrical energy transformed into mechanical energy. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
194  transport to transfer or convey from one place to another Describe how oxygen is transported to cells. Merriam-Webster Online   
195  unintended consequences that which typically would not follow something and arises from it unintentionally Name two intended consequences of damming a river. New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language  
196  unique being the only one of its kind     What is a characteristic unique to birds? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/unique  
197  valid experiment        
198  validity accurate, justifiable, logically correct Explain why Justin's experiment will have no validity if it is conducted as it is written. Comm Arts Glossary  
199  variable things or factors that can be assigned or take on different values in an experiment Identify the independent and the dependent variables in your new experiment. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
200  variation the act, process, or accident of varying in condition, character or degree Variation in offspring makes evolution possible. www.dictionary.com  
201  vertical [y] axis the line drawn on the left side of a graph on which the scale for the dependent variable is placed Label the vertical axis with an appropriate number scale. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
202           

Sheet1

  A B C D E
1 Word Definition Sample Item Source  
accurate correct Why is an accurate measurement necessary? Sciencesaurus  
advantage a factor or circumstance that benefits its possessor Describe an advantage camels have over many other animals that enables them to survive long in the desert. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/advantage  
analyze to separate something into its parts in order to examine them; to study or examine carefully Analyze the problem for possible solutions. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
apparent appearing such, but not necessarily so; seeming What is the cause of the apparent movement of the sun throughout the day? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry  
assess determine the value, significance, or extent of; appraise Assess the proposed solution to the erosion problem by identifying one benefit and one drawback. http://www.thefreedictionary.com  
balance 1.  device used to measure mass; it works by balancing an "unknown" with a standard mass that is known   2.  a state of equilibrium, as in an ecosystem 1.  What is the mass of the beaker shown on the balance?      2.  How will the introduction of a new predator affect the balance of organisms in the forest ecosystem? Physical Science [p.708], Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, M. Thompson, C. McLaughlin & R. Smith, 1995  
bar graph A graph which answers the question: "What is the measurement for each item?"  Note:  a bar graph is appropriate when each item is has a discrete or categorical value . Use the data in your data table to construct a bar graph of the experiment's results. http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/discussions/HistogramsVsBarGraph/  
beneficial providing benefits or advantages Describe one way a mutation might be beneficial to an organism. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
10  bias a mental leaning, inclination, or prejudice Describe one method scientists used to prevent bias in their experiment. Comm Arts Glossary  
11  calculate to ascertain by computation; reckon Calculate the area of the circle below. http://www.answers.com/  
12  category a collection of things sharing a common attribute Be sure to include category labels on the horizontal axis. http://wordnet.princeton.net  
13  characteristic A feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait. Identify two characteristics of the plant. http://www.answers.com/  
14  chart a visual display of information Examine the chart below and identify the surface with the least friction. http://wordnet.com  
15  classify to arrange in classes or categories Examine the rock in the picture and classify it as igneous or sedimentary.  Justify your answer. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
16  composed to form by continuum, make up Table salt is composed of which two elements? Merriam-Webster  
17  compare to examine the character or qualities of especially in order to discover resemblances or differences Compare the hand skeleton of the whale and the hand skeleton of the human, describing two ways they are similar. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
18  compass rose a symbol on a compass or map that is circular with graded points for the directions; also called rose Use the compass rose to identify where the tree is in relation to the house. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
19  component one element of a larger system A hardware component can be a device as small as a transistor. www.answers.com  
20  conclusion The result or outcome of an act or process.  Use the data table and the graph above to write an appropriate conclusion for this experiment. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/conclusion  
21  conduct to do, manage, or lead What equipment will be needed when you conduct your experiment? www.answers.com/topic/conduct  
22  confirm to support or establish the certainty or validity of Does the data from the experiment confirm Linda's conclusion? http://www.thefreedictionary.com/confirm  
23  constants [in experimental design] all factors that remain the same and have a fixed value, for example, amount of light and water Identify two other variables that will need to be held constant in order for the experiment to be valid. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
24  contrast  
Identify the degree of difference 
Contrast the physical adaptations of the snowshoe hare compared to the dessert hare. http://www.accessscience.com/search     McGraw-Hill  Encyclopedia of science and technology on-line  
25  contribute to give or supply in common with others; to help bring about a result How did the work of Mendel contribute to our understanding of inheritance? www.thefreedictionary.com  
26  control a standard of comparison for checking the results of an experiment The control in the experiment on the effect of different fertilizers was the group of plants grown with no fertilizer at all. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
27  controlled (experiment) an investigation that holds all factors the same except for the independent variable; a "fair test" Why is a controlled experiment essential in determining cause and effect?    
28  construct to make or form by combining or arranging parts or elements Identify two materials birds might use to construct a nest. http:www.m-w.com/dictionary  
29  credible sources (credible) offering reasonable grounds for being believed; (source) a point of origin or procurement Of the following list, which is the most credible source for information about global warming: Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
30  credit To bring honor or distinction to  Watson and Crick are given credit for the description of how DNA molecules are formed. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/credit  
31  cultural perspectives a point of view or way of looking at things based on the ideas, skills, arts, tools and way of life of a certain people at a certain time The cultural perspective of scientists often influences the questions asked or methods used in research. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
32  daily happening every day The data was collected daily. www.answers.com/topic/daily  
33  data the pieces of observable information collected in an investigation Identify the data that Tom and Susan would need to collect in their experiment. ScienceSaurus p. 449, 10. Wilmington, MA:Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
34  data table A chart made of columns and rows for recording information Construct a data table that could be used to record the data from your experiment. ScienceSaurus p 450  
35  demonstrate To present by experiments, examples, or practical application; explain or illustration. 
Describe how Kim might demonstrate the effect of friction on the speed of a toy car. http://www.answers.com/  
36  dependent variable the variable that responds [in an experiment], for example, height of bean plants Identify the dependent variable in Kim's experiment on the effect of friction on speed. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
37  depend  to be controlled or determined by; to rely upon Scientists depend on the control of an experiment to ensure they can determine the effect of the experimental variable. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
38  describe to represent or give an account of in words; to give an account of something by giving details of its characteristics Describe how Kim might demonstrate the effect of friction on the speed of a toy car. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
39  design constraint something that limits the design or plan within certain parameters With the following design constraints, demonstrate how friction affects the motion of an object.    
40  design 1. to conceive or fashion in the mind; invent     2. to formulate a plan for; devise Design an experiment that would test your hypothesis. http://www.answers.com/  
41  detrimental causing damage or harm; injurious Describe one way a mutation might be detrimental to the survival of an organism. http://www.thefreedictionary.com  
42  development 1.  the act of developing  2.  the state of being developed Describe the development of the frog from an egg to an adult. http://www.thefreedictionary.com  
43  devices pieces of equipment or mechanisms designed to serve special purposes Identify a device for measuring the weight of an object http:www.m-w.com/dictionary  
44  diagram a drawing, plan, or chart that helps explain a thing by showing all its parts, how it is put together, or how it works Make a diagram to show how a sedimentary rock might form. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
45  differences Noticeable changes or effects  Describe two differences between the young and the adult Monarch butterfly. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/difference  
46  differentiate to make a distinction between Differentiate between a carnivore and an herbivore. http://www.answers.com/  
47  digital of, pertaining to, or using data in the form of numerical digits Which is easier to read, a digital scale or a balance scale?  Explain your reasoning. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
48  discovery the act or process of discovering; something discovered The discovery of the mid-Atlantic rift system provided support for the theory of Plate Tectonics. www.m-W.com/dictionary  
49  distinguish To perceive as being different or distinct; to be aware of a difference between two or more groups or things; to show that two or more groups or things are different from each other What are two ways scientists distinguish  between plants and animals? http://www.answers.com/  
50  enhance heighten or intensify qualities, powers, value; improve (something already of good quality) Rosiland Franklin's x-rays of DNA enhanced Watson's and Crick's understanding of DNA. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
51  equal arm balance an instrument for determining weight, typically by the equilibrium of a bar with a fulcrum Use the equal arm balance to determine the mass of the object. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
52  equipment the clothes, machines, tools etc. necessary for a particular kind of work or activity Name two pieces of equipment that would be necessary to conduct the experiment above. Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary (Beta Version)  
53  errors in observation Incorrect or false knowledge due to the act or noting or recording something                                The odd results in Trial 3 could be the result of errors in observation.  How do multiple trials help minimize the effects of these kinds of errors? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/search;_ylt=AofryA.Pf.WroYo9WNJgbuqqgMMF?p=errors  
54  estimate to determine roughly the size, extent, or nature of How do scientists use sampling to estimate the number of hawks in Missouri? Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
55  ethical being in accordance with accepted principles of right and wrong that govern the conduct of a group of people Did the way the scientists conducted the experiment raise any ethical concerns? www.answers.com  
56  evaluate to consider or examine something in order to judge its value, quality, importance, extent or condition Read through Liam's experimental procedure and evaluate whether or not it will produce valid results. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
57  Evidence Information that helps you figure out whether or not something is true; observable support for an explanation, inference or prediction Describe two pieces of evidence for the theory of Plate Tectonics. "Word Mastery Series Essential Words Glossary SCIENCE.  New Leaf Publication. 2005. ISBN: 0-9764217-3-9. page 2  
58  experiment a scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis Write a new question that could be the basis of a scientific experiment. Sciencesaurus  
59  explanation Something that explains; a statement made to clarify something and makes it understandable What is a possible explanation for the unusual results in Trial 3? Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
60  extension an additional part of anything How do the extensions of a jellyfish help it capture food? Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
61  extrapolate to infer an unknown from something that is known Students should be able to use their line graph to extrapolate the next data point. www.dictionary.com  
62  fair test a test in which everything about the things being tested is equal, except the item being tested Why is it important that scientists conduct a fair test? www.curriuculumonline.ie/index.asp  
63  faulty reasoning forming an imperfect conclusion People who once believed the Earth was flat were guilty of faulty reasoning. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
64  finite having bounds; limited There is a finite amount of fossil fuels on the planet. www.answers.com  
65  formulate To devise or invent; to express or communicate something carefully or in specific words Formulate a reasonable hypothesis for the experiment you have designed. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2002.  
66  frequency 2. rate of occurrence  3. Physics: a. the number of periods or regularly occurring events of any given kind in a unit of time, usually in one second, b. the number of cycles or completed alternations per unit of time of a wave or oscillation 2. In a hybrid cross, what is the frequency of black-coated guinea pigs to white-coated guinea pigs?   3.  Examine the electromagnetic spectrum in the picture and compare the frequency of red visible light and blue visible light. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
67  function 2.  what something is used for; "the function of an auger is to bore holes"  3. the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; "the function of a teacher"   7. serve a purpose, role, function; "The table functions as a desk." What is the function of the liver in the human body? wordnet.princeton.edu  
68  gender the property of belonging to a certain class such as a person's sex The father determines the gender of a human. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
69  graduated cylinder a tall narrow container with a volume scale used especially for measuring liquids Record the volume shown in the graduated cylinder above. Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
70  grid 1.  a pattern of regularly spaced horizontal and vertical lines  [do we need the others?] Use the grid below to construct a line graph with the data from the experiment. WordNet*3.0, c. 2006 by Princeton University  
71  hand lens a lens that makes the item seen through it look larger; magnifying glass Use the hand lens to make observations of the penny. Merriam-Webster  
72  horizontal [X] axis the line along the bottom of a graph on which the scale for the independent variable is placed Label the horizontal axis. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
73  hypothesis a prediction about the relationship between the variables that can be tested, for example, If older compost is applied, then plant growth will be increased Write a reasonable hypothesis for the question you have suggested. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
74  illustrate give one or more concise examples; provide a visual feature intended to explain Which pair of organisms above illustrates commensalism? http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
75  identify choose, select, name Identify the producer in the food chain.  Merriam-Webster Online http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
76  Independent variable the variable that is purposefully changed by the experimenter, such as age of compost Identify the independent variable in Kim's experiment on the effect of friction on speed. ScienceSaurus  
77  Individual Existing as a distinct entity 
Identify the individual simple machine in the complex machines above. http://www.answers.com/  
78  infer To conclude from evidence or premises.  To reason from circumstance    Examine the jaw and teeth of this animal.  What can you infer about the food the animal eats? www.thefreedictionary.com  
79  influence to affect the nature, development or condition of; modify Explain how choosing a grass plot to study by something other than random selection could influence the results. www.answers.com  
80  interact act reciprocally: act on each other How do the fox and the wolf interact within their habitat? Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
81  interpret to explain the meaning of; to understand in one's own way Interpret the data in the data table above. Sciencesaurus  
82  intrinsic inherent, relating to the essential nature of a thing All metals have the intrinsic ability to bend. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
83  investigation A detailed inquiry or systematic examination     Write a testable question that could be the basis of a new investigation. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/investigation  
84  justify to demonstrate or prove to be just, right, or valid     Synonym: warrant Do you think recycling is necessary?  Justify your opinion. www.thefreedictionary.com  
85  key a legend that explains the coding used to distinguish between graphic representations of multiple variables on a single graph Be sure to provide a key for your graph.    
86  label Noun:  3. a word or phrase indicating that what follows belongs in a particular category or classification [we need the definition for a verb also]                                 Verb:  1. To attach a label to   2.  To identify or designate with a label Draw arrows from the labels to the simple machines they match.  Or   Label the reproductive parts of the flower in the diagram. Noun:  Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)                          Verb:  The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition  
87  law A statement describing a relationship observed to be invariable between or among phenomena for all cases in which the specific conditions are met: the law of gravity Newton's laws of motion let us predict how objects will behave. www.thefreedictionary.com  
88  line graph a graph used to show change over time with points connected by line segments Use the data in the data table to construct a line graph for the experiment Natika conducted. Cavanagh, M. (2000). Math to Know p. 454. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
89  line of best fit a smooth line drawn [on a graph] so that the totals of the distances between the line and the points above and below it are equal Students are allowed to use an appropriate line of best fit on the high school assessment.    
90  location a point or extent in space What is the location of the high pressure system in the weather map below? www.dictionary.com  
91  magnifier Hand held lens than enlarges images.   Also known as hand lens; magnifier; magnifying glass.  
 
Use the magnifier to identify the external features. http://www.accessscience.com/search     McGraw-Hill  Encyclopedia of science and technology on-line  
92  map legend an explanation of the symbols used on a map Use the map legend to estimate the distance between City A and City B. www.geogriahistory.com/bartram_vocabulary.htm  
93  mass Noun: the amount of matter in an object or substance Verb: to measure the amount of matter in an object or substance Predict the mass of the system after the nail has rusted.  Or  Mass the chemicals carefully before doing the experiment.. Sciencesaurus  
94  materials the elements, constituents, or substances of which something is composed or can be made What organic materials can be found in forest soils? Merriam-Webster Online   
95  mean the sum of data divided by the number of data measurements [one kind of average] Twenty is the mean of 13, 37, 26, 14 and 10. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
96  mechanism Biology The involuntary and consistent response of an organism to a given stimulus.    An instrument or a process, physical or mental, by which something is done or comes into being:                                Sexual reproduction is a mechanism for change within a population. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/mechanism;_ylt=Ag38FSFuDv7r6jl3_hn7dkisgMMF  
97  median the value that falls in the middle of a set of data Fourteen is the median of 13, 37, 26, 14, 10. Sciencesaurus  
98  microscope a science tool that uses lenses to make tiny things look larger so they can be observed How did the invention of the microscope help doctors in their fight against communicable diseases? ScienceSaurus p. 468, 51. Wilmington, MA:Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
99  minute very small The microscope helps scientists see minute organisms www.m-W.com/dictionary  
100  monitor to watch closely for purposes of control, surveillance, etc.; keep track of; check continually Stream scientists monitor the dissolved oxygen on a daily basis to check the health of the stream. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
101  multiple trials repeating an investigation in order to ensure validity [a minimum of 3 to 5 trials is accepted in classroom investigations but students should be made aware that this would not be sufficient for purposes of actual scientific testing] Why are multiple trials important to an experiment? http://www.answers.com/  
102  non-standard measurement Non-standard or arbitrary measurement is measurement that is different from the norm.  Examples of non-standard measurement are paper clips, buttons, pencils, eraser, or coins. Identify two objects that could be used to make non-standard measurements. www.numbernut.com  
103  non-standard units Units that are not set up and established by authority as a rule for the measure of quantity, weight, extent, value or quality. Units that are not serving as accurate bases for comparison. Why were non-standard units, such as hands, replaced by standard units like meters? www.numbernut.com  
104  object a material thing that can be soon or touched; the person or thing to which action or feeling is directed Which object above is biodegradable?  or  The object of our investigation will be competition for nesting sites. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
105  observe/ observations to watch carefully especially with attention to details or behavior for the purpose of arriving at a judgment Scientists observe many animals over long periods of time.  Their observations help them make valid inferences about what is normal behavior and what is not. Merriam-Webster Online   
106  order n.  A condition of logical or comprehensible arrangement among the separate elements of a group  Arrange the organisms in order from simplest to most complex. Merriam-Webster online  
107  peers a person who has equal standing with another Write an experiment that your peers would be able to correctly repeat. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
108  percent one part of a hundred What percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/percent;_ylt=Asj1pwOXpfZkvqOmig.6vPisgMMF  
109  phenomenon an occurrence, circumstance or fact that is perceptible by the senses The phenomenon of the Northern Lights has intrigued people for thousands of years. www.answers.com  
110  pictograph a graph that uses pictures or symbols to show data Make a pictograph to show the kinds of pets we have in our classroom. Cavanagh, M. (2000). Math to Know p. 460. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
111  position condition with reference to place; location; situation Look at the diagram of the Earth and the sun.  Draw the Earth and its axis to show the position it will be in relative to the sun six months from now. www.dictionary.com  
112  predict make a precise guess based upon reason and study of the situation Predict what the different amounts of sunlight will have on a plant. picasso.cobb12.org  
113  primary 1. of first rank or importance or value; "primary goals" or "primary effect"  What gas is a primary contributor to global warming?  Or   Name a primary consumer in the food pyramid above. www.wordnet.princeton.org  
114  prior knowledge (prior) earlier in time or order; (knowledge) the fact or condition of being aware of something How does your prior knowledge affect your ability to formulate a reasonable hypothesis? Merriam-Webster Online   
115  problem A question to be considered, solved, or answered  What are two ways human beings contribute to the problem of global warming? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/problem;_ylt=AnmFVVaOd4odVFZmMxj4LmusgMMF  
116  procedure a series of steps taken to accomplish an end Write a procedure that could be followed to test your hypothesis. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v. 1.1)  
117  properties characteristics of a substance including pysical traits [the way an object sounds, feels, looks, smells and tastes] and chemical traits [how a substance responds to interactions with matter or energy] What are two properties of metals scientists use to identify them? Sciencesaurus  
118  proximity nearness, sense, or fact of being near or next; closeness How does a city's proximity to the ocean affect its climate? American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2002.  
119  qualitative Information expressed in qualities or characteristics, usually found with the five senses Make five qualitative observations using your senses Word Mastery Series Essential Words Glossary SCIENCE.  New Leaf Publication. 2005. ISBN: 0-9764217-3-9. page 71  
120  quantitative data Information expressed in numbers or amounts, usually found using a tool or measuring instrument Use quantitative data to support a reasonable explanation. Word Mastery Series Essential Words Glossary SCIENCE.  New Leaf Publication. 2005. ISBN: 0-9764217-3-9. page 72  
121  ramification a development or consequence growing out of and sometimes complicating a problem, plan or statement The environmental ramifications of global warming are finally being seriously discussed. www.thefreedictionary.com  
122  range 1.  the difference between the lowest and highest values in the data set   2. to extend over or occupy 1.  The populations range from 3 bluebirds per square mile to 25 per square mile.   2. Lions range over a large expanse of grassland. Sciencesaurus  
123  ratio the relationship in quantity, amount, or size between two or more things What is the ration of tall plants to short plants in the Punnett square shown below? Merriam-Webster Online   
124  recognize to take notice of in some definite way; to perceive to be something or someone previously known How can we recognize the difference between carnivores and herbivores? www.m-W.com/dictionary  
125  reasonable showing reason or sound judgment; fair, not excessive or extreme Is 450 kg a reasonable measurement for the mass of an adult male?  Or  Is Jim's conclusion reasonable, based on the data? www.goggle.com  
126  reasoning arguments used in thinking Which conclusion below is more valid?  Explain your reasoning. www.answers.com  
127  relationship a state of affairs existing between two or more subjects; the connections between systems, subsystems, or parts of systems described by the concepts and principles of science that may range from the correlational to causal What is the relationship between the fox and the mouse in the food web above? http://www.m-w.com/dictionary  
128  reliability dependability and suitability; an attribute of any investigation that describes the consistency of producing the same observations or data How does using different equipment affect the reliability of the experiment's results? Comm Arts Glossary  
129  reliable data reliable: yielding the same or comparable results in different clinical experiments or statistical trials            data: factual information, especially information organized for analysis or used to reason or make decisions Would the experiment as it is described produce reliable data? http://www.answers.com/  
130  replicate To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat. Why is it important for scientists to be able to replicate an experiment? http://www.answers.com/  
131  reproducible yields a specific quality or result when copied Science is based on observations and data obtained from controlled experiments and these experiments must be reproducible by other scientists before they are accepted as valid. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
132  residue 1.  the remainder of something after the removal of parts or a part     2. matter remaining after completion of an abstractive chemical or physical process, such as evaporation, combustion, distillation or filtration Identify the residue at the bottom of your test tube. www.thefreedictionary.com  
133  risk a chance or possibility of danger, loss, injury, or other adverse consequences The Food and Drug Administration requires people in drug trials to be informed of the risks to them when they use the new drug Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
134  scale a series of equal intervals and values placed on each axis of a graph Your graph should have an appropriate number scale written along the axis. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
135  scenario an outline for the way something might happen or is planned to happen Read the following scenario to answer questions about experimental design. Webster's New World Student Dictionary  
136  scientific credibility the condition of being credible or believable Gregor Mendel gained scientific credibility after his death with the discover of units of inheritance called chromosomes. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
137  scientific explanation A theory, hypothesis, inference or conclusion, based on observable evidence and scientific principles Some primitive peoples explained thunder as the gods rolling heavy balls.  What is a scientific explanation of thunder?    
138  scientific inquiry the processes of formulating scientifically-oriented questions, giving priority to evidence, formulating explanations, evaluating explanations in light of alternative explanations, and communicating and justifying proposed explanations Theories are developed as a result of scientific inquiry. National Research Council  
139  scientific method The principles and empirical processes of discovery and demonstration considered characteristic of or necessary for scientific investigation, generally involving the observation of phenomena, the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and a conclusion that validates or modifies the hypothesis.   There is no single scientific method. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/scientific+method  
140  scientific models a simplified version of some part of the natural world that helps explain how it functions; a representation of a system, subsystem, or parts of a system that can be used to predict or demonstrate the operation or qualities of the system. Scientific models of sea-floor spreading helped support the theory of plate tectonics. Great Source Education Group  
141  significance the quality of being important What could be the significance of fewer students going into engineering? www.answers.com  
142  similarities the state of being similar; likeness, resemblance What are two similarities shared by frogs and fish? www.dictionary.com  
143  Simple investigation Testable question, hypothesis, plan an experiment, collect data, and write a conclusion. Use the following steps to conduct a simple investigation:  Make a prediction, Write a testable question, Conduct an experiment, Record data, Write a conclusion   http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/sources
144 social priorities Social: of or relating to society or its organization, concerned with the mutual relations   Priority: precedence, especially established by order of importance or urgency Social priorities often make conservation difficult. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
145  solution [to a problem] the answer to a problem What is a possible solution to the problem of deer overpopulation? New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language  
146  sort To arrange according to class, kind, or size; classify  Sort the pictures into living or nonliving. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/sort;_ylt=AvEgXEa2x2HjzGRivvjQi12sgMMF  
147  source person or document which provided information What was the source of your information? www.answers.com  
148  spring scale a balance that measure weight by the tension on a helical spring A spring scale depends upon the force of gravity acting upon the object being weighed. http://www.wordwebonline.com  
149  standard measurement a number and a unit that define a quantity such as length, volume or mass Why are standard measurements essential in science? ScienceSaurus  
150  standard units a measurement unit that many people agree to use, such as the inch and the centimeter What is the standard unit of measurement for weight in the metric system? ScienceSaurus  
151  stationary a. standing still; not moving b. having a fixed position; not movable c. established in one place; not migratory d. remaining in the same condition or state; not changing Identify the body of water that is stationary. http://dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)  
152  structure a part of something; how something is put together Identify two structures that invertebrates use for support or protection. Sciencesaurus  
153  substance the essential material forming a thing, a particular kind of material having uniform properties, the real meaning or essence of a thing The substance of inheritance is DNA. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
154  support to provide with substantiation Does Jana's data support her conclusion?  Explain your reasoning. Merriam-Webster Online   
155  system an orderly, interconnected, complex arrangement of parts Name three parts of the circulatory system    or   Does the diagram represent a closed system or an open system? New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language  
156  technique a method used in dealing with something Why is it important to use the same technique each time  to determine the mass of the plant? www.answers  
157  technological advances Progress affected by or resulting from scientific and industrial progress   Identify two technological advances that have allowed us to learn about the universe outside our solar system. http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/technological http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/knowledge
158 testable question a question that can be tested by experiment or observation Explain why this is not a testable question: "Which is better, organic fertilizer or chemical fertilizer?" ScienceSaurus p. 416. Wilmington, MA:Great Source Education Group, Inc.  
159  theory a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena and is capable of generating hypotheses and testable predictions about the natural world Give one reason why Wegener's theory of continental drift was replaced by the current theory of plate tectonics. http://wordnet.princeton.net  
160  thrive to grow vigorously; flourish In which soil will the tree thrive, the soil with humus or the soil without humus? www.thefreedictionary.com  
161  trace 1.  a. A visible mark, such as a footprint, made or left by the passage of a person, animal, or thing.  b. Evidence or an indication of the former presence or existence of something; a vestige. An extremely small amount. 
3.  A constituent, such as a chemical compound or element, present in quantities less than a standard limit. 
A path or trail that has been beaten out by the passage of animals or people.  a.  An extremely small amount   b.  A constituent, such as a chemical compound or element, present in quantities less than a standard limit.  4.  A path or trail that has been beaten out by the passage of animals or people.
  http://www.answers.com/  
162  trial repetitions of data collection protocols in an investigation Explain why multiple trials are necessary in an experiment.    
163  transfer to move from one place to another  2. Describe the transfer of enegy in the food web below. http://wordnet.princeton.net  
164  transform 1.  to make a thorough or dramatic change in the form, outward appearance, character; to undergo a change; 2. change the voltage etc. of (a current) Give an example of electrical energy transformed into mechanical energy. Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary  
165  transport to transfer or convey from one place to another Describe how oxygen is transported to cells. Merriam-Webster Online   
166  unintended consequences that which typically would not follow something and arises from it unintentionally Name two intended consequences of damming a river. New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language  
167  unique being the only one of its kind     What is a characteristic unique to birds? http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/unique  
168  valid experiment        
169  validity accurate, justifiable, logically correct Explain why Justin's experiment will have no validity if it is conducted as it is written. Comm Arts Glossary  
170  variable things or factors that can be assigned or take on different values in an experiment Identify the independent and the dependent variables in your new experiment. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  
171  variation the act, process, or accident of varying in condition, character or degree Variation in offspring makes evolution possible. www.dictionary.com  
172  vertical [y] axis the line drawn on the left side of a graph on which the scale for the dependent variable is placed Label the vertical axis with an appropriate number scale. Students and Research by Julia Cothron  

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