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rRivTBu FOR iroN9TA)iLB Art















Capuin James Wilsoiv-
Sosim Jcayna, .,
Dr Tliomu Batemaa, _
Baron Hdlei,__w_?.
IUt. Jobn NewtOD,__
M. Do I? Hmpe, ,?.
John Banjua, ,






It is the dtmoaUnt of mtate, irfro are resdy to
embrace wiUi eagentess, every plea that nugfat
jnHtUy tbor aTeraion to the restramis and obhga-
timu of religion, to eipptei in Tindicatiwi of theur
nnbefief to the authority of enuDent names ; to the
ezamplefltrftcepticswho have poHBeased the gieuest
leanimg, and the moM comprehensive genina, ud
iriiohave devoted ihrir whole lives to the sober m-
reetigation of hktoikal or ecientifie tntlb. !
every province of letten snd jMowpI^i diey find
inatances of ^stingtuilied echohffi, endowed with
ihe soimdeet nndeistaiKling, whoee minds have
been inured to the most cantions forms of inqnuyi
mad improved by dte moat sccanite and extennve
obeervadtm; yet comlnnins in dteir character many
W all of these qualities, with an avowed contempt
and rgection of Cbiistianity.

la revolving the eatable of illmtrioua dribm



which are scattered, with no sparing band, orer the
wide range of modem lii?mtnre, eapedidly during
the last two ceDturiee, they can point out writers
of the most splendid abilities, who were staggered
with inexplii^le difEcnltiea, and declared it im-
poaaible to admit the evidences of rerealed reli-
gion. This scepticism, they observe, was not
confined to any solitary profession or peculiar
rank in life. It comprehended a nnoMToms class '
of celebrated phildhophers, and spread itself
through all the variona departments of moral and
experimental science. It was the ca'eed of Hobbea,
and Halley, and Emmerson, amoi^ the mathe-
matidans, of Shaftosbniyand BolingbrduamoDo;
the nobifo,' whose woHu are jaady admir?C
as dinilayuig the finest talenta, united with
great delicacy of taste, and a lively imagina-
tion, of Home and Gibbon, the most acute
and philosophical of all historians, of states-
men, poets, and phyucians, who have made an
open and nndie^msed coofesuon of their infi-
delity, and of a multitude almost innniturable,
of literary characters, who made the Jewish end
Christian Scriptures the sn^ect of their study and
their writings, from Lord Herbert, the oldest and
pnreet of otiT Deistical tbeorists, to Voltaire and hia
associates, who. exposed with infinite hnmanr ibe
vices and absurdities of superelition, and attracted
to iheir standard nearly dl the hitler orders of
society thron^ont Europe.

Instances of so many concurring t?atimoDie?
among the learned, in opposition to the credibility
of Revelation, appear to them argnmeDts anffir
dently conclusive, an irrefragable proof that tho
whole scheme is r^ugnaut, in its general bear-



mg;s, to the dictates of enlij^iteiied reaaon, tbiit
its fonadatioaB mut be hollow and unstable, since
they cannot endore to be a^iproached by the light
of acieoce, and that its eridenccs must be da-
fectJTe, since they bare ^led to command the
assent and submission of men of talents, and do
not alwna produce couTiction on die minds of
those who have examined them wiUi attention.
To beliere a system of docDinea, Uterefore, so ob-
scure in their nature and origin, ^ose preten-
sions are so equirocally eiim>orted, and hare been
denied by some of the profoundest philosophers,
seems, in their judgment, to be the characteristic
of a tinud and narrow spirit, and to argue an im-
betnlity of intellect, inc^nble of discriminatJog be-
tween truth and enor.

Otjections sneh as these, however futile and ir-
ratioral in themselves, have not been withoot dmr
e&ea in malung proietytea to swell llie ranks of
infidelity. Hiey have luassed the young and so-
petfidal, who are eamly deluded by plausible so-
phistries. Hiey have been llie resonrce of dte in-
dolent, who want the alnl^ or the indination to
refiect for ihansdvea. iBeyhave attracted the
sdolist and dte conceited prMemder to knowledge,
from the littnry fame with whidi tbey are asso-
ciated ; and they are esponeed by the profligate,
because they relax the aanctiona of morality, and
intespoee a convenient excuse for inegntat indol-
gencea. Hub, aa we have repeatedly observed, is
the true origin of mAehef, more powerfnl than ar-
gument or exami^ and antecedmt to all reason-
ii^; and many wbo pretend to iniqitire, are not sti-
mnbted by any anxiety for truth, or aov candid
wtA fw infonnation, bnt with tbeiiew of shelter-



vit thrir bad princqtlM, under the niedona gMb
of Ubenl MotuBattand phOoao^kal mveatigatiiHi.-
It it ft praeeai lUtanl lo tin himui heart, in or*
der to J natify te own criminal propemitiM, to seek
for adiborities to defend a podtion already assnined;
and which, be die argnmente Mroog or weak, per-
im?a% or incoftcJoriTr, they are ^ot.fiiapoMd to
sbaiidMi. It li draa tiMt infideb and Kofiei^ un-
der die inliMDeeof dnv [Mbmhw, find it ewjr to
diacradit raligHm ; aftd thnr r^ectioB of ita claima
ia quite Kconnt^ht widioat t^ipoeiflg any flaw in
ita erideBCea, n adoptbtff the altematiTe diU leant-
ing and gnihH, penabatiOB ef mind, and intnindity
?f chancter, are all aireaged on the advene aide.
Tliat many indiTidiiala poeeeaaed of nre talentib
who have draw hononr to aoanoe, and atgnalimd
d>etaiBelf?8 in abnoat emy d i i artm ent of human
knowledffe, an to bo nnmberad atnong the ?dt?-
catee and abettma of infidelity, ia a bet too -noto-
riona to be di ap u led. The nanws on the list of

eoeiqAical onbdieTerB, are neidxr few in nnm-
. nor dwpkMe in point of rank, or vnciety of
ondownwati. Natfaer is it to be denied diat diey
haTe atarted ingemooB otgeGtaona, both with reapect
to the doctnnee of the Bible^ and Aa praofa by
whidt they are aiqtparted. Theie ia acarcel^ a
KO^ trtoh widiin the oompaai of mapiratum,
which diey have not bo}^ ventnrad to unpagOf
or koi^t into qMstkn by iheir abatraae q?eenla-

All diie, h owerwv can with no pn^riety of na*
eonmg be addaeed ?a an iirfemce, taat deep
learainK moat tcnninate in tmGgiau, er ?ondnet
nxM tii KtcraiT pnmita, or inqnintlTe itadie^ into
die iBextricaue labyritttfa of acepticiam. It ia no


difficnlt matt?' to inrolve the pUinest, ae Well ai
the most Berions and important trnths in mett^by-
sical obscurity, to expose them to deiisioD by a
ttroke of sarcastic wit, or disseminata prejudices
against them nithsnt fonndatioo. There is not
perh^M a moro cwnmtat talent, or one more easily
acqniied, dian that of noNiig objections ; which, in
the hands of -a subtle and Teatless qnrit, may ber
come a dangenms instrnment, as it tends not merely
to peqilex the mind with endless nncwtainty, but
to annihilate the v^ elemaitary prindples, both
of science and reli^on.

But the perTerairas and susapprehennixtB ot
tmth, thoi^h tbey obetmct its ii?^eitce, do not
altar its nature ; and in general can prove no way
injniians, vxaspt to Aose trim want etrength of dis>
cenunott snffiraentto perceiTedie feltacy andabsnr-
dity of anch misrepresMitations. Where c^inions
are emnteoin, inqniriea and ot^ectiom are com-
mendable, and h^;Uy benefidal ; and were the minds
of litemy men employed in ihe honest research of
detoctii^ tnitb, or ^qnved to embrace it under
whalevw syatein it might ^tpear, the pFetentdons
of revealed reli^on would have nothing to dread.
Christiaiuty doee not shmi or proscribe discnasicHi,
and would reckon it bnt a poor defence to refiiM
ftadimce or toleration to the objections of its ad-
Tcraariea. Snt it demaads that its cause be tried
<Mi ita own merits, ^that its credit be not assailed
by otbeT weapons than fur a^nment and leg^U-
DMte rewMung.

Tliia, however, is for from hang the conduct of
infidala. Among therejeden of Scrqitnre revelation,
wfaoafEect to disbelieve, after an accurate and candid
exuaiuttoil of the snlgect, it is quite remariuble.


tial to (be attaimnan of id^MU VnA, or ? taat-
fw aiAed to teUgioas inquiry. With all Am
a^eriM Bdvantaeei i& poiitt of kaoirie^^ tiny

intottlimu. Tlieir taaia mn wtipod by pr*-
jwliee, and pre-oocBped vith falie dworiea, b?'
foT? their judgment had c?bm to a deterwnatim.
'Hiey wa? either inflated with cooceit, and M
franted prater humility of ^tit ; or a&ctad a
singalarity of thiiUdog; ch' were imiaonl, and coi^
?ecpently exarMd ?rery 6cdty ta iareoteccwes ;
and were dispOKd to eoibraoe, is oootiadictMm ta
TCHon^v etid?9uw, aay eiror that tlattered tbor
an>elitea and ptenoni. Sdany of tiian war* tb-
cohite I mfl u uiM, whRaporled widi et?ry tUag n-
oed, mdtHmcderaitbsMief ?faZMtyinta*
jnt; otth^wera 'li??if and Tolatife, batmpw-
fitnl mm, who had gnat liWnry m h c n l i an, and
? desaltaiy ka??rlod^ of the Boeooea, Iwt ?ii^
oM mach *eB<aiy ?f a* ? ? l ai M?ng,and ohwwly
?maeqWaitted wiA Ae actual Btsie of hmmm sa-
Mie. Tliejrwenimanorar, iMwstnaMntathe
geiAta of CMstiantyi eatoraaud a vigltBt nw-
WOK to iti ofdbtBBces, or Aweh Bttogetfan"iqKik ilB
^RiMB aad oflfrnrtKHM ; tedieliope rfgjriai^-it*
bmMbI woond, wnragh the ?rieet of its prafeMHSt

bi eiqraniw fiuilti Mid?Rti?a,they have
dloqnent and effectiTO ; and had ibsy a

added, ^y bad doM rehgitm a kindDMS nitM
duBaniigwy, D?t it is B?t dwl% fi>r ?i* It


diins to nuke tfcen a ?^ for wit ?mI nfflerj^
ot ? thane of caot^oioii far Iheniy mnH^on.;
or to ftdmica b> ar^umRitB tiw faUiei of nqunti-
tion, and the a?eltiea of ma, mud iiimhiim
wfajdi ttun Ae MdmintK f^ ? if the gm-
trr, oramed i
toui^BceaDd e]

to aooooM foe tbe offmAon and unbelief i
riiiiiliaiMlj has oAUk mat witli among dn learned.
Tbej Iwd not llie dM preparatioa, and therefore

tkatf that atca who had tfamra eff with ii^w-
tieyca all Mwal <ab?diaalinii| whe wtsa ekied^
the pride of laental inqtrovsmeBt, or so blinded
with ^ wMi of ac^tieal 8pecalatiM% tfaatnas-
gnnent wlaMrar could awnaea iken, ^Mdd
gmfaace a ayMm of Jl wlri B M which atrack at tha
B?at ?f aUwir frqiidicea, sid inpOMd andi mp-
J nMeaastaHntiiipoii ' '

vev^ee of Onuknent Wadom, ai

tai M '^m the irtrale, after ft par^ or pretended


Mam i natMin, u s cnnningly denied foble, tha con-
Uirance of knaves and impoBtors.

Were CluiBtuiuty imposed, howarer, U> rest
any part of iu defence on the andunity of names, it
mu^t refer to numy in the firat ronks of iettera
a&d p]iiloeophy, who have investigated the sub-
ject with that candour and Bobriety of epnt, of
which infidels ban been so notorioiiBly destitute,;
and who have niiiled aU the acnteness of sciencei
with a firm belief in evangelical religion, men
of tile most opposite sentiments and pnrsuitfc
who hare speciikted with the greatest freedom of
diou^t, examined with prying oiriouty iota
the ragaoic stmctBre of matter, w canied ute line
and nUe of demonatntion to the brthest veise of
the material nnivwse. Authorities, it is trae, how-
ever eminent, are notargoments, and have miclum
to be admitted as a ground of faith ; but they may
aerve, at least, to nentralixe or refute those peer
jndicee wainat revelation, which have bo other
nppert Oaa htunaa authority, by shewing that its
divine oiigiBal bfts been admitted, and vitidjcatedby
tiie moat pronunent names in the annab of litarar
tme, and in avery field of hnman research.

Even in this c<?iq;>etition, thodbro, die snfiiageq
<tf leanung and edencs, woidd be foond compleUly
on the aide of Chriatianity ; and if infidel i^osophen,
with all their followera and pa^amw, were caK
into the adveise scale, tbev wonld appear few in
number and contemptible in chBracter, iriien ???
trasted widiils manyable and celebrated defendera.
V/en the catalogue of its learned Bdvocatea to be
lecounted, it would be difficult to know iriiere to
be^n, or when to leave off. Of divines, irito have
writtea in support of its evi^encei, and who ??


?ntided to mik in the higteat dan ?( bmnkD ?S-
dioritiM, in respect of gennu, abilities, uid intel-
lect, the imrtancee arealmoetiiiDiuiieTaiile; of.mca
wbo hare done honour to their pnrfession, ?nd
' trae sa competent to jadge of the oatare of rerealed
truth, aa conceited aa<^ists.or sceptical historiaiw.
Or shoold these be objected to aa -ontereeted wit-
'Oeeeea, epeftldiig nnder the )?as of }m>faMional pre-
jadice, for there is freqaently an onreasonBhle
prCTW o a M MOB agnnst the writii^ of the der^, as
if wey wwe the dictKtes, wrt of umadence or coO'
nctimi, bat (rf party ?al or personal interest ;
there are others to whom no anch jealousy or
atigma can BttwJi.

Among dtsdngaiehed laynen-iriio'htyebc?eve^
-OT written ia vindication of Chriatiaiuty, and on
irhom no motire bat a tore of tmtii coidd be sntH
operate, there is such a catalt^^ of il-
names, that it is almost impoesiUe to ?na-
nemte, end amy ?ppe?T inridioas to select. Such
adrocat?e are to be found in almost all different
conntriee and agea ; of various sects and partiee ;
of of^KMtte views on the minor ptuMa of raligien ;
yet all concarring with peiiect nnanimitf in wl-
mitting its divine asthcrity, and acfcnowleelgi^
the importance of its doctrines.

Were it necessary to ni^ eun^es iiwte*d ?f
feMMis, or advert to men of seiMce nmoag th*
laity, who hare pnbliclv arowad their conTictio%
aftm investigating, wita sll eerioasDeea and accv
lacy, the gronnds on which th?r &ith was built, it
Hgfat saScc to raftr to I^BCal, LeAoilc, M'lMrija^
Mid Elder, the btt wathemMidflae of thw tunei
to Boerinar^ ZtnmwrmBn, Mead, Syd wA ai m
Cheyne, HudeyttMl HaUern>oi? the phyndan^

posed ti


abd manyodnr eminent members of thai facnlty,
who ven not only accomi^bhed in all that was
knmni of their art, bnt entertained the profonndeet
rerevenco for reli^on, and rendered it an enential
service in their writings ; to the monttistB, Steele,
'Addieon, and Johnson ; to the poets, ABltoii,
Cowley, Gellert, Gesner, Yomig, (?d Cowper ; to
the lawyers, Hale, Forb^ Mailes, BlackMone, and
Jones ; all men of the most exalted and cq?oi?na
minds, and stored with the lidiest trewures of
ancient and modem lore.

Or to mention othen still more celebrated, and
wboM authority may cany greater we%ht ; ^??
are mater names to he Cmmd than Aose of Bacoo,
-and Newtaa, and Locke, ^ fathers of philoHt^y,
who broke through the baniera of ancieut preja-
dice, and laid the foiuidati<H]B of modran science
on d>e sdid Jiams of induction and eiperiment ?
Had Hieie been any flaw or artifice perceptible in
die cknins of revelation, none were better qualified
to expose die imposture. The same bold and
vigoroiu intellect, which sbandoned the beaten
paths of errw, and destroyed prejudices in sdence,
was eqinlly capable of detecting and overthrowing
fraud in religion. Yet tiieee men were Cbristians,
devoted much of their time to study the Scrip-
tures, and c<mfe8sed the mor^ diey read, the more
decided wse thimr persuasion of their truth, and
the greater their admiration of their excellence.
Ilieir belief was fonnded on the moat diligent and
exact reseu?hee into ite history, the authenticity
of its records, the completion of prophecies, the
chancter of its evidences, sod the a^inments <rf

Where are the iiifidds> it may be asked, who

ROBSBT noitt. 17

can bear a compamtm with iheae Shutriotu pliilo-
n^era, either in extent of leonimg, depth of pene-
tretioii, solidity of naderstanding, aoiotmtess t4
miad, or reepectabilitv of monl charoctei'? If
hDmai) tc?timony ia allowed to be any criteri<Hk of
Jidth, and certusly it on^t, in jnetice, to be as
admiMible in &Tonr of religion, as in opposition to
it, uid is in foct the only le^timate mode of
anBWOTng objections thu spring from euunplee
rather ttuQ truth or leuon ; hm is obTiotuly ft
gmter prqioiiderance of evidence on the nde of
belief than infidelity; a more splendid airay ttf
names, all equally distinguished in science, and
more anqnestionably supeiior in Tirtue and ^ty,
to which no stigma of saperstiiioD, no c^nMtch of
melancholy or intellectuid imbedlity can possibly

The opinions of so many competent and un-
prejudiced witnesses, all verging like rays towarda
the same centre; this hannonyofminds, so highly
gifted beyond ordinary nature, separated by die-
t?nt ages, and different puranite, yet joining as it
were is unison to celebrate die truth of Chiis-
tianity, and presenting at its altars the homage of
their immortal wisdom, sfiOTds a remarkable proof
of the nnity and identity of that principle whieh
for^is the basis of their common conviction.

Against this concnrrence of learned testimonies,
it will not be die cnide and.raadom cavils of igno-
rant declaimed ; the artfnl objections of soplusti-
cal.reasonere ; the sneers and nnmeuiing^ ridicule
of profane wit; the ^ullow argnments of profli-
gates and libertines, or any set of men tuuter die
dominion of passions wuch religion condemns ;
that will have any weight with reasonable men, or


tH?gget tiinr beEef to the antbenticHy oftSiM:
region, wliidi clMin tlie nnimssl rerarence and
obedience of mankind.

Neidicr need tlie fiieii^ of piety be mder an^
tlann, le?t die foimdBtioiu of tAeir faith be sapped
or weakened by the prying and inqnisitire re-
searches of hiunan knowledge. Time has been
when the boldest innoTatOTs in soeooe dnrit not
Uft the Teil that Mmcealed the erron of religion :
iriien leacning was proscribed ai an enemy to
the church, and iaqniiiet into the cqnstitntion ot
nature, cimdemned as rebellion gainst its Author.
Such terrors, howeTer, were the refage of bigotted
?nd contracted minds, and were foonded on narrow
nnd perverted iat?rpr?tationB of Scriptnre: Hie
Bishmin and the Iman, the beUoTers of the Shastor
and the Koran, have aoUd roasona for pro-
tecting ignorance, and avrnding (tbcoadon ; Imt
Christiamty conrts the light, and haanotiiingloMt-
- Ttrehend from the nio?t subtle and ingenious of ita
learned adTersaries. It has gained fresh liisb? from
their diacoreries ; and those sdeneee, snch aa astro-
nomy, anstomy, and geolt^, H^iich in their ia-
fincy were nippoeed to threaten ila existence, add
bnn^tt men of genlns to the dungeon or the
Make, have) in their advanced state, proved magti-
zines ttid annouries to anpply new proob of ila

' It is imposnble to took at the former and pi^
iMitt Mate of the world, without being satined
'diat t}ie eridences of religion have grown with
the increase of knowledge : tint they hare been
'confirmed by the resists of philoaophical and
ntiqnsmn inrestiggtion ; that Uiey ccnndde with
tha obaemlions of traTeUers, ' and with tlw


ioca] dewriptionB snd historical allaMona of geo-
gr^hers. Let then the improven of arts asd
scieDces esen ik^ talents and their inTenBon in
erwy liberal and ealig^itened pnrsnit ^ let them
pQah their inquiries into the wm-ka of nature, wttb
li free and fevlefls spirit, in the perfect aagnronce
tlist a more intinutte acqnaintance with the works
of the Deity, will nerer lessen oar rererence or
shake oar belief in a religitm, which daioH him as
ha anthor end pnUieher.

Of this trnth, a rame atrikiiig and appn^niate il-
lustration cannot be given, than the rirtuanssndenti*
ttent pfajlosopher Boyle, whose name is an ornament
to his Gonntry, trad claims the Ten??tion of all pos-
terity. What the hiatorian Bayle has obeeired of
Pascal, may, with additional form and propriety,
q>ply lo this amiable and celebntted cbancter:
That a hnndred Tolnmes of sermons are not worth
? nmch ae his single life ; and He far less cqwhle
of disannin^ infidds of the arguments and pretaxia
they Blleg? for their nnbeUef. While libertines
most fed mortified to contemplate bis extraordi-
mary devotion and humility, they mnst at ibfi
same time confess themselTea deprived of a ta-
wmdteLend what they reckon a formidable objec-
tion to Christiamty, that none but feeble and con-
tracted spirits, hare ever professed themsdves t^- .
taries of piety and religi<? ; since they may here
behold the precepts of the one, and the practice
of the other, exemplified in the hi^ieat de^ee, and
carried to the ne?jre&t approach of human perfec-
tMn, by one who has seldom been eqnslled for die
anety and extant of his researches, and who k'
never mentioned but with cMnpliment and enco-




imam in the htttory of almott ereiy bnnch of
expoimentad pliiloeophy.

At'BD eariyp?iodof his life, as he himself iut
fbnnn hb, his mind wae perplexed vnlh doobts about
the cerUunty of the Ctmstiaii revelation ; and u be
was miturBlly of a aeriooB end reflective tnni, they
created no small degree of sniiety ; and ?et him
to study and inqnire more minutely, that he might
be able to give a reason for his ^th. Bnt though
this uncertainty anbjects him to the charge or im-
putation of scepucism, it entirelyexempts him fiwu
the odiam that nsmdly attaches to infidelity and
iireligion. Hia donbta did not spring from libertina
principlea, nor were they aesiuiied as an apology
or excuse for iiT^^lar practices, lliey seem to
have been the perplexitieB of a mind endowed with
great sensitnlity, and of an inqmsitiTe temper, (hat
wonld not rest satisfied without finding ultimate
reasons of belief, and prying into the very elements
<rf knowledge.

This circomstance, however, may be regarded
as giTJng his testimony the greater wei^t and ef-
fect, as he was not entangled by any previous sya-
tema or theories, nor biassed by his own paaoons, .
which are the greatest enemies to tnith, and the
most difficult obstacles to overcome ; bnt left to
coot and onprejutUced reflection, t?form hisjiu^;-
ment according to the result of bis investigations.
His confessioDB have not, therefore, the suspidon
of b^ng dictated by sinister motives, or extwted
-from him on a bed of sickness, by tlie arguments
and importunities of a pviest Never were double
productive of more serious inquiry, or of hmpier
consequences. Once confinned m die tmus ot .
revelstioD, lie bent lus n4ioIe rtady t? vindicate



^oA recorameud tbem to otlwiB. Tike greater port
9f his life and his fortune wese expended in iUus-
trating thmr beauties and their nselnliieeB, and in
diffuBing their influence. He was anzions to their
the wvrlil, that a knowlec^e of Natum was not in-
compatible with a firm beUef in religion, and that
it wm possible for an e^erimental pbilmc^Iier to
be a aincere and zealona Christian. With tins rieir
he labogred in his wri^nga to cement a Mindly al-
liance between f^oaophyand divinity; to convert
die reanlta and diacoveriea of the one intoargnments
and illnBtrationa of the other, a itndy which ft^ma
the ngbWt appUcstion of icience, and Ae most
nblinae en^loyntent of the hnman nund. From
tJieee cinwRy refte^fena, into which we have beeit
inadvertmtly led hy a cmsideratioq of Us charac-
ter, we shall now retiun to the iagtmy of hie lifi>.

The Honourable Robert Boyle was a na>-
tive of Ireland, and bom on the 25th of Fe-
bmary 1627. He was descended fiwo an ancient
English latnilyf whose name and ped^ree can be
uaced beyond the Conqnea^ and who are said to
have been of Spemish extraction. Whatever troth
there may be in this o^nion, it is at least cer-
tain that the surname was of great antiquity in
^?in ; and that in the ^e of chivalry and ro-
mance a Kni^t of tfaia bmily came over to Ejis-
land, and dgnalized himself in a toaraament held m
the reign of Henry VI.

"Die earlieet acconnts of them in this coontryia
to be fonnd in Doonuday Booh, where they are
mentimted as having their residence and estate at
Pixley-Court, near Leadbnry in Hereford. Variona
diiUngni^ied charactOTs spnmg from thu Hoe, who


filled important. and hononrable stationB, botb dril
and ecclesiaatical. lliese, howevs', it would be
out of place to notice here, as tliey &11 under the
prOTince of the herald rathW than the hiatoriBO.

Richard, the fether of our pbitosopher, was k
yoBBger sou of this fomily : wtd Uved to become
s Tery extraordinary pereon. Being bom ia a de-
pendent condition, ai^ obligsd to supply the de-
ficienciea of foitmne by his own industry, he ^nitted
his native country at the age of twen^-thr^ and
went over to Dublin as an Kdrentnrer. Poasess-
iDg the reconunendation of a graceful person, and
good natnial abilities, he was taken into the ser<
vice of the Goremment, and very soon acquired
a distinct knowledge of pnUic afGors. FroBi these
amall bE^inoii^ he giadnallyroae to power and
honour ; . and built on thiB slender foundation, a
proqierity and renown, which had many admirers,
but few equals. By his eminent s^rices, he
obtained the approbatiou and farour of his soto-
reign, aod was advanced to the dignity of the
peerage in Ireland, being created in 1616, Baron
of Yooghall, and fonr years afterwards, Viscount
DnnguToo and Eail of Coik. Hia talents gare
Instre to bis official reputation, and added a very
bononrahle snpjdement to his noble titles ; as he
is gener^^ distinguished .in bisioiy bytbe epithet
er Homame of the Great Ead of Cork.

He was Mie of the ablest statesmen of liis age^
md took a very actire and coospicuona lead in
InA affiuis, bolii mUitary and political. He ^d
mnch to onltiTat^ and civilize the barbarous iiib?-
hitants, by eaconraging Protestant settlers &om
England, endowing freo-echocds, and nialring other
?xpeiuire imprDvementa. Li the lebeUioD e^lQil,


hia loyalty was displayed widi eixtB , ,?^

nificence. His casUes he converted into (ortmam,
wmed hU serrants and tenantry to the mmber of
500 horse and foot, which he put wuler the com-
numd of his four sons, and paid all ost of his own
estate. He was not more hmipy in his own great-
ness and reputation, thui in the number and pros-
perity of hiB deacendents. By his second wife,
Catharine Fenton, only danghter of Sir Geofiry
Fenton, P^incqtal Secretary of State, and IVivy
Counsellor in Ireland, be had fifleai children,
?even sons and eight daughters.

The chanicteT of the father seamed to entail -
wealtb and hononra, and even talants, on his whole
femily. His dai^hters were allied to some of the
most eminent and powerfnl of the nobility ; and
his younger sons, even in thai in&ncy, had tdtlea
conferred on them, such aa are rarely bestowed,
except on distingniBbed merit. Besides his eldest
eon Richard, who succeeded him in the Eu'ldom
of Cork, his second son Lewis was made Baron of
Bandon-Bridge, and Viscount Boyle of Kinel-,
meaky; hia ^urd sorviring son, Roger, was.
created Lord Boyle of Br^hill ; he was President
of the Council in Scotlani^ under Cromwell, and[
made no inconsiderable figore as a political and
dramatic writer. His next son, Francis, was ho-
noured wiA the title of Lord Viscoant Shannon,
and like the rest of his brothers, bore a conunis-
si<m iji the Irish service.

Robert was the youngest stm and fourteenth
child, bom at Lismore, in the county of Cork, a
noble and splwdid connby-seat belonging to his.
father ; bat which the rav^es of civil war had re- .
duced to a state of ruin and dilapidation. He



was the onlr one of hia tunily that itMbetl
Bomhoed wimont haag honoured with B th1e>
Bui he hul an mtriauc worth which gare a bigh^
liutie to his chaiBct^', than royal (k hweditaiy dig-
nities conid bestow ; and hsi earned Tor huoaelf
a dis^clion which wbs beyond dw pran^tire of
king! to have coninred. In the qnaUty and ctmdi'
titm of his birth, he reckoned himself lingalarly
forttmate, as they afforded him many external ad*
sntBgeB, and were so exactly smted to hia in-
clinatioD and riews, that, aa he iKod to obserre,
had he been pemutted to choo?e, his wishea woald
Hot hare altered the msignment of Providence.
A meaitN descent, he was peranaded, woald hare
exposed him to many discouragements and 10000-
Teniences ; as men <A low exlnciion are seld<Hn
admitted into ftunilisT or confidential interconrae
wjtfi the great, and cannot always, eren with dw
finest abiUtieH, secnre themselves from poverty and
canten^ On die otho' hand, he considered
iftnlar gtestnees as an impediment to (be know-
ledge ttf atauy inqtortant truths, which cannot be
attt^ned without mixing with inferiiK society ; and
raking ctHideacenHoni, which, in men of rank, are
sometimes ledumed degiadin^ or perhaps dis-

To one dirincBiied aa ba waa to dte boatle and
tnm?h of tba WoM, tad who courted with nii-
wearied amAMtf dw ealn and retirement of fhi-
loeophy, the bong bom heir to titles and dunities
wotud hare been but a gttteiing kind of muoy;
abliging him to embarrass fajnuelf with politiod
eaies and distraciiDns, in order to sappnt die
fredit of his family, and not imfreqnently to aban-
dcm Ins foTOurile pnrstiils ; and tints bnild tbe ad-


rantages of hie lionse on tbe remmmtkm of his
studies, and the mm of bia own happiness. He
therefore congratulated himself in being bora in a
condition that iras neitlier bo high as to prove a
Bource of dietractioD, or a temptation to indolence,
tor low enough to repress n generona ambition;
and fvliile It secnred him respect and preferment
Kinona; his eqaals, it protected him tmm the re-
proach n-hlch too commonlf attends tlie humbler
dmdges of literature.

Ftom hia earliest iatutcj the greatest care was
talcen in farming both bis mental and his bodily
constitnUon. His father, who had a perfect aver-
sion for the overweening fbndess of parents, who
train their children with rach deUcacy andtender-
beaa, " that a hot sun or a good shower of nun, as
nmcb endangers them as if they Were made of
butter or of si^ar ;" and which in tbe end proves
Lijwions rather dian beneSdal to their' tiealdi,
6onitnitted hii^ t6 the care of a conntrynnrse, with
inetmctionB to bring him np in the same habilB of
hardiness and frugality, as if he had been her own
eon. By being thus gradually inured to the fids^
titadea of the weather, and to a coane yet cleanly
diet, be inherited a strengdi and vigom' of consti-
tntioa which enabled bim to bear kbonr and fa-
tigne i atdioogh the advantages, it appeais, which
this jndidons treatment procured hun, were not
permanent, bdng snbseqttently tost by an ezceai
of tendern^s.

At three y^ara of age he had the mistbrtane tft
loee lus mother, Who died at Dublin, Febmary
16th, 1630 ; a lady of great beauty and accom-
plishmenta, amiable in ber dispontions, and a pat-
tern of virtue bnd religion; qualities which so


endeared W to hMfauibaad aodfomUy, that the an-
niveTBaiy of hei death was alwafs obaerred as a
day of mourning. This calemity, the tenderness of
his years prevented him from feeling with s sorrow
prop<ntiotied to the loea he bad snstuned. Bat
h was to him a solject of unfragned regret ; and he
esleemed it a singvbr imliappmess never to have
seen so excellent a mother, so as to remember her ;
more eapedally from the character he beard of her,
and tile great respect liiat was cfaeiiehed for her
memory. He never spoke of her bnt in terms of
the wanaeet affectioD.

While at nurse, and asaodadng with children of
his own ag?, he unfortunately contacted a habit
of etattering, ,by. mimicing this imperfection in
ome of his companionB ; a practice which, though
Btfim counterfeited, and made the occauon of mer-
rimoftt, became long a sabject of great DneaaioesH
to hhn. Many experiments were tried as the
most probable means of cure, bnt it could never
be pM^tly removed ; so conta^ous is the in-
floence of evil customs, that what is ofiea imitated
but in jest^ comes to be acquired in esmest.

When thaat seven years of age he was recalled
home ; and soon after, when on a journey to Dub-
lin, where he was sent for to wwt on his hAtf,
he narrowly escaped being drowned while crosaii^
a brook, which ttie lain had suddenly swelled to
a torrent. He had been left alone in the coach
with imly a foot-boy ; when a gentleman of the
party cm hanebaGk,accidentallyobeerving him, and
Bwaieoftheda)^[er,in spite of ^ opposition, carried
lum in Ins anns across the stream ; which proved
80 n^iid and deep, that the coach was easily over-
tnnwl, and botii Wees and riders hurried violently



down the cuireiit,'and with much difficulty sared
tbemaelrea by swinuning.

So soon as be w?? capable of receiving mBffaC''
tion, he was taught at home to write a very fidr
. hand, and to epesii. Frmch and La^ by one of
hia father'a chaplaina, a Frenchman who reuded
in the honse. He riiewed a reuwHiable lati-
tude for leBToing, and his proficiency in these in-
fant studies was greatly accelerated by his natnial
incUnation for them ; a diapmition for which he
waa highly commended wa caieosed by his fatiier.
Mia desire of knowing the truth was only exceeded
by his inflexible regud for it, both in hia wwda
and actions. So strict was hia viM?city, even at that
early age, end in matters of triria] moment ; and
so contrary t? his nature were ^ilsebood and dia-
einralation, that hb lather often affirmed he never
detected him in a lie in his whole life. Even
those little arts and disguises that children oftea
resort to, to conceal their faults, he utterly abhorred ;
and choose mther, at the hamd of poniahment, lo
accuse himself, and confess his misconduct.

AfW be had resided more than a year at home,
his tsther, anxious to improve }iis studies, and pre-
ferring a public to a domestic edncstiou, resolved
to send him, with hia elder brother Frauds, to
^ton, then much resorted to by the youim nobility ;
and to put diem under the care c^ Sir Henry
Wotton, Provost of that College, a man of leam-
iim and accompliahmenits, and a particular friend
of his own ; beingattached to eaui other by a re-
raprodty of former civilities. They set sail from
Youghut, and arrived safely at Bristol ; not, how-
ever, without ronmderHble danger of being cap-
tured fay some'Turkish pirates, who at that Um^


inCMted the Irish coaaC From BnMA thef ra-
paired directly to EtoD, and were cmnmined to
^ cara of Mr Hamaon, then roastw of tlie achool.

Hie extraordioaiy parta and capacity of the
young p^iloBcqtha', dui not eicsfte the obsemc
tisB of his jn^dona teacher, i^m aeenw to hare
poaasHMd onrommon talents for ezcitii^ the men-
tal powOT of youth. He took care, accordinglyt
to forter and expand those proiniaing blossoms ;
and to smooth the rn^ed path of knowledge by
the most gentle and attractJTe artifices. He would
eecMuwally diapMue with his attendance at scliool,
and inatract hiin privately in his chambo' ; give
him play days unadunted ; or ind^ge him with
balls, t?[M, and other implements of amosemeiit.
Sometitaes he wonld commend otbeia before him,
to rouse hk emulation ; or bestow these ^Hmisea
?poa himaelf, as an encowagement to greater ex-
ertiime in deaerring them. He was not merely
caieful to store hi* roemwy with words, hot to
instract bim in the tne use and valued learning i
and to cmuider study not so much as a task or s
duty, bnt as the best w?y to purchase for himaelf
future hffi?pineat and disdnction in the w<K4d. By
this aSkble and prudent traetment, he acquired \Mt
taste and relish for knowledge Wiich neFO" for-
eook him, and which grew up into tbose habiln of
MBidnooB inraet^ation, for iriiich he becane af-
terwards BO remariuble.

So strong waa Ins pasnan for leaning, even at
dut early age, that he eageriy deroted to it erery
leisure hour he ecndd tfwie; and set himself to
reading, inth soch intenaity. of ap[dicationi that
hismastwwas sometimea oUigedWfbree luinoat
to take lite aeoeanryenniaeldr hit health. The



bookwbidipleawd him mwt, "and whiohconjured
wi in him that nnBatisfied appetite <rf knowledge,
which continned aa greedy as when it waa first
iWBed," WBB QuintiiB Cnniiis ; which be h^^ned
sccidentally to penue. Of that author, he <^n
spoke with gratitude, and need to say, that he
owed mtse to Qaintua Cnrtias than Alexander
did; having derired more advantage from the his-
tory of thftC great monarch's conquest, than ever
he did from die conqaests themselves. There
is obviously something in that ?ssoinating biognr
{dier, that t^terMes stroi^ly (m the aspiring mmda
of yonth. The reading of tliis hist<?7, which
created in Boyle that Brdonr which made him a
scholar, is said to have made Cha^ Twelfth.
of Sweden a hero.

During his Stay at sduwl, he has recorded seve-
ral accidents that happened to him, which it aeema
almost impoauble he should have remembered, as
he was then little more than nine years of ^e ;
and which must be accounted for, partly from ^
vivid apprehensions of the dangers he had escaped,
and puily fivm bis having a capacity so mnch
saperior to bis years. By the sudden &11 of the
chamb^ where be lodgec^ after he had retired to
bed, he was put in imminent peril ofiiis life; and
had certainly been stifled, or crushed to pieces
by the cbairs, books, and furniture of the ro<Hn
above, had not his bed protected him, and the
sheete, in iriiich be wi^ped his head, allowed him
to breathe vrithont being suffocated by the dust
and rubbish in which he was enveloped.

On another occasion, while riding, his horse
takingfright, suddenly reored, and falling backward
(gainst a wall, had cerlunly crasbed Um nndw



ils iraigjfac, had be not disengaged his foot front
the etirmi^ and thrown buagelf off, as it weia by
inatinct, befwe it fell A ttiird time fab life was
fodacgered by tlie mistake of Us medical aUen-
dsnt, who adiniiust?red to bim a, wroag diao^t,
whiiji might have been attended with ftttal conse-
Ijueaoea, had itot its effecta been coant?facteid, by
bsiTiiigBCtadentallyaBten of some sweetmeats. This
cRor made biai long after apprehend more &om
the physiciaa than the diaeese ; and was profaaUy
OSB reason tot his applying himself so inqaiuIiTely
b) the study of medicine. These estiaMdinaTy
?Bcapmbe asoibed, n0ttoid>auce,buttodw hand
of a watchful (wovidHice^ and 1m iKieserred thq
vecollectioD of tbeaa, fron the coariotiw that
there would hare be?i as mnch of ingralitude in
fwaaiiig them over in ailiuce, as of moral btind-
nees ta not discwnii^ and acknowled;^ them.

The oflty other af9icti^i?ceiirrence thath^>peoed
him while at school, was a aerere attack bom a
tertiaB agne, whidi appearod to set all tile arts
^d remedies of physic at de&mce) aod reduced
him to a BtsM of great debitity. it w?8fawidae>
cassacy !ot a time to intenupt liis findiea, and al-
low hun to dirttl ^ misd with books of uaasing
?tMiea, or fiibulow aAyfCjSMBe% swJi as Amadia
de Gaid, and other tomanoee ; the eSeot otw^i^
was to imsettle and bewilder Ihs than^ta, and fill
Usimadination with wxnderingaDd lestleas witbes.
These ariwiswts, he wm of <(iiMoii,.did him u
!, than aU die advnriaoe they

. . tege they wMiId ibare

done him, &ad they e&cted Us recoverjr ; fw he
Img ionad it di?adt to apply Imb stteBtwn to any
dug, or recall his thoo^tts froa tfaepttrsuit of ro-



Am a lUuly axfe^MU ior recluning his mad,
and ovrbiBg the roving nildnew of his volac^
ftfiCf, be tHined hia thoughts to the acndy of -joai-
tlieiiiMicai espeaaHy the more laborious operelions
of algebra ; a r^edy not m<tte eSectual than ec-
Oaordinary. That oorels and adTentnrea ehoold
jiave dissipated his melancholy and his imsgino.
tion, was qaita natural ; but that a boy of faisyeare
alumld aot only have discovered the fsscinstion 1^
whidi tte had beon misled, but have sought for aa
aotidMe in the eztractioa of ciUm loota, and al^
faraieal saliitiaiis, i* altogether remailcable, and a
jMioof ot that wonderful eneigy and raMdnUoa ot
mind wbkfa he poHsessed, er?n from lus infancy.

The ^^atinate agne, which neither pfayiHc> mar
tbematice, noc romance could expel, was cored by
4B ac^dent, or rtfhsr by the mere fwce of imagi-
aaaoa. tCe muse having a potion to administer,

t^ loathaeme dianght forsyrapof atewedpnmes ;
wtd vfaether it was the tninli, occasioned by this
innocent deceit, or trhetho' nature had wraught
Iter own ciit?, the disease vaaiahed never to retom;
wmI he had mack ado to maistaia his gnvLty ob
fstkng the doctor ascribe his recovery to the effi-
icaef of a potion he had new awallowad but in

e rowiaed at Etw nearly Conr yeais, dnriag
iriudk hi* atodiaa wwe fuiiHwd vnth unabated
alacrity, and with ao iiMun^W, except from
Mekaem, ?ad a tew ooeasioBtd exGnnitms to Ymx
tuB celKiaDa in 'Exi^aai. Fnwi Etoa be was re-
moved to StaUiri^ in Dmaetshiie, mi estate
newly porchased by Us father, who had lately
td(en up his residence dure ; aod was deairoiu-qf



seeing him. He wu alwayi a faTOmite ivith the
old ^rl, whether from any peculiar reaemblance
he bore to htm, or perhaps nvm a hm>y instinct
of natnre, which, while parents give tnor eldest
children the greatest portion of ttuorfOTtniw, often
the youngest the latest share of their

While here, he was committed to the charge of
Mr Douch, a clergyman in the inunediat? neigfa-
bonriiood, and one of fais father's chaplmns. mth
him he was chiefly employed in renewing his ac-
qoauittuice with the Latin, which he had partially
f or^ten ; having spent his last year at school, n-
ther in acqnirtngthe more solid parts of knowledge,
than in stndying words ; which did not much con-
sort with his disposition. Sendee, harii^ lost his
former master, he had been deprived of thove encoa-
isgements that had snbdutd his areraion to elaatd-
cat Btadies ; and had abandoned his Terenc? and
his gnuninar, to read in history the gallant aMions
of ^ose heroes, who were the glory of their own
country, and the wonder of sncceeiUng ages.

By the drility and attention of his rererend
tntor, he speedily recovered his knowledge of the
JRoman tongne ; so far that he conld read it with
ease, and express himself readily in prose, and began
to be no mean adept in artificial hexameters. But
tfeon^ he was naturally addicted to poetry, and
felt no small delight in the converMtion of th6
Muses, he never cultivated his talents in that way ;
not that he imdervalned this el^^ant accomplDOt-
ment, but because, in his travels, he had fallen out of
acquaintance with the ancient poets, and neverafter
Goold find time to redeem his losses. Yet in his
idle hours, be wrote rerses bodi in French, Latii^



and Eoglixh, moat of which, wlien he came of age,
were committed fio the flr.nes. Me acquired, bow-
erer, eome ski]! m moBici botJi vocal and inatru-
menta], though he did not prosecute the etndy.

About the same time, he began to read and in-
terpret, with a Frenchman, the Universal. History,
written in Latin. This fweigner, whose name was
Marcombes, to whom the femily of Boyle owed
many and singul&r obligaticnoH, and who had great
merit in trainiog more than one generation of this
noble line, had newly arrived in England with the
Lords Bro^iill sad KineUnesky, with whom he
had travelled ae tutor for diree yean; and had ac-
quitted himself bo lalis&ctomy, that the Earl
entnuted him nitli the sole care and education of
tnn yoanger< eooSi

In theanlumn of 1638, he attended bit Eather to
Londtm, whare he remained till the mairifige of
ills brother Fiaocia with Misa Elizabeth Killigrew,
one of the Qifeea'a maida of honour ; and within
four days BSt&, the two brothers were sent on dieir
tiwds to the contineut, under their new governor,
Mr Marcomhea. E^tarking al Rye alxnit the
end of October, they proceeded, by Dieppe sod
Hoaen, to Faria, where tbey atAyed only a very
short time, and took their departure fen: Lyons.
Afier seeing thia emporium of tnde and merchan-
di?e, they croased the lofty moiuitwna of the Sa-
voy for Gwera, which they reached in three days,
llus little commonwealth wai an object of pecu-'
liar attracts, having been the scene of many po-
liticaj strtwglei, and the cradle of the reformed re-
Il^oo. Here alao their inetructlona directed them
tp r^nain, and {mraue their studies. They were
lo^lged in die house of their govenior, whose wifs
and femily resided in the town.



The bnmchee of education to wliich he chieflf
mtplied hiiuelf, were fbetoiic and logic; pw-
bcntaily mathematics, witii iu anboidinate sdence*t
for which he bad already a4M]iiiied a stroi^ pree-
lection. Under die tnidon of Mr Mercombea, hia
improvement was rapid. He not only tsnglitluiD
the theory of g;eometry, but the application also ;
the most tuef^ parts of arithmetic, the doctrine of
the Bphere, that of tlie globe, and fortification.
Hiere was io his pupil'a temper thia singnlarity,
that aa soon ea he became acquainted with any
edeoce, he was for applying it to some use ; and
therefore ^ practiral parts of trigonometry de-
lated him much ; and fortification, instead of be-
ing comidered as a stndy, appeared to him a most
pleasant amusement. Geogt^hy was a kind of
travelling apon paper ; aatronoiny, a Toyage to
the heavens ; and so of other sdencea, wbic^ in-
stead of being reputed B labour, were to him a de-
li^tfol recreation ; and very often proved both bis
business raid his diveraitm in hit tnvels. Tn these
notions he was led on, and sustained by his gover-
nor, who appears to have bean a man of great
parta as well as prudence, and to have nndeistood
well the art of educating youth.

To improve his body aa well aa lus mind, he
was instnicted in the accomplishinenla of fencing
and dandng ; the former of whidi exercises he
never much afiected, and the latter he utterly con-
temned. By a total discontinuance of his native
tongue, fae soon acquired a skill and readiness in
French, somewhat tutcommanta stoaagfn; wfaicb
osed in all his writings while abroad, m being the
language in whi<^ he could express lunuelf best.
Bnt the most rematiiBble occmrence tliat hsfi-



peoed daring hia stay M Geneva, wu tlie reviTsl
of his religions iinpreaeionB, iriiich, it appears, w?ra
beginning to subside ; partly, as he bimeelf hint^
from mixing with gay compamooa, and partly from
his mind being so wholly engrossed in literary pw-
snits. His inclinstioiis were ever viituoos, and hie
life iireproachdjle ; and though he was not a stran-
ger to uie passicHiB inddent to youth, yet their im-
portaniUes altnys met with a deniaL This blame-
lessness of monl conduct, howerer, seems to hare
acted M an ofHBte to his conicience, and diTert?d his
thoughts from aspirii^ to higher attainments is

One immediate occa?on of awakening his re-
flectioos on this subject, was a violent dmnder-
storm, which came on about dead of night, and
roused him in terror from his sleep, with snch
loud and frightful peals, attended with flashes of
lightning so freqaent and darling, " that he began
t? imagine them the sallies of that fire that must
consume the world." His i^prehenaions b^an to
pre^nre the day of judgment to be at hand, while
the trembling cossciouanese of his unprepared con-
dition, led him to the resolution of devoting the re-
nunder of his life, should it be spared, to greater
vintance and attention on the subject of religion.
VVnen mMning came, and a serene cloudless sky
returned, he renewed and iBtiGed his determina-
tion so solen

the dangw was past; for although fear, and he
was ashamed to make the confession, was the first
occasion of his vow, yet he took care, by lus sub-
sequent conduct, to convince the world that ha
owed not his more deliberate consecration of him-


self to piety, to any less noble motive than that of
its own excellence.

Another incident happened about the same time,
which, conewring with hiB sensitive imsgination,
and hia naturally grave disposition, tended to ^-
ti'act him with other religious perplexities, and set
him npon a more seiious and mquisitive eiaminii-
tion of the tnith. From Geneva he had made some
eicnrsions to visit the interesting distiicls of Sa-
voy and Dauphiny ; and while at C^?noble, tus
curiosity led him to view those wild mountains
where Bruno, founder of the Cartbnsian MonkB,lived
in solitude, and where the principa] Abbey of that
order was seated. The locaJ peculiaritiee of thia
romantic monastery, Jj^ther with tie strange sto-
ries and pictures he found there of Bruno, so
WTOi^ht upon his fency, " suggesting such strange
and ludeouB thov^hts, imd sum distracting doubt*
of Bome-of the fondamentals of Christianity, that
thoi^h his looks did littie betray his thoughts,
nothing but tfaie forbidd^nness of self-dispatdi hin-
dered bim from actii^ it." These itnpreanons con-
tinued many titenths ; tmd though he sAerwarda
looked upon them rather as temptatians to be sup-
' pressed, than donhts to be resolved ; yet they
wonld now and then, as he confessed, like fleetiag
douda, draken the clearest 8?%nity of bis peace.
All this, however, instead of having any bad ef-
fects, was productive of the happiest results ; and
?ke many other seeming evils, was designed to
work together tar bis good. From thme anxieties,
he derived the advantage of being more firmly
grounded in his religion, and having his peace of
mind satisfactorily established ; " for," to use his
own words, " the perplexity lus doubts had


cmu^ obliged him, in onler to remove them, to
be oeriomly inqniaitiTe of the trnth of the my
ftinilimiMifjia of Christienity ; ad' to beu iriiat.
bath Gieeka and Jews, and Uie chief secU of Chrit^
liaiw, could allege for thek ser?ral opmiwia ; tJut
ao, thongh be believed more than he coold cob-.
prehaid, he mi^i not believe more than he cenld'
preve ; and not owe the Hted&atness of his fiuth, to
?o pow a canse aa tbe-ignoraseeaf what might be
at^ectad against it."

He thongbt tHeae mi?Iitde credit in having sna
K good id^iTon by inheritance ; or thinking it the
beat, because it was generally received, ntberdiaB
embrace it, because it may be proved to be the beat ;
and that there conld not be a greater folly than to
neglect any diligence tbot mi^t prevent mistakes,
wWs-it was dwgroiUat of miseries to bsdeceivcid;
for of sU things region was the Worst to be taken
tqNm trust, and no mtu deserved to find the traeoner
wb?ij>d not care toexsosine wbetberornot it was
Oi How well he acted npon this mBxim himself,
the whole history of his life shews. Philosophy,
tfar?ngh all its provinces, became with htn an- en-
gma far promoting religion ; and to this pions ap*
plication he made all those valnshle truths snhsa<-
vient, which be dracovered while asatyaing the ot'
gHtic elements of nutt?T, and studying tile Kaok-
of Nature by the light of the chemiMV fomaee.

Canmderingtbe time whea dus eontroveny in
llis mind took place, being then hot in his foiir> .
tMtnh y?ac, and the ordinary carelessness or in-
capMity of youth, in regard to any matter of im-
pwtMHA there mi^t perhaps be some grounds to '
?napect the tmtb, or ridicule the Mlenonity of b?
fmlffaarrlinary an ocdurence ; but the nncommon-

SB' coNVEKxs raoH du'ideliiy.

fceoMi^ ?( Ui tatOBt^ dw ibwigtb nd dMVHa '
of haajadgraon, hi* aatiam-n knowledge, of wIkIi
-'-""'-^ proWa axHt in tfa? letter* in mat* U
HkoB time to faia &Uier, dl ipbinly diev bia csp?-
City, eTMi at tliat Mriy acMon, to praaamte Wch
ariaouB inqniriea-; si>dta mMr, mdi a pecfact ?a-
dsFstBiidiag of the aubfect, mto the deqwat diB*
intea of reveoM religwn. And whatever cmi-
atroctioD amy be pot mMn Uie matter, one fact ia
at leaat certain, that these impMamou, hoiVeror'
praaaat oi e, or carnal' in their origin, were per-
wmmtt in their MnaeqaeMaa ; and that all hia-
MJbaeqMatt iaveatigationa only *mAtd'ih? aaora to

thnM^ Tt"~". Zurich, uii 8el?Her vamtaad
the greaterpMrtof Lmnbardy,aiid amridiateiierwaa
onowt'm Be^amo,Bceaeii,VarraB,Vicfliiia, Adas,
shI Venice) where he romamed aoma thae; grclly.
^digbted with the conataaC nriaQr?f al]}ectB,aiKl

thidtw for trade; from Venice he MrittfaanMi.
Ifaoiig^ Bolegaa, aad Fenan; to Hemno^ aad
tbare i^eat Ihe winter. Here -part of hiatniewM
nnplojEed in acqniiaig An Ilalim hu^negOi ia
wUch he i]aiGkly atuinad a tMtreaeceat, and
knowledge enMig^ tAoaderatand both beak a and
nen, dmi^ he Barer wsa able to ^leak it ao fla-
4Brty aa Frutdi.

- llie roat ef hia apan boora were deroted to
rattdii^ nadam Uattxy, " aad the aear |iBr)idaiwa
(rf< the (jrast-atar^jKaerGameo," whwa iq|e?iow
qpuMU w? eapMt^ b;^ s dacne of liewe> ^Uch



in fUkMDf^ n IB fe)i(|iM| ud eeeaMd ?mitd M
htwlhe flt^titf ?f Am wMtetitBd i? qtMMton> OH
wfciihwipMWiliBB imi enMed bar irammtcmpHo.
bwn^ongMr BoylA> nridnM' in tUi city,
thM GiOaw dM,?Avteritig Mdfarc4mwh?lkB
dw i ? p *B> rf wg-?BA?Ww i? i c a oflbBCiwi:^ Hm*
aba be had an impartwuty- of wit ae wAig ^ dfa?-
Jp tiwtai rfgwatliM mliH iw u M w hi tbyewdtod dn-
liag tfafrXMBintr and (bongb Ma emmty vmtf-
timm tod turow hc.pw w w ?faiaUtMtB> nUrii
canwt'lwuamad, be abAp

(oBiid any iadieiManwi^tiiirtdaiM,Mtbejr
agaervt - thenuiim, tk^JnnpndNtt iiahiidmwi ot
Tiee datfau^ ita^ with a daftnaiu ?bidi dewr^
ticui taiot r eacb, M d ttowent of fW n ib'do Wt

In tStnik, sezt year, he qniUod Flonnee far
ReMe,.wlim be anired' aftei a jmsn*; ?f fiv*
&ya. .Hve>be paaacd Cork Fnadmaa, in mdir
to Mer? tmamamitf *h> MMW Owa wWw ?f
dn caMnledcity; and to avoid ^ ntrwaoflt
aaAiBqMRWakMvof the&n^iiA jMnin. Under
thatdiigwha; bemitedavatydiuigmcMdMeiTn^
ofTiotiw; aad aciwy odMP Bttwawiii "i be beddtt
faM?mftt??M dw Pop* at 1?bqnl, viA tbe C^i^
^Mla,' wbo, ?eMmUy ifipMriBg mighty pttBoaa IB
AbI wnndily} looked lito caamoa ftian ; md
hrab, be US? va, be cosld not diooee bW nileto

apoBilBi-knMO oaiefaity with hia fe^ ineeep nM
hta ban&MdDe^'dMAuthMMoKneaB'BgeKVr'ibet
l*d, t^ iTMdn^ mtilrCoaMcnted, a*if it bad bowi
amae mincNkNn retio" Hn PniMi ho obeamdj

40 COMVEKT8 FItOM )lfri?XLlTT.

i? vtffv fmsd lew niavd than in Saibe ; fiaclm
Jta^ ; lud ifaaiafim.it ?M oMnufiriuiig badioald
/wbid tha aigfal,t(f Rone to PnoMsUaMo, Mwe b^
.thing ?aiil(l more confinu j^bwn in lb^ nlifftB.
JWt?r a abort etaf JK liiBt,?u>-&a)adxa9itBl> he M-
^tHTned to flor^wc^ thence ta Fiw, L^^Km, and
?o by Ma |o GelUM>

. HkHsig thus tiwda the tour of Italf.lMieRiiiied
ihrougb the countiy of Mice to. Fnaee, ead ar-
riredat AJ>libea,(Hw(rftlie frontier towns. Here
Jw oanoioly eacapad euffenng fw iua coBteafC ?f
? ?apaistitkns"ceremoay, in refoaiDg. to t?k? off
a. cmci&t. Ficon Aa-

^h^a be tHoaeodad bf hutdto^sneiUe*, wbeeebe
.axpaDtadbilkurfeKotui^a. Butimxeadof pacamaiy
Aliyp^i he j?ae)ved Otters iioBi bb father, in Mmr
lii42, giving a melaneholy account of the rehet-
lira.inlrBiwd; ?nd that with graat difficallf he
bad pfiocnred thwn ?250, to bear their ?KpenuB
bmae- : T^ moaey, howevar, they nerer recemd,
ftou the Mlhleamcas of iIm penon to whom the
Temitlance was intrnalcd. In this danitiita oe?-
dition, siKl>nafoi?igne(^Dta7,dcywerabr??^
ky taemw of Mr JUaroambea' aaaisttBce, to Gmin,
where, by reaafai of the oonbaJHnB at bein^ ibajr
waited tira yeara innpaQtadan <rf Ha[4)liea; aad
at last' ware ?acaaeitalied to.take up aaiae jewdlaty
?A the credit of tbor goveaMH', tfrfudi tbaf aidd
from phwe to place ; and with tbe moat^ ihaa
laiaed, they continnad tbwr journey to En^aad,
rbere dwy anired towards the middleof 16Mu

On hie ariiral, which waa uaexpected to all
bia relaliMiB, Mr Boyle found his fadwr bad
baaa dead nearer: twelre numtfaa ; and dun^ be


boUrt botlk 41

?w ?a^y pw?iii?d br hy dw beqncM of tbi
MBH of BtiJtin^ DdsoBW'sdnr cMuidwiiIilfe
MiaMi m bsbm^ ^ fiRm th? hUMUmI one of
lfa??o?ttrf, itWM ?mna tin* bflfore be obqU contf-
SMod Mf money, or ?t pMMMton ?f Ua legacies
wdnvM-tAliMd M'Ue ?p fafa i w wk pw ^dhfais
mteci L^Raaahgii, wi^ wbMn be lodged w-
wnls of fon mantlM. It was by aeddent m
iu lilw i MM, b?t it proved ? imcky M%id?nt fat-
Uainwn ftm* lUfiptMM, as-mtt M for de istereMfe
^MteBMi Cm had Iw not bem dettindis thit
apMabfa iuBily, be bad eertrtidy goM lots tU
amy, wliM* bit prino^lM and hia iMib ra& BOBM
iMaid af beiag cMMandaataA; ? aa lb gMierriity
?f tboae be voold ba?? baaa oUigoi to cetimrw
*itbi Wtxe raiy debawched, and apt, aa well ?
itudinaUeito makeodwia ao." Tfaroa^ tb?-hil?-
H^'of bia bfoUtai^ IxHd &oa^a), and tbe
?M??tKteaa fiandaf^ b* obtaael pcotaetilta fiir
tpantnlw in boib ka^leBB, aa well aa laave tO
ntmi Mfimee An ? dm* tunei en kumcaa of
; piobablytOMtdftbiawPMnwidiMt

: In'tba.'naiAorKhnib liM, haratirad te bia
maim .at SWbridge, wiMra he manly rerided fot
IHf a adfcoffiMryaiw. H?iniid?excanioniMa?L
(BC? ta LondoB, aonttfanaB to OidM ; and te
fl^nary 1649,lN)Mde a^en ftayagatoHoQawh

tMWity, Aat baa inled acme ri Urbkgnphen
to atqnMM' fas bad amdied-W iba UniraniW af
Leitdab. WbOa' M Sialteidge, he iq^liad Mai>'
ielfwMinMrediUe indMUytftaMdinef variook
liu^ aa eAica? M wbkb bvxo^oaed atnatit^


jxKebaiaot, hmbaOiTy, bat pmiiei^aAy, toaMuil
piukMH^dtyand cfanBHtTf. ET^doiiBgliii'tnrala,
Bu ^^Ucatioa hftd nerer rahxed, aad he would
.BOt loM ? vacant moment, " if thay werewaJkiag
,Attwa a hiU, or upon a ron^ road, be wtmiA road
.all tbe.waf ; aiid when they came at ni^ttotbeir
iuiiii.be wonld .rtill he atndyiag, till snpper, aad
.freqnendy proposed endt di^nlnas
tridi to hia KOTcnutr." Thk paeaimi
.with nnabatea vigoar; and it ia amanag^to find
^wbat vast progvew he made, not only in- many
bmteliea of litentnre, but in Home that bars bean
always bdd the moat difficolt and abMntsa..
- In pabtioB he meddled as little as possble, yat
hJB.UtHestt his humaaity, and bis piety, woald not
anffet himtobe ammconcenied spectator of those
anserias nodar which his conatiy then, groaned ;
aad in vmaa of hk lettera at this period, he haa
vaay peninent rMueika 09 the cooseqneiceH of
dn.wai, and the lactioits diriuoae that: bad sproog
np.boA in Church and State. .On scieulific mb*
jecta he aatered into a very exienrare consqMMO-
deuce, which he aflierwBrda maintaiiied nlA boom
;0f the most lesraedaod.eetiniablechaiactersttf bia
tiine,.till near the olote ?f Ips 1&. Ha tuaUted
JW oppiwtaBity ol 'beaming, aniquainted widi pcfv
IHMU dislULgiiiihed &? l^Mtts and kaiwng, W
^riigm he was in erery .raapact a nsc^, .Hleadj\
and geaennis ajKutaui^ end .camiamikUed freetf
fm all pcantt lA knowledge.
. . Among these early fnraids with whom he. bald
piatolary iMercouiae, wae bis tator Mr Mar>
caad^M, Ur Fnnds T^nu?,aftennvds known
far hia bfaanons wmk^ entitled " Chroaol^ic?d
IsUea;". Mr. Sauoel Hardib, a laanied Pola,


iimliiaiil by MStDn in tnri TnctoCeoB EdaotiBB,
M " ? persMi sent hitber by mbm geod previ'
dflaoefrom a &r cmmUy, to ba the occaaum mid
iscitaBeiit of groat good to tliii i>tla<d :" Dr, Bfl?r-
TOida Six WUliam Petty, 1> J<^ B?de, and
Bwny other cekbtsted eliaracterfi. In hit coitm-
pODdHuv, the nibJB(:t trf. religion is frequently al-
htded to;iaiid yoangBod wdent as he ^en waa,
be gave nndonbted proofs of hia ondour and Chri?-
?aa e^ariXf, in a letter to Mr Jdm Dnry, fainoui
far hk attentpta to reconcile the Latherans aad
- CalTuiiata. " It baa loBg bem," (says he), " my
wonder aad my grief, to tee aoca compaiatiTely
petty cUffomcee in judgment midie tnch wide
brencfam, and vatt divitJona ia afiectien. It i?
aBaage fliat meo dtoald ratbw be quamUingfora
?bw Bifling opimooB, wherua they dissent, mn ta
wolnace one auodter for those many fundaBMnt^
tmtlu. wherein they agree. For my part, I c?nld
navat obaervp in any church gorermtient such
tramcendent excellency, aa fwild oblige me ?tjter
to bolt heaven agmnet, or open Newgate for, aU
thoee iriio believe they may be saved nadw an*

'. He was abo e?e of the first membert of that
ssa^.bnt teanied body of men, who, when dl
acadnnical andiea were iatertnpled by the civil
wan, resolved, ibont the year 1645, to widi*
diaw tbemidvat frmn those melanebsly scenes,
and held private meetaigt, first in Ixmdon, and
aflerwaiida at Oxford, fix the ptnpote of canvaa-
?in^ snbjects of natural koovrtedge, upon the plan
of experiment reconuMeaded byL?4Bacoii. IIub
liMla society, styled by lam tke Invisible CMege,
and by tfa^urivee the FbUoaofdikal Cfdlege, were

wcnytcMed \f dMNn.aftv As MUnnwiwi, vii
diatuifUibBd, w tbey mil dmratt, by tlw ^tla
of (he KoyiJ Sowty. It u cnttodyno Huil ho>
awr. w OUT philowjdtM', thMj wtenlM ?M?'*?

d fqi (be unrtaoaH af tb^ bb*
dnatttft^ii^ aad tbe aingntaiity m weU^a adotf
of tb?r aowMk

HiKgmA(li%nc?aMl/a|ipliemtiffn wan m mA
tbo iiM>? wpriBBg uul oamam^U^aa at AM-
tim?-lUB bedih f** nry m?eh diMrdeMd bf faM
qnenf attaiolu of ibe Mm, ? ^mmb toiriiidiJ*
iru ??tiwndy mbjeeti and wUdi liirwdatfHf U^'
|IFoili^7 cwntiibntad to aggranMir Au BoCwMti
rtnodyig Aw, aad the - fre^Mitt atternqfiMU -faB
inet 1^ fawi hiw ia aiB , riwM <o bM tri?iaH> 4c?i
te m)?r ?nffwed Iu? dxMgln to ba dklnieudi'Mr
tiii df4gM to b? bmkea m& fay ?iy Bf:lhMB'anM
dento; u ^peon by tas^bnwgcoin^clMl'lhva'
ngidar ?id excelku piect* befort hu had imihwl'
idi tF?iJj^ yem, otr. hk S?wUb I^n^ Uk
]^yfin:Sfunkeik Mnbfty^ and )u* FraeUit
eooiae agaiaat CMtoaaary &wtmag. . j

- Hia iiKtraaiiing repMatiao Macooisged- tthtf
laamid vwn W Oidti?ilte hia firf?uUbb wd fmi
Irona^; and in 1651, Dr IMbanU Hi^kiii??
an wQUDent ph][Bi?ia% 4Mdi(at?dt(

. k leMpigc sMcii vaa ban m
flatteiy, " wilb awli ?miMpBBd|dea of the baah



that jTw atwdbotfaftpattamand wondw taooi

-^*?. .???*


ir predoBB mwtaB, >tUt dtey an csRie?U?(D
Diut for one, or Bpesd an hour bnt in vice.
'But yoi Jttve asde a better asd tar nobler clwice.
Yea bore' not tboi^ht yow blood uui deseeiitde-
.hwied, beoMue mMried t? the atta. Yon Mick B?t
4o trace naUva in JieriDwtiBtncate.pBthe; tofra-
live ber to a eonfeanoD, though mth your ows
-wraat and treaanre obtained."

Beaidea Ids other jierformaoGea, Mr Boyle, vfao
-naxer reiiHtted his leligious piowits, liad aboat
thia lime, as appeara from sereral doGumoat^
Erected his Btadiea to theperuBal and exanrinslioii
?f the &criptD]:es in the original tongnw, in wbidi
. Jte made great profidency. Hia " Eeaay on the
Soipture^" tnil*en in 1652, at iaterv^aud undw
amy tlhadmUBges, lb a very fiattcnag apediueii
^ iaa lalenta as a Inbltad critic and contmni scaiffi
jadiaons dioag^Cs conceivng the English uaaala-
twn of the BiUe ; which, enc^eot as it was, he
imagiaediaight la atHoe places be corrected and im-
{)nn<ad, fiooi the great inereaae of light .whii^ the
Keeaiches of entice and antiqaariea had throwa
4IB taany teste. The puas he himself took to at>-
qinre (he aae?d laafaagea he iKTar gmdged.
" For my part, (taye he) reflei^ng <^ten oa David's
gaaeroaity, who would not offer, m a eatriftee tn
the Ltml, tlat whieh cast \mn uMhing, I eeteen
w? lahouc lavi^ei] that iUosuUea or endesm to me
tfaat dmne book; sad tluakitjie.tieacberons siga
that God.lovet'a iBBn, .whea hainciineaJus heart
to loae -die Scriptwes, iriive the truthaare so pt^
cioas aad ija^wtsnt,. that the purchase must, at
leaat, deserre the price. And I coofeaa myself
to be noaeof thowliiBiypem?M,'i?k>?B?ataex<
pect to obtaip fiwiB God a kaowledge Af the woo-


den ?f Ilia book, Upon m c*^ Mmm as AdaM M
a wUs, bf ilBapiog wtKoiif."

TUb Mnw yw ha w?nt Wcr to [nlaad to riait
and Mttle UtartalM ia-^tat bJagdoBr Mdnext
ytan^ ditonlemd Htale af tbu ooniOvjr ^itigad Uaa
to pMfMm the jonraay a?eM?d-tinM. Hsn* fae
lamaioed titt miikaBnWE, 1AM, tkoagh Ub MM^
deuce was by no mewis agre^tle to Irinii aa 4m
wanted' die meaiM and appoiMiHtT' rf preaeeatiiig
bi? fitvoMrite rae aiJ w o. la oaa of Ua leltMa to
atylet it " a b a t iw ita B cooaBy ; wiHre ^aDUcal
ijiintB Twe Ml miaoadcmood, andehamieal kua<?
mnta ao aii|m>carabl?, that it ^bk hard to Ittn
any bermMic ihou^ts in it." He therefore' ex-,
erated himaelf in inaUng amtmaical diiaM^eM,
in n^Bcli he waa asMsted byhi* bwi Ite WWiia
Patty, pbyrioan to the anaf, and oh of the noat

From their jmst atndiaa and c

dum^ he Mtdd B?M wttb few who had aithar
aldll . Br cnrisatf iai that vmff yat nlrar ore ??>
bnog^ to Uaa, wtieh. wia ImumI upon ?aa of -Ua
Iwothaf'a eatttea, 'and wUcb, iqion trial, waa aati^
inqTr-l M hr Trnitli hrTTTifin llriit)) and fnilijr pnanJa

In Jaae, iAS% be Mlpned to Eoghad, and pMt
?V4KeGBtioii da^jB b* hadJacmed .of aettUog af


nMiow iTKBda, and mtM fcr die c
1^ tbH {dMMffimMtepmMiagl


a, JWyw wj raJrairtagfe IntUa
'w mat In tkie to the oHleat'
MMKikd b7 s nudier ?f

. hw imtgHkem w mm twa of the IwrhibleCrifag^
?b> thn ti'Mpfcmed ^ sceae of tbcir tBvwti|;a<
eaonweU'H nrtvl. Sir '<3viM?idMr WrM, E^
WattH, W?d, WaUs, Ac mm *M Mdebnted t?
Mqmre aaj pnticvlar enonmatioii of thrif'
nUiti; bMg' na lea eauiibnk far tbrai geatn*
Ibn fa* th^ wnreariad tatiihrity W coltiiU* and
peoHioto the nMt madti pan of litcratnra.'
Tliitj Imliliiimiliii iiiaiiliin)aali'iaihi'tlMi^alaii(^iiii
akea in Mr Boyla's martMuuto, in whkli' tbay
emtfytni tMttfoa.Aaetafbitai aaAtjecU; and
beuK aatiiied that Imm waa no cwtun mf of
ainvb^ aiadf << ?]w W a ft l i w wwI i i dBC , salaaa tfaey
ifaade a Tiiiaty af ??^iwtfMinfpoaitiprttodie??
in otiBc to diaewvitt' what p fcaa wa o wi tfaef woobl
psdaco, dwy pursked tint Medud fay tfaMnsalvw
vmh gMU indoany, and then comnmiiicaled Aar
discsraiM ta each o Act.

ThiainHaaodety and comae of Ue.exaelly
aMt?ttwdnfediiMMna?fMvB?ylK Witbbw
aalid attaiaaKnta mmtdKoMaial iMd dnaical
kuowMce, be aeoa delectail ^ abanrdtty of
AtaHottaapfailaa^yiB ^x^^htg thfr'plinMniena
oF nature, wUch had ao lang damineei?il ia the
schools ; and rejected it as-a OCR ayatoni of wnrds,.
that CMiJd narar wak? any raaa more iBtcfii|wtb



The jMimaphy of DMcartM had begmtto attnet
the belief Mid adninuJon of ^ wertd; batMha
wsi resehed to acqnieec* in no eb)gl? Mui'a hy-
pMbeeis, asd t? draw no conclMSUHW from pfemiMS
in natural science which be conM not MNnaUj
verify hinMekf, he long ra&aiiwd from wding
tbe wM-ka of that aente asd riegant aadnr, lert
the ingenuity of his priBciplea, wboae eeUlwIy.
wna spreading; orar all 'EnpefM^migbtbiaa' bin nmd
in wiidng isot and ^mriment tbe ealy i Bto pt^'
tenofnuva. And m cmtrmead ms be ef . ibe
utility of nich pnntnts to mwddnd, cren a* nab-
Mre of amnMnMat, tbat be used every endeavMr
to persMde tbe nobility and gentry of tbe aatHNm
vbo bad meaiM and losore for aaeh studiea, W
fdlow hii exanple, and engage ihenuelTM i& in-
qniriea which would divert them from tboae Imo*
Ions and criminal pleamres with whieb' nOBt of
tbem occupittd themariTes ; aad would make tbem
not only better ClmBtiana, but miM? nadkl Me?
ben of society.

It waa dDTing hia rendence at Oxford, diat ha
Invantad tbe air-pamp, wfaicb wan improved aad
rendesed more perfect, by tbe ingauDDs B^eit
Hook, wbo waa em{4<^ed by Mr Bo^eaabnche-
mkal aaaistant, and afterwards ProfsMOF of Geo-
metry in Gresbani College. By means of tbia'
admimble engine, he performed eipaiimeatB which
immadiately placed him in the firrt duAl of: phil?-
Bopbers ; and made socb ducoreriee m hara gooe
rery te to enable bim, and those who sacoeaded.
him, ea^eciaUy Dr Frieatly, to focm a just theorf
of the air. By Uiia he demonstrated its elasticity.;
and that pn^vty ^one led to the elnddatton of
many more. . He hegaa also to compoae biMoriea

of tttporticidaE qnalitieB, tiU fsmded' upon expe-
tiBMoM or ebHeiTBtions, of vhiA be kept exact re-
IpMOB, in m-dcr to leare Bach nntermh i? migbt
?fatweagMforthebaBie<rf'?BiofepeHect hy-

The h^erai^ of faia rjmtrinnces, and the great
mportaiKSflf tb^ KndtB, togediw witb hia ez<
tnme BaodesCy and osndonr in reasoninff from
them, are obJMts ftfT ma reepect and admirBtion
eimr ntpreiait, when the true medMd of phitoso-
pUfling- u vaJTenaUy understood, and the efferM
of ^ wQigfatandelastieityof the ar ereregularir
tmgbt as ? part <^ ?d?catioB. Bnt how^mnin
stove nnut hare been die adiniration of plnlo-
B?pphen, when those dMc.orerie* were Sort mib-
atknted in plara of the craiB theories of earlier
tunes, wfaidi left the bewildered inquirer to grope
bis way Ht the re^^oos of conjeutore, Eind t? take
far iMltAitaUa proofs, the thsOvct notions uid chi-'
Hrical inTentions of men.

Bnt pfailosopby, and tnqniries into nMnre,tboi^
Aey engaged W ttention deeply, did not occupy
k emm^, rince be continued to pome his theo-
kgied stttdiM. In his critictsnw of the sacivd
Sctlptwes^'be derrrod peculiar advanta:gea from
the assistAics of rnrcru of the most profomnt
Oriental edtcJara which ibis connt^ ever pro-
duced, tiwn rerident M Oxford, vie. Dr Pococke,
Mr Hyde, Mr Clsi^ and Dr Bariow, afterwanfa
Bishop of Linc4rfn, a man of |?<odig^ona reading,
who knew ^rfiat the fctheia, canonists, or school-
men had snd npOn ?iy question in divinity, or any
case of eoBscience, and was with aH his accom<
pliahments, very communicaliTe of his knowledge.
' To these were added, a ceh?Bpondenc? now be-


Game Tfliy extennve ; putacdtely witbJi(r(HiE^
iHirg, a GeniiBi^ >f)?twtrd?SMi?tarytodieRi7id
Sooety ; Dr B??l?, K iMmed diviiifi ; Mr Evc^ii
the braona iudw?liHt i Dr Pell, and I> W?Ui%
bbth first rate mathematicians ; the lattw ot vbom
dedicated to MrBovlei haa IttntAbetA. " Onlbe
Cydpid," in wliidi &e nMteee hk eiwoeiU idbll in
^vinity, in the saared and ancient, as 'rt'ril.aB ukh
dem laogiiagwi B>d bis mcMBam ooltivMiA of tne
philoec^hy, by expwimeAta of i&U kinda. " I?
^ysica," (ai^ he), " nedicue, chanuby, tui
aastomy, you prose<nUe natluv as it were witk fire>
and sword ; esplorug bar iantoat receaMS^l^ dw
light of tha ar^'a fimtaeet and compBlting'-liav
1^ yooT sevov and r^eated iinerrogatoiiea, lo<
confess the tmtli, and fnrai?fa the secret key tlutt^
nnlocka her own mystwiea."

As a proof of his great r^ard Eorlbeacience of
theology, Mr Boyle becomugacquEuntedwitiitlw
drcniDBtances of the leaned Dtt* Sandanon.'ifbo
bad knt all hia p?(ra&iegt8 from his attachmem
to the royal cwue, cwferredaponhimsoanfiaity'
of ?50, a-year; with.acdM^tion or recomraeuda-
lion annexed, that ha should ^ply himsfelf to
writing Cases of ccmseieBcb, ex^laiidng the- na-
ture of conscience, and how far its obli^uions ei>'
t?nd ; a nsefnl inquiry in that age of controveruirl'
divinity, when private (^iaiona weie made the
gronnd of dissenmon^ and revolt from aH esta-
bliahcd order. In conBe<jiience of this, the Doc-
tor published a Treatise on the subjeot, in Lstoi, -
coDsisUng of tffli lectures, whidi were delivei'ed at
Oxford in 1617, and addressed >to his geoerouH
patron, in an eldmrate dedicatiiH).

After the Rettoration, Mr Boyla was tieated by '



'Uk 'MaJMtf mth peat eiTUity and respect ; nni.
with BNChfiffeetMMUkta eateem by the two teadMtr
ffnaiatcn, the ClnnraUgr CUrendon, and the Earl ?f
-Sovdmnpton, Ltvd Hi(^ Treamer. ClarandoM,
wbiM* Bttachmeot to tbe fin^isb Chorch whcmv
ried even to bigoUy Hid iBtokraoce^ wm n^.ini>'
9<fa:t?ate wkb Mr Boj^ lo enter inta holy ordien,
^nng'peraisded dim Ins aoble CHMl]r, his exUaw-
dnuay nJfuti, and abore all, hia m^leaiabed
'Hptdatiaii, wonld reflect hooonr on tbe protM'
aim ; aod were deaesting of tba h^^^wat ecolaeio^
ticti ptefemieiita ; more acpecially at s time wbea
til* rBpntation of EpmcopsOT bad been greatly iin-
paired by imprndeiK tereritiei, whidi bad throwa
many of the most leuned dirinea into the raiUia
af the oectariee.

To jhe Church as a profeHum, Mr Boyle bad
no diiiDcHiiation, asd mu not to attached to his
aecular pngecta and concenis, bnt he Gould wil''
lingly hare abandoned them. Bendes, the hope tf
bang ?erricealile to tbe onler, made considerable
impresuon on bis mind, and was a nncb stronger
notive than sny prospect of its dignitiee and em<>-
tnmonts. Bat oa pondering the matter widi due
aneittion, he naa inclined to reject die proposal t
bang persnaded, that in hia present aitaation he
Bigot extend his ' seiricee to rriigion, and with
better effect, shice whatever he wrote on tfaq
snl^ect, woald then hfn lo anueh the greater
weight, as comiBg bam a layman. He eott-
ffdered lUcewise that in point of fortane,. and
eharacter, be oeedad no accessions ; and indeed
he had natleaire for greater rank or wealth. Thes*
veasons, wh3e they set Us dinatarested piety, and .
hia e^iMMMioMa regard J'or jastica and ' hwaur, -)&



the most aimable Ught, oi^t io give girodar
weight, ?id afibrd the Idg^est saodian to M thtt
he kas written in behalf of religum. He preferredt
tkeiefare, to deyot? hiraeelf ezdnaiTely to pUlo^.
sopical studies, in so(^ a manner u might hcetil-
^Htrate the truths of rerelalioK.

It waa abaat liaa time that he p?hUdied Um
" Mew ExperimmtB, louchihg the Spring of th?
Ah, and its Effects." These were chiedj' the n-
snha of the diacoreriea he had made by metuiH of
liie pneutnodc pump ; in which he deraonatnted
the elastic power of the air; ahewed that the
strange effects whitdi ^ andenls escribed to the
imaginary .sUtorrenoe of a raouum, ?roBe merelf
from tbe oa^Te aelf-expannoa of the atmoaplieref
explained the influence which air has apon flamei
mttke, and vapows ; iA?t operation it bad i^ioii
liqnota, aa oil, wine, vinegar, &c. its gravity and
eipfuinon imder water ; its effects on the v^ra-
tioDB of pendulums, and the propagation of aoands i
and lastly, the natnre of respiration, iUnstraied by
trials made on several kinds of aaimala. This
work )TO8 translated into Latin, ajul drew him into
a contrtwefsy vdtk Frsasicns Linus, and the noto*
rioDs Hobbes of MalBasbuiy, wbose o^ections ha
refuted in an able " Defence of bis Doctiines," with
equal candour, deoneas and civility. Another
piece, written ns early as 1648, was ?t this tima
published, eutitlei^ *' Setsphiis Love, or some M ??
five* and Incentives t? the Love o! God." Thla
was, it spears, only a fragment of alargertawatiss
on the pauion of love in geaeral, but wluch the-
author thought proper to aappreas.

The Dune of his great abilities had now extetMled-
itacdf beyond tl>e bounds gf hian?CTaeoaiitiy;M


tfu^ tlie Graud Duke of Tttseaay, fi [mnce q( din-
tfDguuhed leamii^, became extremely dMirmu
t^ holding f coTTeepoDtleoce vitli hita, and n-
fuw^d Mr Southwell, 'Uien rasideat at Flmeoca,
and afterwards ]pre8klMit of the Royal Sooety, to
eenvey to hkn his wialtes to that effect, in a letter
daud Q?Wbar 10th, 1660.

In the two foUowiiu; years, there appeu?d Lis
" PiiyiiolagKal EssayB, which eiteodedluBrepnla-
^n 8? a ipatonilist ; the " Sctptical Chemiet," a cu-
dons and valnable .treatiMi abewing the eirtns of
chemical theories on tbo onahties ant] elementary
pnnciplei of bodies. In wese pnblicatioiui, meor
tion iamade of other treatises, a^ in a state dT great
fqrwardnesB, which were lost a few years aflM, in
the great fire of London.

In 1662, a, gnmt of the forfeited impropriation
ifi Ireland waf o^itsined from the Kin^ in Mr
gyle's name, without his knowledge. Thase ba
qiplied to the support of religioii and learning, by
Wlieying (hq pow in thoee places, eontribnting to
d^i muntemnce of minisieTe there, and promotii^
such otlier benevolent works, as time and occaaim
Kiigbt require. He interpowd likewise, in bymir
of the C(?porB:^n for propagatii^ the gospel in
I|>few England, and was very iDstmmental in vit-
tviung B decree in the Conrt of Chancery, for re-
nting to them an estate of more tiian ?300, ?-
yWr '4 which they had violently been deprived.
l)i? Gutfontiaai having espirad in law at the Re-
storation,, was a^ain revived by express chan^i and
Mr Boris t^^pomted g?venu?' ; and in the dntiea
of. this hononrahle trust, he manlf^ted a d^;ree of.
diligence and activity, that proved in vaiiooa re-
qi^ecta highly bene(i?9al t^ the purpose *tf Hm,



body. Hioiigti be was imttin^y ?Mct?cl t? ?
printe anit retired lire, yet wbwevertlie cmiw or
religion, rirtoe, or knowledge required it, his inte-'
ten and endesTonra were never wa^ng, utd'
mrely employed ^t wiih ancceei.

Id the year 1663, the Rwal Society btaag m-^
corponited by Charles IL, Mr Boyle WW nOmt-
Bftted one of the Coondl, Bod aa he might justly
be reckoned among the fomiders of thu leained'
body, BO he continued through life one of its most
iigptiil and industiioufl membora. To the indeh-
tigable exertions of theae Invisible philosophers,'
sriance was much indebted ; and when the happy
epportunity tuTived of obtaining for their stcdM
the sanctim and authority of Government, thay
were not slow to arul themselves of it ; " finding
tfae hearts of their cooutrymen enlarged by d>eir
jtiya at the Kill's retivn, and fitted (<x any noble
pwposition, they began to im^ne greater things,
and to bring out experimental knowledge from'
those retreats in whidi it bad long bid kself, to'
take its part in the trimnphs of that nnivennl jn-

' Every year now afforded bedi proofa of Mr
Boyle's unr^siniiig exigence, and the store af ol>-'
serrations and experiments he made. In Jnne
1663, he published " Some Conaidw^tions, tonch-
ing the UsefalnesB of E^rimental Natard I^u-
loBophy," These were followed by " EiperimeBtff
md ConaidersitionB, tooclung Coloms, with Ob-
serrations on a IMamond that shines in the dark ;**
s treatise which abounds with cmions and nsefol
NUarifs on tbe hitherto nneipluned doctrine of
l^t and coloms, and may be said to have led t^e'
way to tbe great Newton, irtiose mighty genios


IK?CBT navLM. 55

tun Ae BiMt cootaang umlyais of tim Hulrfect.
Hia''CoiindnsiioiisontheStylflof theHolyScrip-
tnrea" i^pewred nett. This was only an eitivct
from a Iwger worii, entitled " An Esaay an Scrip-
tnre," which was pnblishetF after fail dead), by lua
ftiend Mr Pett, Attorney General for Ireland.

In 1664, be was etet^?d into the Company of
&e Royal Mines, and was all this year much
taken up in die proaecntion of Tarioiu good de-
iigna, especaally m the affilin of Ae Ctoponttlon
tea propagating the gaepel in New England; which
probaUy tvas tBe reason be ifid not send abnmd
any woiks, either in reli^on er j^iloso^y. But
ntsn year, he pnbUalied taa " OceaBitHial Refleo
tions on aereral So^ects," aiddiested to Us siattr,
*dle Viscomttem of Ktnelagli, 'under the name (^
Sophronia. They were written when be was TAy
yomig ; BOnte upon tririal occasions, but all dis-
playing wit and learning, and a remarkaUe strain
(rf mo^ and pions reflection. Has wwk etposed
him to die only aevere censare ihat ever wis
passed npdn him. Bntler, the witty antbcHr of
nndibraSfWrote a Batirica] imitatiea of its style, im-
tler tfaetids of ? AnOccaeion^ Reftection, on Dr
Chwltoa's feelitig a Dog's Pulse, at Gresham Col-
k^." It was also anaoked by Dean Swift,
who wrote, in ridicale, a " Pioos Mediation on a
Broomstiek," a piece of indecent bnfibonery, in
trklch he did Bot shew a jnst regard to the inte-
fests of religtiHi, any more than to dte character of
Mr Boyle. Bung wiitCoi in enrly life, and before
he had acquired a conect taste, theee efioaioBB
nigfat pwhifM afford room for bmieaqiwimltadoB ;
l?t this is.<^T^ littJeirapoTtaaceialnafiuiMaia
nw and a [diiloMplter, tridch is eMaUished on a



yerydiffinwt bwH. But wh^Du^ beregw^.W
of Home literary interest u,th9t Swift 18 ?udt<i have'
braiowed from a pasBsge in this ^ea^ the .firaf
hint of bia GullireT'e Travels.
, Yarious small pieces of tus were pablisbed inr
die Transactions of the Royal Society tlus yeu ^
besides a very important work, under th? ti^ oE
'f New Experiments uid Obsarrationa uponCoIdt
with an Examen of IVCt Hobbes'a Doctrine of Cold-"
This work, as it was justly admired at the timet ">.
it has unce been held in great e?teem, and may li<^
said to hare been the first publieatitm that gave in-
(jwiaitiTs men any real light iaW ^ sphj acta which
are there examined. The &ci? and obs^ratioiu r?-
cQ^ded in this Easay, form no inct^iHilKBbla part of
lie knowledge which yet obtains apon Tarious pbe- ?
nomeoa of nature, in a department far ftoin being,
completely inveetigated. The autboi presents n^
with an accoont of ibe c^iadty of bodies for rq-^
taining or. commtinicaliDg.cold, the way to esti-
mate the degrees of cold, how to measofo itSfiq-.
tensity when product by art, beyond tfalf em-
ployed in ordinary freeziqg, how. to aacecMin the
ebanges' produced in watw, between the gieetest
beat in enramer, and the Grat d^^^ of winter
col?l, how to discover its different temperatons.
'a different regions^ the efiects of ^Id se Ut pm-

sffl-rinK (?' destroying the testtire.,of bodies, Ntd
how their expaoBum and con^ac^oa are ca>K?d by,
freezing, wnether any apet^ rirtnea <4 plant*

are lost by the procew of coDgelatiiW amd thaw-
i^, an inquiry into the p^odigiioa^ fwce of wat?r
w&n frozen, 4iow far cold descends in ewthand
vat?r, the aoUdity of ice expki^e^ aad t^.
strength of the adhesion of ittiwtsi tt^e.tW.^ni^


avariety of other carioiu experimenti too mine*
tow to be here particulariaed.

Tbe eicellence of kia diarBcter had gained bitn
knch nniTenal respect, that his Majeity, oat of the
Mteeu aad aflection be had for him, ooasked and
inuo&dted, Bominated hin to the prorostebip o(
Eton College, lliis honourable and lucrative
office^ the fittest for him in the kingdom, he thonght
pTopvr to declbe, cootisiy to we adrice of hi*
friends. He alleged several reasons for this re-
fiiBBJ; chiefly because he diongbt the duties of
dutt employment might interfere with his stodies,
and be wae unwilling to quit ifaat coorae of life,
which he found, by eipetienca, so saitable to hi*
temper and coDstitntion ; and, above all, be was
vnniilingto enterinto holy <Mder8,iriudi he judged
to be a necessary qnalification for it

About this time be was inrolved, by b?n$ ap-
pealed to, in a controTersr which made a censitw-
able noise in the norld; ttie-declMon of which, from
the hi^ iBputation he had gained, was universally
expected from him. The case was that of Mr
Valentane Greatraks, tbe Hohenlohe of his age,
who cbimed the peculiar gift of *:**rtng diseases
by the touch or atnJdng of his baiuL- This eitra-
firdinaty person, whose miraculous powers bsTe
procured him a aiche in our general histories, was by
birth M Irishman, of good family, and competent
fortone, of a aerioDs or rather melandioly tempeni-
toent, ud about tbhty-Beren yean of sge ; he had
a strange impulse on liis mind that " God had
given hua the blessing of curing the king's evil ;
wUch his wife, who iras a notrivle woman, and
bad applied herself to the study of snidery and
{diysic treated as a fancy."



Mr Greatnlcs, however, nada tbe eqwrimatf
and performed such wonden, that the BMfaep'?
Comt ai LaamOTe dted lum ta their bw ; and
haTing no lieenae for pracUung, he mw prahiUud
to lay hand* on any foi the fatme. In Janaaryy
166S, he WB? isrited to England, by the Eui of
Orrery, in hope* c^ fais b?ng able to ciao tha
ViBcouoteBS jConway, residing in Wanridahka, of
an inyeterate headach; and though he Eultd i^
this attempt, his perfonoancea bou^ there aad in
Xiondon, became bo extrBOidinary, that Mr Heniy
Stut^ a Totomiaoiu miter, thini^ fit to pidiliA
s trealiBe on ihe anbject, gmig an aocoiBit of ahaiir
miracles, and addnaaed ta Mr Boyle. In tJri*
piece, Mr Stnbbe, after detailing the character and
personage of this gifted physioan, iriiom ha leprw
seats as modest and devout, of a giacefml pror
tence, and having " in hw eyes and mien a vivs-
dty and sprtg^tlinegs that is nodiing common ;"
lays down this position, " That God had bestow?d
upon Mr Greotnks a pecoliar temperamOU, -or
composed hia body of some pariiaalar ftfmenti,
the efBnvia whereof, being introduced by fiictton,
riiovld restore the teropenunoit <ii the debilitated
parts, reinvigfvate the blood, and dissipate all lw>
ten^neoat foments oot of the bodies of the di?>
eased, by the eyes, nose, mouth, haada, and Cbm."

These snpematnral pretenuoni, together wilfa
their Bstoiu^iiiig efl?cts, occanoDMiagieUeavtro.
veny, in which several very eminent and learned
virtuosi esponsed his cause ; thongh othan wera
disposed to atuibnte all fais wondorfnl perfcnnanae*
to the mere efficacy of friction. Both partita ad>
dressed theinselves to Mr Boyle, who, in a liaaty
reply to Mr Stnbbe'a paDa[dUet, g&ve hia q^ii|o%


til A? whole aSair, in sndi ? way as relectr the
orwtest credit on bis prudence and his leBrning, It
U s very loog tetter, and though written in the com-
ftaa of a ?in^e luomEi^, k ivmaricably correct in
diction) pertinent in ita ubserrationa, and abound-
jag with many cnrionc fiuA to illtiBtratQ hia rea-
pmmg. Considered in e. theolo^cal point of view,
it-tb^ed his extreme tendemeea with regard to
K%ion, and bow jealooa be was (^ admitting or
?Muiteaeactng any prindplea or opinions, that he
tbffljj^ might have a tendency to hnrt or discre'
?t it.

Thdngb he admitted the posibility of miracalous
gifts, since he found no cogent proof of their baring
ceased with the age of the apostles, and professed
Jua Eeadinees to be convinced of the cnras in qaea-
tmi, npbn student testimony; yet, when cain|wred
with those in Scrqttare, he found dmndant reason,
Jrom the obnons dfaparity, to justify his scepticisDi.
In the physical part of liis letter, he does not deny
llist ^ lontJi of a band, supposed to be endowed
wtd) bealii^ virtue^ may in some cases act as a
^etufic in strengthening and inrig<Hating natuiv ;
^specially wben the farr? of im^natian is taken
into accotmt, which has of itaelf produced strange-
fiBClB, and may have an interest in the recovery
liy occastomDg some Incky cwnmolian in the blood
aaA spirits, npon which, amendment or recoreiy
Wiay aometimes enMie ; as diseases are sometimes
Qj^tened away by a fit of passion, and some have
bweQireed Irom the hiccoagh or ague, l^ being
told serae piece of fe^ed ill news:

In the present age it may perhaps he thought, that
Mr Boyle ought to have laitj more emphasi* on the
p^wer ^imaginaUoa over organized matter, and th*


?flbcti of animal magDetiam, or enthknanD, and n?>
j?cted alti^ether the notion of sapemaSiral iiifln>
encM ; but it most be conuderedtbat he was drnplf
coimnced of the truth of the mtracalous gifts of t]i?
foimden of CIuiatiHiiitY ; and was, moreover, from
the infinity of lua Fesmrches into natural cuaami
little ^apoBed to reject focts and conseqaeacea,
merely because they could not ba iminediatelyr^
eondled by analogy, 1a the aniall aggregate ?!?-!
Mian iutel%ence. His letter, therefore^ was ?z-
BCtly such as might bare been expected front
SQcb a man. Be?ides exhibiting his piety and cai^
donr, traia which he was nerer knomi to depart,
it is one of the cleuest teetJmoaiea of hte rait tin-
litMS and extensive infonnalioo, that is anywher*
eictaat. In this coDtroversy, so near akin to lidi-
sule, and so apt to exdte party irritation, be con-
ducted himMilf bo worthily, taat' no cemmre waar
ever personally applied to Inm by any of die ^s-

In 1666, Dr John WalBs ddreesed to him Im
Hypotiiens about the Fnx and Reflvx of the Ses :
and the- tamoas Dr Sydenham de<licated to him
his Method of Cnrin)^ Fevera, His own worka of
iJiia year were, his " Hydrostatical Parttdoiets** ex-
plaining the doctrine of the preemre of fluids ; the
di?tribudon of water in pipes ; and how it ascends
in Biphms and pumps, by the pressuK of mn exr-
temal fluid, without snppodng any abhorrence of
a vacnnm : and his "Origin of Forms and Qualities
according to the Coniosoilar Philosophy, illtis-
trated by experiments. In these be explodes th?'
useless and imaginary notions of the schoolmen, and
diews that what was anciently ascribed to the chi-
'merical efiects qf substantial forms, and real <inal^.


ties, may Mtttlt from the mere teitm^ and poshkni
of ptfte in bodies ; be lays duwn the fbiiBdktioBai
aitu dekreiB the princifdes, of the mechanic phUoaoH
ptiff which he confinuB by acveni very agieeahlft
tad instructive experimenM. Besides these, a num-
ber of smaller pieces were published in tJie Philo-
sophical Transactiotu of thw year, all coDnected
with natural btiniriea ; and which do equal honour
to his ingenuity, the depth of hi? judgment, and hit
indeCstigable p^ns in Bearcliing afler truth.

In 1667, 9. very scrimouoDs attack was made
against the Ro^ Society, by the admirers of
Aristotle and the old phihMOphy, who, from its
first institution, had taken the alarm, and affected
to represeiA the views of many of its members, to
be th? destruction not only of true learning, but of
religion itself. The great champion of the ATi?<
totelisns, was Mr Stabbe, mentumed above ; bat
it is honourable to Mr Boyle, that even in the heat
and invective of party z?il, Detwithstanding tha
dedded part he took in his writings, he was treated
by the most violent of his antagonists with thft
utmost reaped ; and on hia own part, he dispbyed
a singular goodness of temper, m bearing with th?
paawin and impertinence with which bia learned
associates were ass^ed. The utility of hie writ-
ings which could not be doubted, was opposed as a
most triniDphent vgnment to the petulant charge*
of their adversaries. One of his friends ^o took
a leading part in the controversy, observes, "that ha
atone bad, even dien, done enough to oblige all
nankind, and to ??ct an etwnal mMnment to hb
semory ; so that had he lived ui those days, when
men godded their bene^tors,. he could oot have
misied one of the first places amoi% th?r deified.



4* gTMUat strangd^- and the swtwtMt madMtfr
dw oriileat diBCOTeriM, uid the most gtxunoa
mit-dmM, the pntfonndeat iu^htinto philoat^y
.and aatnra, Bnd the moat derout and afiectiiraate
Mse of God and religion."

Next year, Mr Boyk being reaolved to aettk in
TjoBAm, left Osfocd, aiul removed to thehooM of
Ua&TOHrite naler, Lady Kanejagji, in Pall Mall;
to the gnat adranti^ of the phUoaofAiiGal world,
tmd capeciaUy of the Boyal Sodety ; aa by thia
niMaa hia cwmapODdenee waa rutdered more ef-
fecdve, and men of reaeoreh could miM? r^plarly
enjoy hia eoaTeiaatioD, aa he had aet homa for
tecmring tfaoee who ^fpUed lo him, eifter to do*
aire hia aaaiatBlice, or commnnicata any new dia-
COreiy in a<^ence. Hia correapondence at thia
time waa Teryextenmve, nidi pereona of the greatest
vmhience^ uid moat famooa for leanung in all
fsrta of Europe ; with whom he stood aa hif^ ia
repntatioD, aa among hia own comitrymen, aad-
mo were acquainted with his extraordinaiy merita
thnmgti the Latin trBnatalioiis of his woiks, at that
time "die nmrwaal luiguage of literary men.

Hia philosophical pnblicatioiiB of thja year wore,
" A Cootinnatioa of Us Experimeota on Air ; with
?. Dlaeonrae of the Atmoapheres of Con^teitt
Bodlu ;" ' A DiacMirae of Abwlnte Best in
Vodiea;" "An Invention to Estimate the W^ght of
Water;" ami " A Letter to Dr dn Motdin ;" onhia
Translation of " The Devil of Moacon, w a TVn*
i{?Iation of the chief tUngs whkh an nndeMn Spirit
<lkt and aaid at Maseon in Burgundy ;" a natnt-
tire which he waa not altogedier tndiajMaed to be?
Hmn, aa it wat atteated to him Itjr a learned and-



MaUgent inYeller. Dr du MtmKo, faanng a. >
DMtfc^le femiwfor L?m pMtayi dadicaMd ft onl-
hKtiMi itf hb performaiicea to Mr Boyle, in wtiiA
Ite emataeaiB his excellent talentB for Tane, anA
Jm pBrticolar relish for that Idod of poetry wfakk
n deroUid to religiea.

- In 1670, Mr Boyle pnbluhed a book which ac-
caaionad mncfe qwenlatioii, as H wenied to ?>
lain a nat tnaaan of new knowledge ; aad tkia
too, gnraB4kd i^on sctiul ex^eammM, and vgn-
Mwat* jnatlytimwB fnm diem, instead of tbat no-
tional and coBJeetnnl phitoMidiy vrineb, valine fa?-
gBBiing of the 17A MBtnry, bad boen bo mnck
in faahisn. Hw was ? coUectim of " Tiaota
abantthe Cemdcal Qnalttiea of TIriaga, dta TeM>
pefatnre of the Snblenanean and SnbDarine R^
giana," &C. which are replete with the DHMt ia-
taMiting Temaiks on the internal conotitiitian at
iJiyaical bodies, the lawa that regulate their m?
timn and tan^Mratnre, and the Tariona disevvenea
iriach, with lanch lalKmr and ingemity, he had
nada, by faHowiag the footstepa of aatnn, and
aCadying her opcratioaain those daric and inpoifr'
tiable racaeaefl) which aaem to lie beyond the reach
of oba w ration or ^qmioicat. Ha contiBaed lik^
wiaato enrich the fJiifaaopbkal t r ansa ct ioiip with
ap?n an Tariona anlsecU. But aaoidat at) tbeta
laboMni he waa attacked. May 1671,wiih aaerwa
jMialy^ ^atemper; wludi, lyiwerer, was removed
b^ a Btrict attantien to i^inwn, and proper reotet

From diia period antil the t?nua?tion ?f hit
setiTe and variid life, hia feaearches wtve *o imme-
foas, and embraced auck a variety ^ snbjecta, tbat
tlw mere catalogne of hia woriu would cany aa



far beyond onr limitA. Of those relatangU plala-
Mpbital inqniriei, may be mentioDed as the ntoM
iMMd, " Constderatians -on the UBefolneu of Es.'
perimenUd and Nbtuisl PhUoaophy ; and TnctB of
? Diacorery ctfthe Rare&ction of the Air; Nftw
Ezperimetits toncbing the Condensstion of Air by
men Ctid, and its -Compreguoii widiout Meadn- ^
kal Enginea :" " Eway about tbe Origin and Vir*
toe of Gems, with aome Ceqectorea abont tha
ctmasteoce of the Matter of Precious Stones;"
'^ Tracts, containing New ExperinientB, touching t^
S?lalion betwsen Flame and Air ; An HydroMa^
cal Disconrse aboot a Way of Weigjiing WatM";
New EipMiineats of die positivie or relabve krnty
?f Bodies onder Wato- ; Abont the different pcea-
?ore of heavy Scdiife and Ftntda."

In 1673, appeared his " Essays on the Strang*
fiobtitty, great EHicacy, and detarminkte Nature
?f Effluvinms ; with varioos experimeltte on flame^
the weighing of Igneous Coipnacules, the peiri-
otunaea of Giam to Flame," Sec Hie connminica*
tuou to the Transactions this year were, " SomeOb-
MTTationB ?bont Shining Flesh, wiliioiit niy sen-
nbie putrebctioii ;" " Eiperimenia on the We^^
of the Atmosphere upon some Bodies in Wal?r ;"
and " A Letter concerning Amber^pis, and its be-
ii^ a T^ebiUe production." He had also tba
lioaaar of having the work of a distingtuahed
fcreignei dedicated t? him, viz. the History of N^
tore, by Anthony le Graiid, an eminent Carteaiaa
philosopher, who applies to him the complimenl
whicb AvuToea iiestuwed on Aristotle; that
" Kalnre had formed Inm as an ?KempIar, or pab'
tern of the bi^eat perfection to which humanity


- InM71,Jnp,Teu>tliewcRtMuKrtl??ri:rileetin

BH? af the Ail i the Natnnl aod PmemlBmi
State of Bodies, wilji b I^idogiM on tbe Natsra elf
Cdd:" These were foUoned by hia TmcU ? Ob
SiufMcioBa about some bitlden Quslitiee of the Ai%
wMl w Appoidix, touching Celeitia] MagnCttj
AnimadTcmioiiiB on Mr Hobbea's Frdid?i9a of a np
'canm ; Mtd a DiBCOwse on 4ie Cnue of Attnu^tion
and Snc^on." The pupwa whi^ he tmumitted
pen year to tbe Soewtf were, " Qu the Air-
Bladdereih Fishes; New Experiments on tha Filr
tidty of the Air; and an E^tenatental IHscoiuw
of QaickmlTer srowing hot with Gold," a i6t*
covery then re^o^ted highly important, by estl^
blighitig a controverted point in ue Hennelic Pla*
looophy ; and wldch drew from Sir Isaac Newton
a cnrions letter en the subject, caatiomng the ooble
(tnthoi to keep, silence, until be should fecertai*


raoM imriDELiTT-

Oiker." l^ere waa published also about dtis time
M Geneva, b mUcellaneons collectioii of hiswmka
in Ladn, yeiy inaccurate in tbe atTBngemeat, and
' witlunit the kHOwWg? oc .canRent of the sndior.
Dr Cnilwordi, oathor trf the Intellectual Systetn,
a few years ?fter diis, reconunraded bim to have
?U his writings, which were become eiceedii^ly
nniaerons, tranBlat?d into Latin, for the benefit of
the learned world in geneial, aod aa affordifig the
most secore baais for natnial philoaopfay imdi
had yet appeared.

In 1678, Mr Boyle's " Short M?moiial of Mrae
ObHoratioiis made upon an artiGaal Substance,
that chines withont any preceding illaatraticni," was
published in Hooke's Cutlerian Lectures : " An
HistoricBl Account of a Degradation of gold made
by an Anti-elixir," appeared this year, a treatiae
which made ft rery great noise at home and
abroad, and is looked upon as one of the most re-^
maAaUe pieces that erer fell from his pen ; the
bets contained in it would hare qipeared incre^
dible, if they had been odrsnced by any other. It
detuls a long and curious process, of two diacfaiaa of
purified gold b?ng debased, by adding to it inastate
of fusion, a minute portion of a browni^ powder.
Hie attention of chemists has been repeatedly di-
rected to similar eKperimenta, but the conjei>
lon in qnesticHi, have been
. Whetiier tliese results
'er in the transmutation of
iBcertun ; but at all eruits
n the merits of the ezpe-
y one of the most extra-

BOY1.B. 67

by. No one haft attempted to iimtat? Ae pro-
'cees'; though there are not wsnting acmndenblo
mmber of imtancea which might lead to a more
SCCorete snd auendfic inTestigation.

Ib leSO, he published "the Aeri^ Noctilnca,
and a process of a hclitionB Helf-shining Bubstsnce ;
A New Lamp ; and DirerH Erpenmenta abont the
'prodnceableneoB of chemical Substances." At the
aoDnal election <rf officers for Ae Royal Society
tfiis year, he wae elected IVesident, an honour
^i^tii he decluted, from his pecnliHT tenderness of
' conicienu widi legard to the offidal oatlis re-
i[iiired la 'he l^en. But he begged to assnre
them, diBt tfaongh he conld not serve them in die
honooiable capacity they were pleased to diink of
for him, yet he hoped he shotdd not be a useless
nember of that leuned body ; bat aboald manifest
liotfa his zeal for tbw work, and bis eensa of their
- .faronrs.

Dr Burnet being at this time employed m com-
piling his History of die Reformation, Mr Boyle
contributed very largely to the expense of pub*
fishing it ; as he was always ready to aid any on-
dectaking which he concaved to be benefit^ to
lite worid, tiion^ from obriona and very faononr-
^le raodre^ me greater part of sndi charities'
were concealed. Tlie same learned prelate afier-
ward* transmitted to him from the Hagne, the'
manuscript account of his ffarels, which be had
drawn np in the form of letters addressed to Mr
Boyle, who eomplintents him for his jndicioos re-
maika and reflecdons, which were fitted, he oh-
serree, " not a little to improve both a statesman.
' a critic, and a divine ; as well as to make the
Mrtfaor pass for all three."



. Anumg hia worlu that iqtpMnd in IWl, Mt
die fdlowing years, were faia " Digcoane af ttangt
^bovB Reason, nufniriiig whether ? pluka^ilMV
abonld adniit there are an^snoh;" " New EijKn-
inenta and Ohserrationi Made upon the icy Noo-'
^nca ;" " A Contdmiation of Experiffimta on >ha
Spring and Weight of the Air, made both in ooni:-
pressed and also in iacttUous Av, abont Fire, Anv
))ialB,"&c. : " A Letter to Dr Beale, eaattiriaag
Fresh Watw made pnt of Sea Water :" " Mamoitf
^ the Natuial History of the HTuuanBlbodi" and
" E?9erinieiitH.aiid Considerations ^xrat the Potor
?ly 0f Bodies :" " Short MenwiM for (fae Natnn]
History of Mmmal Watws, with a gaaat many
cnriona azperiments :" " An Essi^ on th^ grcaf
?fiects of eireo languid and unheeded Moticoi, witl^
an Appraidiz cm- some canses and effects of thf
Salubrity and Inaalubiity of ^^ Air," a tre^tiaf
which was received wiul greater and more gawf
ral applause than peiiH^,aiiy of hii others: " A
Discoune on tie RecMicilet^leDesi 9f Specific Ma*
dicises, to the Corpagcnlv Hulow^hy, wi^ an
Appendix on the adwdDgee of the me t4 umpU

. "tbo pnly wOTk of l|is that ^pfwifd .? WWt
vas bit " free ^nqniij .'"t^ ^^e vqlg^ljr reit^ifoit
Notion of J^atuE^" efiB of the nioet,i^i^t;^t p^
nsofolof hn piac?ff,^^ wfiish ?iill:(dway? Ve ftir
KUMdaBdaMeeiqed.liyap^ ^ ,ha<? ? 9n? ?W(
nir FeH^an imd inteUwPrla .j^uIOM^y. The M^
lowiiw yearprodaeed lua^ AbLrtyrdomof Theodosf
ftd Didyinns," which Jw bad disfni t^ in biat
yjonth ; tnis wfa foccceded by a rery cnnous i^id
. Talnable woik, " A Disqaisiden into the FinaJt
Cimset of Natural Things, and ?Ub what c^^OA
a Naturalist fibonld sdmit dionr - - -


In tkia piece, the latOua treats irilh great
judguHit and perspicoit}', many of the dc iy oW
.and moot ^Mtracted notions in ^iioeophy Bad n-
JigioD, HO aa to give estigftction to tite candii^
witlioQt ntmib^ uUo .aay oflenaive Apecolauona ;
vrUchiaai^alieity, that, in caaeattf tkia nature, hu
veiy tarely ettMided ibe writings of ?ay, eatetfpt
Mr Beiyle, wbose care wm eqaal to his qnickneM,
and whoM cmtion hindered him from baEarding
any .thing that might shock wet^ minds, or tender
nHiBcieiices. FiiihI Canaes, he obserre*, designate
tome grnnd and general ends of the nnire^e, Htich
H ezArd^ng and ditplayiag the Creator'e wisdom
4be commumcation of his goodness, and- the admi'
ntion and thanks doe to him from his jntetligent
?creotttras.: lliat bU the several parts of creati^
eren of animpU snd plants, were so framed and
|daced, as not only to perserere in their own pra-
?eut state, bnt to conduce to the good and weliare
ef the whole : That it is often allowsble, from dte
iBwifeat and apposite uses of these parts, to coN
lect some of the paiticnlar ends fur .which the
Creator. designed ^m: That it-ia ratiooiJ from
the manifest fitaesa of some ^ngs, to infer that
they weie imlvned to die?e ends by anintelUgent
?gent : 1'iiM we ought not to be hsstyin-couclnd-
uig vpoa -the particular use of a thing, or the mo-
ires that may have induced the siithor of aUnra
so to frame it, &c

In the summer (rf this year, Mr Boyle- waa xoa-
atrained, againet his will, to puhlish an account of
eomv accidents and iru^onveiiiences under which he
iiadlong Uboured, partly injustiiication of bis lame,
and pardy to infonn the world of the loss of many ?f
tuB writings, which were either stoieD from him,



?r-dwmyed by eoitomm bquors. Tliu be di^ ii?
? public adrertiBement, intended to eerre ? & kind
?f explsnatmy pre&ee to such , mttt as he might
end ^ro?d in ? mittilated and flafiniatted BtatCr
Jt-VOnM fasTe been diffiolt for any mbw pereon
OrlwTe givm SHch > aolifieation, wiAoDt incnrnnf-
Ifcg knpamtioa ^ ranity ot aelf-coDeett ; hot m
A& Bt^le'i CMS, it sefTM to gWe k b^bw uH^
aereexpreesive notion of bie worth ud ncelkace;
'and a ftct waa ao intpoiMMt to bioMlf and A*
fMblic, that it conld not be omitted.

The innawyate reum be ungu for (Irie ad?<er-
liwment was, to BattHf)r ihe loren of !???); te
y eia l, as well aa bia owb ftMOda and aeqaaisti-
Bce^ wW be did not perfM-m dm aeveral' pMk
aaiMsba had made, of pnbliihing manyt&oMHMa
?pon millions and nsetal Mbieote; and aotoe (rf
whicb were indispensable to uie elncidR^n'of ae*
venl of bia traatiaes skeady printed. Hie caoM
of tbia waa, the losaof laany^hiBiaaniiacriptabf
fiwwd or aiechaDce, aome of which wete awr^
titionriy carried off by visitor^ in wbtdeTvhimM^
a it waa bia practice, when ha firet began t?
write, to digeat lua RiatcriaJs into p^yer-baoksy
which he mntected only farniibed greater tempia*
tiifliB to the Uieh. He then had reconrae to nogle
detached aheets, which he tho^it man eeeore,
as it wodd be d^cnlt te cany awav any coiimi-
eatini part of a diaconrae. Stall, howsvw, he
eoidd not [wevent fnadntent depredatioM, and in -
diia way loet many ceDtnriea ?? experimenti, reu-
Nwriu, ezplieationB, Ac ; and in ad^tien to thee*
mindvcntofM, Iris semnt harai^ broken a botU?
af eU of vitriol, die coBteoia pooetrated ipto



cilMrilebced entirely, or to spoiled, that U w/m
difficttb tor lum to rastore tfaem to say dtfp?e ot

But these haniihipe w?i? not all ; for he haA
gfvsroua coaapbints to mriie irf the treatment ba
lad e^teiiaoced Irani [dagiarieti b?th at home aad
atmiad; fer many pemni? copied his works wiAj
cwt nfiwh^ him; inserted his e^qienineBia, wHkjt)
En* tnmi ?tleraticaB, as their own : and arrogated
to themsetTeB aeveitl of hb inventions. Huso
lairfsiliiiiiiii. he coeceired, required somepnblic fli-
^anation; bethto nxfieatehk .character, anda?-
connt for defects and seeming impro^ia^ea' jv bis

NaPrilhutnnding ?kll bis care nnd .can&m, h?
aaw taaaA his health and strmgdi b^an soisibty
t> de^ne ; wbid set liira npoa deviaii^ At raoaS
aeoaoapcal nntlwds in tfae ex|intditmreDf his tins,'
HO la mi^t be the nwst b^wfidal to the repoUie
ofkFttcrt. ItwMwith^rie)r,^athfl noloBger
etmnmuotted Mrtseahr dmetm nm , oroeia dia-
aprwies to the lUj^ Society, beeane tUs oaold
ncA ba diMie withoat vidtdiWing his Aoogfata
fnem pannihs iriiich he 'deemed ^ greatn impor-

For the aaau reason, iogedHr widi dw confii'
aton into which Us affi^ in fadand were tfanmm
W du ttabdenee of die B?n>)iitKia> he ras^ned
hw fast af Governor of the Coipoiatiien foTpropA^
gMBig tfae ^Mpe] ns ]llMr?b;^di which he eom-
Mimieated u aiettar ta-Mr Le Cleiv, expremhigr
tbe great satisfaction be imA trxfenented, for many
ji^pn, in ynmoliaf(taa excellsnt a work ; and hie
.x^retat beii^ obliged to. resign so heooorBblsv


ani to Um- m> agEetabie, u onidajaiMBt. " Fm
mv pH%" (say? be,) " gratitDcfo oUigea dm- M
wial^ both for yonr sate and thu of the work yon
re engaged in, that your next Goremor may be m
fcithful and afiectionate as yonr lost, bat much
mom citable and proeperona : And tlioi^h I muat
?ease to serve yon in my fonoer mtUmi, yon wiU
not find ma mwe backward to serve yon in my r?-
daced capacity ; and I hope yen will do me the
f%ht to believe, that I shidl heartily rejoice to tea
Ibe great uid good work yoa are pDiBoiDg,' pros-
per in yoar idiuilable faanda;. tfaongfa.I can havA.
the hoBOw but t? contribute my good wi^es
to it."

Other arruigements were also made by this
great and amiable charactw, which indicated his
coBBcioiiBneaB how short the remuning period of
bis ^e might be, and the calm deteitnisatimi he
had adepied to apply it to the best advantage. He
pidiliBhed' an adv?rdsemenl^ contaimng bia reaaooa.
for declining the tteoal visita which were then paid
him, in order ^t he mi^t not be obliged to ex-
kauat hie powers, by apwdong daily withse manjr
peramis ; and mig^t apply a larger pwtion of hw
titoe, to arrange and repair the deficienciea of- bia
pq)??; that as he had been ser^ceable to the,
pnblic ia hia life, the coltectiona he left behmd him
might not prove nselesa at his deceaao. He cansed-
a)ao a beivd to be placed over bia door, withi aa
iiucriptioB, MgnifytDD; when he did and didnetre-
eeive visitors ; which he restricted, tmleaa upon,
very extraordinary accaaioiiB, to two tiill daya eack
week, vtr. on the forenoona of Tneadaya and Fn-
days, bemg foreign poet dafa^ and ott Weduesdi^
K^ SetordafB, in the afifrnooo. .


ThMe anvnfamenta, which m aaoitat man
vaght h?vB M^od the efiuBWiw of ranity, or h-
nmed unpiHlaiic?t serre onlv, ia hin^ to ahew tfae
ftiteDt of hiB cstebritfi and toe ardour of hia lit9>
nry patriotism. Hia motirM wwtf m> far mtperiw
teanf affeoUMonvf groatneM, as to pwmitliinik)
do with ane and umplidtj', tvlisl in oUwr man
would lMi*e rMpurad mufa apology.

AnoDg the woriu vriuoh thk redremant p?r-
mittod hmi to finab, wm a " Ccrioua C?^ec>ioa itf
ElabofBl* ProeamM in Chenuauyi" wbaoh be d?-
? rignad "aaakindef HwawtieLeipaeT tolheaM-
'^oM diMiplaxrfAntMi," andirinclibeMmwtljr
reqneatad a partiGnlar fnend to iopart to the world
EnthfdllTf and in hit ownespTMaiciBB. TUi Col-
lection, hswerer, WM nnw pobliahod, aa w?tl a*
aome otber dnima tmcta rabtiag to the aarne aid>-
j?ct, fovsd amoi^ bii chemical papen ; which, it
ii eaid, he Mt orden to be mdtmittad to the io-
qwctfam <^ three phyaicisni ; b?ng onwilling t*
have them lost to the public Thasears awppcae^
by tome of hia biogi^dien, to h?Te coiOainan many
i?p?rtaBt diaooVMioa, eapmialty en Ha brooiit*
tBdy of cbrawtry, wbidi was perpetoally open-

dM?d an irreparaUe loaa. Fnun varioiia cironm*
atnCM, it haa been oanjei!nii?d that Mr Boyte be-
Keted in tfao jaoanUlityof Bwumnting other raetab
intorcjd. 'DilapeTanaeioiitit iaatidt wasnrowed
by buM^ to Dr HaUey, and kw bemaraugnedaa
tho reaaon of bis bttHng procvred the rapaal of a
etatute-of Henry IV. agtioet the mokqtlyingof gold
uti BXTer,-~aB ofkutm whicii haa nnce been c?n-r
udered aa witfaout foandation.



Iiil690,waBiivUukedbia " Medicina Hydros-
tatica, or HydriHtatics applied to ^e Materia Ma>
dies, sliewing how to discovet whether medicines
be gentuDe or adolierate ; to which is mli^oined, &
way (^ eatimatlbgOreS'by Hydroatatics." He hafi
prepved materiida fw a accond volume, aa he ior
forms H8, bttt iriii(4i never appem?d. The fallow^
iag year, he coaununicated " An Acc<nmt of soma
Observationa made in the f^at Congregation of
WateiB, by lowering down liottlea 4nto the sea,
600 feet fInHn the emhee^' anexperintentwhidi
he had made seyend yeara before, in <H>ier to re-
eolve some (fifficnltiee concerning die coldness of
water ; aad, which "he t?UB xm, made r great noiae
in the Cenit of Chutes II. T^e ket woric he pnb-
liafaed himaeif, was his " Experfmenta et Obserra*
tionea Physics, wherein ere briefly treated of
aereral aubjects Telating to Natiini] Pnilosopby, in
an experimental way, to which is added, a amaH
Collection of etrange Reporta, Part L" The ae-
cond part never appeared.

Besidea these works which ^atHy treat of na-
tural science, Mr Boyje pnbUriied several others
wfaich were more intimately coimected with i?li>
gion, and some of which bara been abready no-
ticed. In 1671, he published a trealiae entitled,
"The ?sceilencr of Theology, compared with
Natmd fUoaopny." This diecooTHe was written
in 1665, when, to aT?id 1^ &tal plagne which
then ragri in London, he was oUiged to retire
into the consby, and ireqtiraitly to pasa from place
ta place, without having die hcnefit of hia books.
In 1675, he pnblidted, iridiiMt his name, " Some
Considerations aboat ^ ReeoneileaUeiKasof Rea-
?w and Religion," to which is amus?d, " A Dis-
conrae about the PoaaibiHty of the Resuirectioo."


"Km work wm iMended to cooiist of two partai
one to shew, that tke Christian need not lay aude
hi* Reascm ; and the. other, that he ia not con-
inauded to do so ; bat he thought proper w keep
this part from accompanying the- ibrmo', whidi
teemed the mmt leasonabl^ and neat likely to
make impresnon on that tort of perBona, nhom ho
^efly designed to persuade. " Thongh (saya
he) it be a miattke amongst many, to think diat
to embrace aor religion, we most remonnce our
reason ; aad that to be a Christian, one mnst cease
to be a men, and what is mora, fotsake being a
philoBOpber ; yet I mmt make the negative answer)
that I do not think a Chnstian, to be traly eo, is
obliged to forego hit laaton.; either by denying
the dictate* of right Ieas4H^. or laying ande the

Thia poeitiok he proceeds to eatabliBh, by offer-
ing .[?o^ ?r positive indncaments ; as w^ as by
answeriiig and) objectionfl as might be allied
against it. Serenl propositions are snbmitted to
the readu'e connderation ; That Chriitianity onght
to be distiagnidied from the dogmas of ,particn]ar
cbnrcbes and sectaries, who have ohtmded their
own inventiens aa parts of religion, increased the
iHroiber of ita myeterieat and coofamided it with
acholastic subtleties which woald have poezled
St I^uil, as well aa Aristotle : That ? distinction
must be kept between reason conaideredin itself,
and reason aa exmcised by philoeophen, or aecta
and tooetieB of men ; since many toii^ may dia-
agree widi their azicnns and concluuons, which
are not contrary to eoond reaaon m true philo-
sophy : And that the doctrines of religirai ought
W he viewed u oeanection, and not ungly or le-

76 coNVKKts VROU

paMl^ ; siiiM nnjr t^^m, if bo ?mwidarod, may
ifpwt nnmuDBdils, vbiA yat m>f be vsfjt cfe*
ffib)?,lf CMkudered as parti at uKMeqaewM* erf a
HHMial e^Btem. Tha tan (tf Ina nawniBg i^ Aat
fnn Chnsttaaity bc^ aaply attMtad by proper
Hgnmaats, ao tbat ita [hw^ iriioAar duy be d?-
aooaUratiTe (v not, ara mffideni tn jntify a i?'
tumal and pmdent maa'a embiaciiif hi the olgae>
tioDS diawn from reaaoa agunst it, do not prow*
tlw bdief of it to be meonakwat with reaaes, iwv
entwMgii tbe aigameatB allied 01 ila Mmmo.

In 1685, he produced BB^ber axcellent tbaalft-
sical trea^ae, ?atitle<l, " Of tha high MosMtioD
Man's Intellect owaa to God, pacidiarly for hia
, Wudom aad Power;'' iriuich was only apwt at m
much hi^ar wwh, iiKaBdadaAcrwardatobepYMi
totheworid. Inl690,hepabhBbedhia''CiirietiHi
VirtBoao, dievhiv that by heiiiK addicted t*azpe-
rimentel philosqny, a nuB ia lather antiitad thai
indiffiMMed to be a good (^iatian, I^ L To
which are antgtnnad, 1. a DJ^coBneabotitthediw*
tinetion that repreaaata Bone Aings aa abara Tea*
en, but not eontiwy to it. 2. The firat ch^itev
of a DisGoime, catitlad, Greabteaa af mmd prcH
moted by Christianity." Id the adrartiaenieiit to
itiia work, ha mantitns a aeetmd paitef tiie Chria*
tian VirtaMO, which he had be^iim, and ratonded
to complete ; but siduiew, biuinees, and a multi-
tude of viuta which he ciobM luit avoid, ao dic-
toacted and letaided him, that he was indaced t*
lax aside bia niatenals to BOma ^itnie tqqianwtity.
"AiB part he did not Hxb to fiiuth, bat k ^pamsd
in its impei?eot state, in a iidMequnt editioaof hia

In this little Tract, which may be


itOBKRT botle: 77

? af ths iddast def?icea of dwology, agiiDA tbe

peaned, be tbmn that b deep iui||(it into Batnre,
mImmI of sUen&ting the mind from religkm, tends
lo' eoDfinn a man in the belief of it, and to incnaae
hia Tenwation for its dwine author. * It hadi
?ammonly been looked upon" (myt he), " m very
soange, tiiai a diligent cultivator of experimental
fdiilost^hy shonld be a zeiJoiw embracer of the
Cbristian religion; orthat acp-eatesteemofthetme,
and a reverrace tor tbe stber, shonld be compa-
tible in the same permn : But we hope to stake it
M>pear, that if the experimental Way of phHosc^
phiBing contains any tiling which may indispose B
Bian to BBient to the truth, and live aecording to
the lawB of the Chriatian religion ; thoee few thlnga
we abandantlycountervailed, by the peculiar advan-
lageo it a?fords a man of a well-diBpoeed mind, to-
wards making him a good ChristiaH ; provided Ids
mind incTitiea bim to roake a jnoas implication of
the tmtbs he diacoven."

These advantages he states to be, confinnatien
?f OUT belief in the existence and fJiief attribntes
of the Deity, whieh- appear from the fdiric and
ntraetnre of the nniveree, in the immortality of
the sonl, which Eeceives many convindng proofa
jrcm wiiat phitoe<^fay teaches of the physiology of
Kiindand body, and die essential difference af their
sttrilnitesT---in the doctrine of divine providence,
so maaifeetly incnleated in tlie eicellent contriv-
anca* and regular vicissitudes of nature , and with
regard tn Christianity, philoet^y may be equally
ATviceable, by eoablii^ as tlw better to examine
the testimony of its witnesses, the intrinsic charac-
ter of their writings, and even tiie argoment

n cokvbms nan inmotLitv.

ffoit?d?l npon nriradei, iridcA to MBjlMiA at*
ttnqitad to axplaiii vmj m <M?iotw tit iinpn w j
hUMes. " It nujr Amhen' (he iiiimiIm). ? dw*
{Kiw an eipcrimevtBl pfaikai^div ta rem** lim
CbnRiaB religiiOHt tba it Ups Un to jndg* ri$^
of thoee >tiB?ga miradM wUch m {i ia p ?> mmI
ftelieT?d aa *neb; for tba Icnowle^ he ImA sf
IB of natare in n

w opeianoBB M
id cbemiatiy,*

?nd the efiitcta of dinite poww ( and wiU diaevrar
tboae tuhtle dleUa and eoUnaiaM of iiDpotlm<i?
which, for want of kluioirledge of tnw philoaopli^f
have eluded a great many, even leanwd nton, aM
inwjt tbem into idolatrona imMratitioiu^ or ather

Amcaig odien of hia feligioiia t
luB " Free Diacouno ogaiast Cnttomuy SweAi*
iag vith a DktuaMve from Cnrung," which was
not pubUshed till after hia deuh. There tcsm
ft - great nuay papeaa on theolt^ieal Kd>jecta
fenjod Bmong his mamucripta, bst Kerar pnW
hahed ; the tiel of which may be aaen ua Da
Bireh'i edition of bia woHia. Of U> p o u thw a a a
wriiinga that hare been gifen to iha worid, tin
following are the ^lea .-^ The Ganeral HiaMnf
vf the Air, daaigned aad hegm ;" " Mediciaal Ex*
pcrimanta, (tr a Choice CaUmtaan of RNaedia^ for
the rooot part uiple, and earilr prap a wJ f ** Gm
wral Haada for die Natonl H?t(iry?rf a Omrtry^i
great or aoiaU. drawn ?M f<or the oaa of tnmtliM
and iiBTiffirtora t" ** A Piper. t aB ta in hg anaccaairl
<^ hia tawdag FheaphMaa :" " A my af axaaaoH
iag Wuwa, IB to Kwhaaaa or SakiMaa )" ? TIm


acuutt sovLB. 79

tUti mA IM VdamQ ot Madidnd ^tpeil.
wmm I or ? CollMtioii af Cboioe Rwnadiw, ftc
VMd in IwniUN, and fit for the nw of Conotry

In ths amnaer of 16S1, then tnn ft wn^la nl-
ttntNtt of hk heallb, wbich pram?iiidbed Idm that
dMth canM not be very ramote, and Induced bini
ta tluak of wttUBg hk woHdfy a&iia. Accord-
bigly, in Jnly, be executed hia last will and tea.
taoMnt ; t0 which he afterwards added seTenl co>
ttdla. In October following, lua infinnities in-
Mc aaid, which wh probaUy occasioned b^ hit
UbAv ccneern tar the iUneaa of hii beloved sister,
l^Af Banel^h, with wlxmi he had long Ured in
tfaa g r w U c st harmony. She died on the 83rd of
December ; and on the 30th, iha w?? foDowed ta
the gmre by her distingoislwd brother, who died
ahemt twelvB o'elof^k at night, in the 65th year of
hia age ; with so little pain, that it wai erideat lifo
wmt o?t merely for want of oil to raaintun ths
flama. He was ioteired, on the 7th <rf' January,
at the *Vpar end of the south aide of the chancel
?f fit Martin's in the fWLds, in Waatminiter, near
A* bod^ of his sistei. His Aineiml was decent
and aa mnch without ponp a* possible, consider>
ing the munbea- of penmu of djstinction 1^Ht at-
tended, b?Nde* hia own irainerotis rdations. Di
Bttmet, Biahop rrf SaliElniiy, preached his ftmeral
aatmoB, fraaa Eedenaatae, tC S6 ; an excellent and
aoat actable tUacoaiaer and coblaiiung many ^>>
pHmiMa Mmariu on the rirtnea and charitiae ef
the noneaiBUa puam in qoeatioD.
- I* im penonal appearasce, Mr Boyle b rapre-
aantad as tall, but deodar; hia coontenance pale
aad Mwacia to d, tho<^ n youtk hk cfwipleJdoB


was fresh and bealthfiiL , HiactHistimtiomliadbe^
come ao tender and delicate, liiat when be went
broad, he had dirers sorts of cloaks to pnt on^
which he regulated by his tbennometer, according
to the temperatiire of the aie. CoBtodering the
feeblMie?a of bia constitation, and the weakneHa oi
his eyes, die quantity of hia reading, writings, and
esperiment^ nnist appear astonishing. ' The sim-
plwity of hia diet was remarkable, and to all sf
pearance, was that which preserved his life so \o^
This- be pracused bo strictly, that in course u
aboHt thirty years, he neither ate not diank to
gratify his appetites, but merely to supportnatare y
aii()-SDob was his regolarity, tnat he never craca
traiMgrceeed in ilie quantity or kind of whatever
was ' prescribed for - him.

Li conversation, espedally at first, Be hesitated
a Bttle, bat did not atammer. His speech waa
alow and deliberate ;. and he was extrrmely candid
and a&fale in conversation. Thoogb mclined ua->
tiu^ly to-be enteric, be hod gtuned-a perfect as>
cendtmcy ontr this passion. Hia modesty waft
ench diat he did not dictate to otlieis, bnt pro-
posed hia own- aentiments with due die^mst, and
waa ready to hearken to what othera anggeatad.
Whea he differed irom e?y, be eipreeaed bimaelf
in so bnmble and obUgii^ a nsjiner, that he waa
nerer known to treat with neglect, or ofiend any
pwBOB in hia whole life, by any part of hia coo*
doct. He conld be warm, when there was a |a^
per occasion for warmth, that k, in tlie canaa of
tradi, which be always vigoroDa^ defended ; hU
in hia reproofs, he aertx used angry ot repniacb-
fol expressions. He waa pajTricuhitr carefnl
never to apeak ill of the ^Ment, and if the ^?-

iiirfiiar^ ''


eoarae U uy time bore bird upon uiy ehmctra',
he vu immediately ulent ; or would iutopoee by
nprtM^ or nillery, to ^ra the snbjeet uiother

' WliMicId?tethelM?UyafbiaehM?eter,ia,ditt
he wu the tame in bis most secret recesses, ms be
Bftpevedto Qte world. He sActad nothuig that
was solemn or mperdlioiu ; aad it was iMTer di*.
corered that any artifice was concealed vadet ell
dda ai^sarance of goodness. He bad nothing of
frolic or levity about him, no relish fn- idle ?v
AztiaTagant pleatiirea ; but ha hod a great deal of
becoming cbeerftilnesB, as well as good natoie, aod
tKider friendship. Hie couTanation, especially
among ladies, was bcctions and agreeable ; aod In
bnmaiir, even on other occasion*, was aometintes
BO copious md lively, that Cowley the poet, and
^ William Davenant thought tii>n equal, in that
nntect, to the mo?t celelnaUd wits ot that age.

His mode of liAi was altogether plain and onaf-
feetad, with an utter n^lect of pomp in clothea,
frffuitore, or equipage i and thongh be was not
ennoblad like his four elder brothers, this was en-
tirely owing' to his own disinclination, as be was
several ^es oQered a peerage, wluch be constantly
rdiised to accept. He was too ^)right and con-
Bctentioiia in principle, to practiae those arts oecee-
snry to gratify ambition, snd therefore withdrew
himself early from Conrls and public a&urs. It was
Ua lot lo live in an age of turbulence and insecu-
rity, ha&. in Charch and State ; which gave him
so troe a notion of the vanity of titles, and the
danger of powM, that instead *>{ soUdting either,
ka was anxious to decline and avoid them. Bat
Us extiaon^naiy worth and repntadou procared


him tliat Bcceoa to kii^ which u genen^ !?

MTved as the excloMve pririlage ef nolwlity.

Charles IL and his encceason, Jhom and WillUm.

were all so highly pleased with his conveiwQMii

that they often used to diBcotuse with him with

great familiarity.

He never wss married, though It appears aero-

lal very ad vBDtageons propOBBls were made to him ;

one anonymously, and another on tie part of Lady
Mary Hastings, Bister to the Earl of Honimedoas
bnt he still pernsled in bis resolution of livmg-
ungle. it is mentioned by Evelyn, dot he courted
the beantUtd and ingenions duighlei, of Carey,
Earl of Monniondi, and that to this pasaon wM
owing his Seraphic Love ; allliov^ it doea not
afpeai from any of his papers that he ever enter-
tamed the least ihon^ita of that kind.

His character and reputation for learning weirt
bi beyond any of biscontempoiarie8,BndhBBHeldoiai
Iweneqaalledinanyi^e. Fromthebegjmungofhis
life he raised sndb hopes, as those who considMwt
him most attanlivety tbonght it scarcely posublv
ever to see- realised. Yet without fear of fiattM^r
it may be affirmed, that he sorpaseed even then*
highest e?pecl?tions. He made philosophy the
business of his life, from the two noblest motivea
thttt man conld possibly conceive ; the deure of bft-
ing aerviceable to his- kind, and of manitesliag th?
giMdness of the Divine Creator.

His performances are recommended, not mwe
by the novelty, variety, and nsefidness of the anb.-
jects he treats, than by the easy and familiar raa?-
ner in which they are handled. He accommodates
himself to the unlearned, as well a?to the philoso-
(iber and the ecbokar; coromnnicalmg with tin'


vtmoM candour and Bimplicit7 duiM numeroua
and important discoreries, wfaidi be had made, of-
-tenaton immense ^>enBeof laboarand application.
Bei^Biing widi bis reader at the elements, or liiu-
-dameotal principles of things, ha condncts him
with ezqiusite judgment, throu^ ell the regions of
nature, to fitniiah him with snbjects whereon to
-exercise his fecohiea. He has been every where
'CareM to shew, that the best and most soud fonn-
dotifHi for philosophy is ita usefoIneBa to mankind;
and that to manifest tbese edvimtages, is the only
'ttsf to gain it de repatation it deserres. With
liim it wsa an active and not a mere specolaliTe
Mady, as it had been in the hands of s?^oolmen
and atchymists. He had the Jnateat caite?^tiona
-of tnith iimi the human miod can frame ; bo csr-
tiouB in examining and reporting, as to avoid tbo
4eBfit impatation -of credulity; and on the otLer
hand, so well acquainted wiui the powers of na-
ture, that he never presumed to set any limits to
^em, or hindered any acccasion of knowledge by
that sort of incrednlitT which sometimes atteuin
anperior learning. His deugn was to examine into
die constimtion of things, to aee into what prin-
ciplea they might be reaolvad, and of what they
were compounded.

This eKperimental [m>cp8S was not Mstrictodto
any particnlu'tesach of science, but applied in its
fuU latitude, to all the elements, and all the bodies
they mix with, or go to compose ur, earth, Gre,
and water, were all scrntinized, and tortnred by ex-
periments, to coniess their natures, offices, uses,
the wisdom and deugn of thor creation, &c In
appoedtion to thoae who wonld rq)resent the world
asantdebeap of djafqsedinactiTe matter, he con-


Tincw OS that it u a grtmd and noble macbme, een-
tiausily actuated, and governed by a most wise and
tieneficcnt Being, who keeps all its parts in ma-
tioB, and regulates tbem according to certain reci-
procal laws. By biiu^^ng men acquainted witji
these laws, he hu taught diem to make use of thp
aame stratagems and contrivancea whi?^ nature
herself employs ; shewed them how to make the
most advant^oiu application of those powersi
and how to nuke the several brandies of natunl
knowledge mutually assist each other, and all con-
spire in their turn, to the Mune great principle of .

There is no prolssMon w condition among men,
but may be benefited by hii discorarieS. TI19
merchant, the mechanic, the scholar, and the g?itle-
man, are all noder equal obligationa to him. Hf
eEhibits the arts and trades in a new li^ ; utd
makes tbem what they really are, a ptrt of natnral
philosophy ; reveals some of their mysteries 1 and
advances the mostiWoper means to encourage and
multiply tbem. The goldsmith, the It^tidary, %i?
jeweller, the dyer, the glass-maker, artisans ?f M
Mods, will from him receive oMfol iDfoTmatisnt ~
to the wcrkjng, managing and employii^ to
vantage their various commodities, materiala,
en^nes. The min??list, the minsr, the aasayer,
re instructed to &id, and separate tlieir ore to the
greatest profit, to increase tl? qnantity, to melio-
rate, and enrich, and piuify their metiJs ; and ac<
ciuately to distinguish the gemdne from the coon-
t?rfeit and adulterate. The hoshaodman, the Mchi-
tect, and the bnilder, may from bim leam something
of their respective arts, and how to choose the baM
tsatcrials for their sereial purposes. Ifae pstB(?r



ii ?hewn bow to mix and impfove bis calmUB ; Ae
jAiyBitMB, the saatMviat, the spothecary, awl ibe
cbMaut) are til indebted to him for dJaeoreriM
and preparation in aotae brancb or other of their
profeirioDi. No part of maaliind has hwa ne-
glected by him ; but be hw shewn ? more perti-
ddsr regard for tbow arts aod sdences v^ereiii
tbe health and h^mineM of die banian qwciee ia
concerned. Me<?cine he haa cowidered, and im-
proved in most of its depBTtmentB ; ahewn how t9
diatia^ndi genuine dmg? tMaa adnhettM, tlie
Way m which apocifiea nay act, bow to jnd^
of the aahibrity of air, water, and dimalcs and
bow to ^LHtHoe and apply tlw Tirtnea of miaeral

In abort, tbere ia scarcely an art, or profetsic?,
or prodnction in natare, liut has bM denr^ sodm
miaUe adraniageg from bia csperiment* sad dt*-
COveiiea. Hi? philoeepby waa not expended in
bwldii^ aerial Bcbemea, or cbimeriMl Mtd niinsMie
dieorisa; H waa altogetfacrtalc^ npwttfcordiBary
and AUa^atf objecWt whose hidden prop?l*ea ind
sea be called fortb, and explained in tbe meat
?aay and familiar wmta ; anpnatng men with a
sigbt of ttwif own i^^norance ia regard to things M
near tbetn, ao tmpwtant in tiiehMelves, and so ne-
cessarr to the welfare and true enjoyment of hn-

WhM princi^Iy recommends him, md diatia*
g;ni^ics bun from ^e nigKi Wd of chemists, na-
tnrmUsCa, md }^i1osepb?s, who in his time en-
gt^ed m tbme studtee, either frran ite rimity of
tanniag a ayatem, or the sordid ambititm of en^
rkhit^ Aemtelvea by tlw disefrrery of ima^aBry
gold, ia tbe camlonr, generosity, and benefir?DCe


eS hn diipotition. He~waa Btlmmeiue puns and
apciue ia nudung tua inqnirioa ; he spared no
time, no money, no diligence in pnnniiig discove-
liM'for the public sdrantage, without any view to
maeaM his own fortnne, which he happily thonght
nfficient of itself . Hia sonl was at greatand do-
UO) n his genniB was comprehenaire ; for he made
the woild ft genennu present of all the fruita of
In labovn^ without tlw least expectation of ra-

And wfutf thews him in (he moat amiable pcnnt
?f light, he WBS for d>OTe die selfiih pleasnre of ,
Mug admired for a genins, or raismg a repnlation
as tse Itnmder of a sect. I^oagfa he wanted not
cq?ci^,or abilitieatohaTe constmcted a pompons
>M BHgBlGcent aystem in natural and chemical
aicacs, more dm-dile peilNfM dnn had ever ap-
peared in the worid before, he nobly despised thn
pMT bat flanering grMification ; expressiiw tumself
widi the chitdfike humility of Newton, uiat not-
withstaBdiiig all he had done, all the labour and
<speaae be bad bestowed on natural inqniriee, '
ihe nstly nnmerens and important discoveries he
had made, he saw ooUnng bnt the first dawninga
of science, sketched only the rudiments of natn-
lal knowledge ; and charged posterity to consider
him bat as a begmner, and not to stop short with
bs observations, but to pnrsne their reeearchea
throogh all Ute re^ons of nature, in die foil ama-
naee, that the fnrtber they inquired into the works
of the nniversa] Airiiitect, the mora bcaaty and
hannonf, the greater use and sain&ction they
woidd fod .Bm?^ them. His discoveries hava
bae* TMcated and extended since his deadi by
dMuaods of aethe and intelligent operators, whn


ban ill profited bj hk rawKcbes, sod pmnd hia
toviolable fidelity to trwh. But the mpaier ed-
nncee of edoice will iwt ItMtn the opimea of
log high ment, at least in the mind ?f any lib??d
and enlaiged inqnJTer into natare. Hadnelifiad
in the jH'eseiit age, he wonld have been iitezjmM-
aibly ddif^ited to ?ee natural knowle^ie m^oAg
mch nqiid and exten^re improTamenta, and wovld,
no donbt, have Umaelf cantribnted to accelerate

Hieee occnpatioiia, inceaaaat and divenified aa
theywMejfomedtmt one department in the wide
and almoet botudleBB field (tf Ih* aoqnbemeala^
Bendes his acquaintance with the conatitiitisn of
nature, the producti<?ia of alraostall conntiiee, the
Tirtnes and propertiea of plants, ores, and minerak
in difieiwit climates, he waa intimately tyMJBir
with many other branches, not connected with ex-
perimental adence. " His knowledge," (aaya Dr
Burnet), " was of so vaat an extent, that if it were
not for the Tariety of voncbera, I ahonld be afraid
to say all I know. He was a great master of the
Gredc langnage, and read the New Testament in
the original wiik such attention, that he co?ld
have quoted' it almost as leadily as the Englaji
veiwon. He carried the study of the Hehrew
tongne very iar into the Rabbinical writings ; ae
that ha conld hare quoted remarkable paasagea
Ttjry readily ; and he drew iu> a grammar in it for
Ina own nee. He learned likewiae the Chaldea,
and the Syriac, purely, as he sai^ to be aUe to
read the divine disconrsee of onrSaviotirinfatBOwn
language ; and he wonld hare gained a diorongll
knowledge of the Arabic, if the infirmity of' hm
eyes had not interrupted his progEessmit..


?MM. Hel?l
BMitBiiM on tlw SoripUuM, wfakii he hadfiadied
to M good pwpoa^ aad with M cridcal ? MdctneM,
tfaatfnr men, wfaoMpnifMtian obligea cben chiefly
to ihM HTt <tf kanii^, Iwre gMie beyond him in it ;
tad he bad m greet ? regeid for that eured Book)
irlndiheciMDinnd totbediaimmdaiMngpradou
it?Hies, that if an^ one in discowe bad dropped
?D^ UiM gare hitt a deam view of any f^^gfi
m it, be recwred it with great pleamire. Tbe
Bible wu bk cenWant atody ; tar he had not only
' aeraral i^uitai* read to Um eraty da^, but once
?-week be ned a chmtei read to him m Hetwew,
and for aevetal yean m wt apart every Satardey
Boming foe the tame pnnxwe. He had gone with
great exactneaa dirongii the whole coutrorersie* of
nligiiM, and Iiad a juat idea of ljie entire body of
divinity. He nm the whole compaas of the ma-
dtenatical sciencea ; and thou^ tie did not aet up
for an brentw is tbem, yet he knew even the ab-
?tnwaet parti in geometry. Geography in the seve-
lal branchee of it, tiiat related to nsvigadon or tra-
vcIUr^, history and books of trsveb were bia di-
veruon. He went very nicely throngb tdl the
-parts of j^yalc, only the tendemeHa of bia nature
tnade him leaii able to endure the eiactnesa of an-
?tomkal i?sHction?, eapecially of living Bnimale,
thei^;h he knew iJiese to be most instructive."
- To ifaeae vaat and almost incredible acqiure-
'inaDtBi he added the character of a sincere ami
tauaafisry Chri^an ; ao that we are at a loaa
'wlui^to admire -moat, bis extenuve knowledge,
or his exalted jdety. Theee racellencee kept


Mc? with- erich Other; the former never cvried
fltmtv mAtf, nor the latter to enthaNam. He
WBai^fnlar in the czOTrateacrfdeTOtum; utdnMist
toistant and eerioiu in hi* secret addrewea to the
Drit}'. Me bad the profoBndeet vtsaet*Xi?o forthe
great God of hearen aBdeaEA-; ?o that the very
Mme of God was never meDtiMedby hin^ wi^
vat K panee and a risible atop in his dieeoane,
practice in which be wr^ so exact, that one who
was acquainted with' hirni^re twentyyeare, never
Teraetnhered observing him once to foil in it.
Never did religion sit more easy npen a man, or
add greater dignity to a character. He had po?-
kessed himself with ?och anvmiable view of Chrie-
tdsnjty, separated from either enperttitioas pnu>
ticee, or the sonmeaa of jMUtiee, tl^t he condemned
whatever tended to lessen- its ehligatiwiB, or laiae
'fends Mid divisions un<mg its profeflsors. He al-
ways considered it as a system of traths, which
onght to purify the hearts, and govern the lives of
those who embraced it. He loved no narrow
thonghts, no low or bifrotted apmona in religion ;
and was therefbre msdi tronblad at the dilate*
and schisms which had arisen abont trivial mst-
ten ; while the great and most iroportani, as weQ
as most nniveratlly acknowledged troths, were by
all ndea lamentably neglected.

Kb zeal was lively where the interests of tms
reli^on were concerned ; bnt it never led him to
mingle in the intestine wars of theological conVo-
veny; and as he did not shnt himself exchinvdy
witlun any party, so ntnther did he reprobate olbeca
who were of Afferent sentiments. He had a most
particular avendon to aD severities and peraecn-
tions for conscience sake. ** I have seldom," (s^

H conviRti ntbv imnMLiTZ.
t>r Bnrnet), '^ obioved bim to tpcak iridi MOf
heeX and indignation, tban vAnt ihd cmm in Uk
my." Though he ilwsfa vxpnaBui Us jadgn w it
Knd mrSnation to be for the CbnrA of F * '
yet be vm an adrocate for moderadoti t
Vho diweiMed fnan It ;? and at dw RertorMkih
i^eB the Epiaoopol dei^ retaliated on the (gwtai
Pnritana, ividi nncluutiaa and <nh< ia?m aonrft^

? Hi* KUftimvat to tb? aittbliilMd ahnrcb be ra*
tainad, nm in tbe timea when PrtUcj ?u iboliibedl
od though his charltjr eitended to all different ?cd*, bo
ucTcr ftmuented (epuiia assembliH. It i> recorded of
Mm, tfaMlMonc* wmi, porkapi aui of ourioiltir, to hear
m HauT Vaaapnaeh, who ww at IhU llaunpuUd tka
head of ? new tea, called Sedian. Sii Heniy'i text
waa from Daniel tu. S ; a pisuge which hu iliraji been
reckoned one of the clearest proofs of the raurrection,
to be fbundintlia Old Testament, bill wbish (he preartar
iDgeniouilT irraMed to bis o*rB >??, the whola eeofa of
bU diecouree tieiag to iInw that many doctiine* of relii
-gioD, which had Iode been dead and buried, Ehould in
the latter days be svelcened into Ute, and mar.y false doc-
trines should, bj the power of truth, be doomed to ebaoM
nd eierlutlng eontatapt. When the harangua waicai-
alndcd, Mr ^^e etooduf in presaoca of th4 cooara.
Uion, and natod liis o^ectioas, " thiiUuDg himseUob-
pged, for the honour of God's tiuth, to say, that thu mean-
ing of that place, which was eiptesslj reftrred to by our
BiTiour, by way of atearting the renirreciloo. ehoirid not
boBuSbredto eTaporate int? allegory, and that if ka
Utaaal Duaning were denied, ha wai ready to prara it,
Jbolh lioni the leit and eoateit in the original Unguue.
and tioia the best eipOHtori, Christian scd Jewish.'
^Vben Mr Bojle sat down, ffir Henry rose and said, that
ba agreed widi bfan, aa w the Htcnlacnsaitftbe wocda;
aad that U* dieooutaa urn only in the way of each occa-
^nal meditationi, aa he thought edilyi^ to the pec^lc.
Some of Mr Boyle's friends aAerwirds remMislratad with
him on the boldness of this conference, espeeially con>
Udering the popnUrity of Vaaa, and the antfaaeiuai of

U. 91

Ite brtd fratpunt cvaffrencei on die niJqectrwkh
TenaJMii, StiUii^flflBt, Bontet, uid Barlcnr, ncfiiOf
wenrfbig tbem to have touetliii^ writun in de-
fcan of liberty of coiHciaow i which he pnUiafaed
MhisowB upenM.

Hii chaiitj to >U who wcra in mut, espedalljr
to tbiwe lawned nen who wwe cnielly doomed to
ttng)^ with nMearitiea, wu qahe extreordinair.
Grmt HUH wea?. finely diBtributed by bim, witb-
ovt dn pBrtuditiet of feet, tdndred, or nation :
for be confiiderMi MmMlf m a part of hvmwk im-
tori, and a debtor to the fthole lace <tf men. He
took care to do <^m so secretly, that vvsn thoas
who knew all hii Mber concerns, ceidd never dia-
corer the channeh of his bounty. Except the p?r-
tons tbenuelres, or those immediately intrtuted
with the afiaifi none ever kaew how ? very lai^
praportian of Iub e^ale, which wwit away inriiH-
bty, ?H ^ferUmted ; even be himself kept bo ao-
count of it, lert it might foil ioto other handa. " I
npnnlr." (saya Bishop Burnet), " with full knoW'
bdge tm tlus article, becauM 1 had the hoaour to
b? mftde nee of by lum in iL If those who haM
fled hither iroiu ifae pereecutitmi in Ftaoce, or the
calaiuties of Ireland, feel a senmble decay of ibeic
aectiet ivpfiUeB, with wlucb tbey were often ftu-
Bubed, without knowing from whnice they came,
tbey will conclude that they have lost not only a
parse, bat aa estate ; wbicb went so freely smong
tbem. that I have reason to say, that for some
yaara, Ua dtaiity went beymd ? 1000, per auHun.

that kind upon i

UMa wkh lum, >s I did. OM Itte'ieBM of Um Scilptutea

mi^t not b? d^piancL"



Jn WsIm, taany of tfae poor noDctrnfonttHC ni^
mstcnvsrerelieredbyhiftbouitf ; and in Irakiid
be ordered vary large gifti to be made to the in-
cnmbeiit* <rf those panshea where his citatcB lay,
H w?ll aa to the snrriTing widows of thoae who
were decwased- This he did wptxttwo occMions,
to the araoant of neariy ?600, and ordued by bi?
vil^ mratbei dbtiibntion of an indefiiute amonnt,
M far ae his estates would bear. It ^peara also
dtat his steward had ordera to setaside, every yeaf)
abont a fifth put of the clear annnal income of
bis tythes and uapropnataons) to-be smployed in
^ona uses.

His zeal for the Christian rel^on extended it-
sdf beyond bis own country and Goimectiona> In
1677, when he was a Director of iLe East India
Company, which he had been fm many years, aod
was ei^n instnnnental in procuring their charter,
be was very earnest in recommending to them the
propi^tion of the goe^ in those countries where
their commerce gave them an opportunity, and
where they had flomislung fact^uiee. " It seotted
to me," (he observes in one of hk letters), " vffly
fit, that we whose endeavonra (7od.had of late so
i^Tially prospered, shonld pay him soma little ac-
knowledgment of hia many bleasiDsa : and that n-
memhering onrselves to be ChiistianB, as well as
tOerchanta, we should attempt to bring those conn-
tries some spiritual good things, whence we so fre-
qnentty bron^ h?ck temptml ones: And I
wished the Company, in partjcnlar, should have the
honour to silence the reproachea of those who I
wish had less pretence to nphiaid the Protestants,
and unong tliem the Eoglidi, widi the ne^ect of
making woaelytes to the Cbistiaa religton."

Mhn ? T^ 1 r-


tile (oUowmg year,
tkn of dte New TeMament to be made mto t
Metayan tongne, wfaidi waa printed and dittri-
Inted orer &11 the Eait bidiea. He gav? a noUe
reward to Dr Pococke, for translating into AraUc
Grotius'a excellent treatise " On the Tmth of the
Cliiirtiin Religion ;" and was at tke cjiai^ of &
whde impressian, which he took cara tihoold be
disperaed in all the coontries where ^at lai^nage
was nndentood. He was resolred to have canied
on the traadation of the New T?slameiit in the
Turkiih langnage, bnt the Company thiaking tUa
K duty incnmbent on thenuelTea, he had only the
merit of contributing largely towarda the tuidW'
taking. He expended ?700, on the edititm of the
Irish Bihle, frtuch he canaed to ba disaMninated
in L?land, " for baring Uiat poor ignorant peo^
infonned in the tnie knowledge of God, in thnr

He WM aUo a very libml benefiutor to the
Highland* of Scotland in contribnting towai^
the Gaelic tnualation <^ the Seriptnree, for their
use. " The inbabitante of the Highlands," (sayH
the doenntenl which ^ves an account of this cha-
rity), " have nerer had the Bible in thw own
language. Some endeaTonre were fonnerty used
to have it printed in that language, but ihey proved
uDsnccese^l. The honourable and pious Mr
Boyle, who had canaed to be printed at a great
chuve, 500 Bibles in Irish, has sent above 200 into
Scotlaad ; which made one book fof each parish in
the Highlands, which are of very Ibtm extent, con-
tuning great nomben of people. The tame ex-
cellent pemm was at ^ oiarge of printing for ibe


94 CONVERTS rnou nrnoBLiTY.

nse of die Highlanders, 3000 Cateclitmu aid
Fr^eT'books, with Bonte paasageB of Seriptnrs,
contuning the priDdpal heada of the Chriatiai) iw
I^on ; they never baring had any Buch helpa bo-
tme. Me hatb abo given money to reprint other
3000." ?

* " In all thole plkf el (tlifi docomant proceedi) vhem
Bibin liBTc been lent, the people expreu a wondetful
jo;, inda great deiire to know the ward of God; lotbat
tbey frba ean read ara at aeme pains to tcacb otben to
read bIu. And such is their leal, that tbejr sendftn' tIM
Bibibi ?metinte7to ooe part of the pariib, and-KiniMiineB
to aootber, that tfaej may reait on the wed: daya ; and
thm tlwj return it to tbe churaB on tba Lord'* Ukf^
that yi may hear it read publicly. And it ia lery re-
markable, th>^ sniidn tbe public commotioaa in that
kingdom, foccasioned by the Revolution) scarce any of
those Highlanders who bafe received Bibles and CaW-
chlsms, and been instructed, baie joined tbemselTes to
dw- adierHriei of ths preMnt happy aettlement." Ta
?ome of these beneiolent grants, specific coaditiuiis wera
nneied : That ministers should not only read seveial
chapterseier; Lord's Day, but on otherdays, as they might
hare onasion, as at baptisms, burials, manisges, Ac,
And that the Bible, being for the sole use of tbe parisb,
could not be alienated from this design ; so that if the
minister died, or was removed, the Bible was still to ba
tept and preserved for tbe use of the same parish. It ia
remarkable that, in this eouDtiy, so famed for its atlen^
tun to religious education, the Highlanders should have
been unprovided with the Scriptures in their native
toagu*, lUl 1600. Tlie Mai of Bsyle was not fbllowed
up with K corresponding cbarrty in their own country*
nun; and, nolwitfastandng tbe various eiertions that
were aubsequeatly made, the means of knowledge wera
long miserably inadequate to tbe demand. It wai not
till 1802, that they nhlained a complete translation of tba
Bible ; and it cannot be recorded without a blush, that
half of all the population are still unable to rew) I ml
that 10e,om petsoui an wholly witboni tb% Bi|ile !



He WW K warm promoter of die dea^ for
?preading the gOHpel in Ameiictt, fm* which he gav*
?300, during fab life, and in hie will he set apart
? 100, more, " to be employed as a stock for tha
relief of poor Indian Conrerta." These and tb-
riouB otlier benebctiona were gratefully acknow-
leda;ed, in many letters from the fBmonsmiuionaqr
Elliot of New England.

Bat the most memorable proof of his regard for
the interests of rerealed rd^;ion, and that bywlucfa
he is beat known, is the fonndUion of the Theol?'
gic^ Lecture in London, that bears his name, and
which has ^Tcn occasioN to sa many eloquent and
able defences <rf rcTdation. The bnanesa fw
iriiich he qiptmited these LecMren, irtio were to be
elected for a term not exceeding three years, " waa,
aniong others, to be ready to satisfy real scmplea,
and to answer snch new objections and difficnluea
as might be started, to which good answers hod
Mrt been made ; and also to prrach eight sermons
in the year, An the proofs of Christiamty, against
notorions infidels, viz, Atheista, Theisis, Fsgansi
JewH, and Mahometans ; not descending lower, to
aay controreraiea that are among Christians."

From this noble institntion have proceeded
many learned vincUcatious, both of natural and
rerealed religiOD, &om men who have been
ornaments to scieuce as well as to the cbnrch,
Bontley, Hania, Clarke, Whiston, Bnller, and a
mnhitade of odiers, whose writing have done
enunent service to the caose of trath, and reared
a Byst?m of evidence which no sc^ihlstry oi subtlety
canovertmn. Though their reasonings may not, on
every point, be alike important or convincing, they
have certainly contritrated to increase the number


ot ntioml and wcIt-infoTmed bdieren ; notiriA-
ffliiriing tliMT utility has been doubted or dispi^
nged, even by wme wbo were xealons frieade of re-
Bgwii. It cwmot be denied, however, tbM wlile in
C?tholic countries, wli?e the creed ii iMpKcit lai^
and wbcro tJietdc^cal disctaetoai mn eitber pro-
acribed as bwesy, or f ramped by t^ fear of tor-
tures and inquisilions, the mam of tlte populatioa
u almogt wholly (krided into ^^erant bigftti or
det?mioed iaBdek ; in this cotindy, where Chrii^
tianity has been cuiTasged widi aerere and fear-
kaa inqnry, there are perktps, amidBt all our ia-
Idelity, more belieTerH, than in any other natioiv
whose principlee are eattdiliahed en the only ae-
ewebasiaof aoberes i - .i___

Sadi is an ontlina of the Itfe and laboon ef tUs
flxtnordinary penon, whose merit tnascanda aU
that has ever be?i aud ta hia {wsise, and vticb
wtwM reqain atrilidea equal to hit own, em I*
do them eontmon jnalice. Considered in ei'erf
pmnt of %ht, as a maoi s phileaopher, and a Cliria-
Imu, tie caaae aa near perfection a? the defacM
of hunan nalore wotdd rilew ; and thor^ he wik
mambitioiu of fane, yet the most itsiTerMl cnco-
ninnM, both at bonte and abread, were omfenvd
Ml faim wt^e liring, and have c<HMlandy mended

AatberMMitationhe hedacqiured in hh lifetime,
fend readiec to many and i&taDt cemOiea, ao AmX
BO atm^en, wiio lud my taate for learning or pU-
loeophy, em left K^tand without aeeit^ hnn ; lO
sfMrUadeatJiiliteTsry men of all nations, wereea-
gCT tojieap hononraon Ua lomb, and hare endea-
Tonred to ontm each other in tluir commenda-


tiooa of his character. His own CMUtiymen, Bur-
net, Shaw, Bircb, BoultoB, Hughes, Granger,
Johnson, and Priestley, have aptJien of him in the
hi^^t style of panegyric, as the &ther of pnea-
natic philosophy, the most useiiil and intelligent
iaquirer into natnre, and the fiiat experimenter
that opened the true path of chemical science to
the wiH-ld.

"Hie continental philosophers were no less sen-
sible of hii wortli, and not behind the moat ar-
dent of bis admirer^ iu espressii^ their respect
and Teneretioo. In Italy, lus phLkeophicsl writ-
ings wwe highly eaUemed, though tWee sf hia
reli^oss treatises were Corbiddeo, Uy ordec ?t the
Satmd College, to be read. Morhoff, Stellins, and
Mangetns in Germany; Mai'ailli, Regnanlt, du
FiesBo;, Ac. iu Fiance ; the celebrated historiauB
Bayle and Rwin, have all spoken not only in eom-
^Mmdation <rf hia private chanctH, bnt tanked him
?athegreat iiBproverofthe experimental adcncwt
to whran the learned world is so mBch inddMed.
The illastriona Boediaave, whobaveanearreHm-
blauce to him, botb as a philos^ilier, a chemiat, and
a CJimtian, after pyuurancing an elegant enli^nm
on hia wotka, ttma concludes : " Such is the eie-
tant of this admirable writer's fame, and such the
honour he has done his age and nation, in foreign
conutries, where his reputation will ext^kd itself
in Uie same proportion with true science, uid bis
glory lost aaloi^ as tbereahallsnbMBt a tnia spirit

Almoetevery writer, in short, who n
does it with epithets of ^pUuae i and tikea )?Iea-
nre in ranking Iiim with Bacon and Newton. Hia
birth happening the same year that Lord Bacon



died, thn cmncidence tKve liaa to a Tery jiut anS
ixppY compliment, f^ch seemed to luive atmci:
die obserratioD of almost all his eocoiQusta ; (bat
be vrae the person deaigoed by natnre to Bucceed
to the iaboan and inquiries of that estiaordinmiy
man, who appeared to have made him the iiflien-
tor of his inqniwtive genins, and beqneathed to
him, at his departure, tbe mantle of tme philo-

Amoi^;the1^iida snd jmrfenen of Chiistiaiiity,
? cload of witnesses might be produced, who hava
bcnne tbeir pnbHc acknowiedgmenia to his nmne-
nnu benefaictioni, and done dieir endeavoor to
render his character vorthy of the ^tprobation of
posterity. Some of the preachers at the Boylean
uutitatioD, hare outdone tbemaelres in striving to
do joBtica to the piety of its fonnder. His single
example, as Dr Bnmet observes, is the simplest
and most convincing of all argnments, what human
nature is capdile of, and what the Christian reli-
gion can add to it, 4iow for it can both exalt and
reward it, and iow divine and pm? a tUng it
must be in itself, which produced so long a series
of great effects, throngh the whole course of this
jiliiiii'ig life ; which must ever be consideted aa a
pattern for imitation, and amongst the master-
pieces even of that Great Hand that made it.

To sura np alt ; oor sketch, which has already
extended beyond its due limits, may justly con-
clude in the language of triumph and confidence
employed by the same venerable prelate : " What a
thing would mankind become, if we had many such!
and how little need woold there be of many books
writ for the bruth and excellency trf our religion,
if we had more such ai^umenta as this sipgle in-


?laitce. We might here challenge the whole tribe of
libertines, to come and view the nsefnlnesa as well
m the eicellenee of Christianity, in a life that was
entirely deilicated to it, and aee what they can ab-
ject i We might charge them to nun up uie many
great and good things to be found in him, and from
dience to contemplate to how vast a mblimity refi-
non can nuw a mind, that doM both thronghly
believe it, and a entiiely goveraed by H."

coNVERra FitoM


Captain Wilson is well known as the able and
enterpriBing candnctor of 'the first Chrietien mts-
Bton to the South Seas, in 1796, nu expedition
M tbat time novel in its cbamcter, and alt<^etber
nnprecedented in its object. He camnianil?i tlie
ship Doff, which was purchased and fitted oat at
the expense of the Missionary Sodety, for the pnr-
pose of introdacing the blessings of religion, and
the arta of drilized life, fttnong the remote and bar-
bsrons islands of the Wcific Ocecm, the destina-
. tion fixed npon by the Directors, as the moat eU-
gible for cpmmenciog die benevolent exertions <rf
missionary zeaL

The ungnlar pnidenc? and ability with whidi
he discharged that important tmst, not only con<
trilmted materially to the sncceaa of the expedi-
tion, bnt stamped a general character of reapcicta-
bility on the Society ; which speedily manifested
itself, in the increased confidence and popnltfity
winch the sabject attracted, both at borne uid
abroad ; and it tended also to secure many faTOttm
and ' ralnable privil^;es, both from our own and
other gOTemments, who have lent an attentive ear
to their offidal representations, and extended dte
shield of their protection over the beads of tlioee ad-
venturous apostles of Christianity, who have unce,
nnder tlie pWnmage of numerous societies, carried


die meam ot Btlntion to almoU ev?y regjon
<rf the habKabls ewtb,

Tba life of Ciptun WSscki wm marked by ?
Btraag* TBiiety oC cbuigea uid miafortunee, and
fiuni^iea a narrstiTe, wucb, for difemty of az-
nunBtaiicM, affecting incidenta, utd strikmg illiiH-
tnition of the Iu{>py infliienc? of religiooa prin-
ciplea, has but few eqnals. It afforde, at the iBme
time, a beantifid. and remaikabla development of
tboae Ljnd but myateiiotu t^eratioiu of prorideDce,
which often makee events that we consider ad-
TOM or acddental, to tArminate in Bome wiae and
ulntuy reanlt,.andaccomplifihe8 the most momen-
tom changes ia onr lives, by means of the most
mi|mmiung inatnunents. In the early period of
hie Ufe, the DerilS) impriaonmenl*, and simoet in-
credible anfieringa he fiadured, throw an ur of ro-
mance over that part of his hinoiy, which makea
it re?emble more the adventures of a bboloiu hero,
than a literal detail of trnth and iact. Theee m-
teraelii^eventB have been recorded at cniuderable
length, as tending, not merely togntifya laudable
cwionty, bnt to a%ct that particular view of hia
chancier, which it is our nuun ohject to elucidate.
It i* chiefly, howerer, after be had weathered the
atonna of activity and adva?e fortune, and re-
tired to enjoy, in calm eecnity, the frails of hia
Mcceaaftil specnlationB in commerce, that hia nar- -
mtive becemee a aoli^ect <(rf importance, by ^re-
aentiag him aa a craivert to Ae truth of r^igion,
and ?me t)t the earlieet and moat diatingniahed
gnta in ite {vq;iegation among the heathen.

Captaiit Jahsb Wilson waa bom in 1760,
and was the yoongeat ton of nineteen children.


Mis htfaer, vrho WM Cmntnandn' of a tifaip in tli?
NewciMtle trade, truned Um from hb earliest
yean for tfae sea service, a [?ofessioii for which he
Boon discovered an exceOent ct^iacit^. He ??
tered the mcry while quite a youth, ?nd served is
the American w. He was present at Btmkec's
Hill, 1775, the first r^olar battle that was fmi^
between the British army and the Colmisls ; and
M Long'Island, where uie AmericanB effected a
dextrous reb?at, under cover of a thick fi^.

On his retom to Europe, he obt^ned a birth as
mate of an East Indiaman, a prefemieDtforTrtiic&
his nautical experience sufficiently qualified him.
On their aniv^ at Bengal, he qnitt?d his ship, and
engaged in the service of the conntry. His boM
and seaman-like condnct speedily procured hin
both friends and promotioit He was employed aa
the bearer of dispatches to the Nicofasr Islands ; to
advertise the ships retnnui^; from die East, of the
aniral of the French squadron, under Snffireia, en
the coast ; but from the leaky stale of Us smafl
vewel, he was obliged to put riiont for Madras ;
nd when oS PnUcat, where he (fiscovered the
French fleet, he was under the necessity of ren-
Biag her mi the beat^ to save thrir lives.

When be reached Madras, die Biidsh troopa in
tbat settlement, under Sir Eyre Coote, were in Ae
greatest disfrese, and in danget of starvaiiaB ; tbcfe
stores being neaity exhausted, and aJl supplies by
sea cut off by the iVench squadron, then at snchw
at Pmdicbeny, wlnle die army of Hyder A!i in-
tercepted dieir provinoBB by kod. Sevenl ainpa,
laden with rice, vrere lying ready for their relief,
bnt the enemy's fleet beti^ Erectly iu the way,
tlMy dwst not attempt Ae pMtage. The Go??r-

nor of Madna, juiprieed of Mr Wibmu's courage
and dexterity, ottered him four hmdred pagodu
if be wtmld undotake to carry down the ahipa
wilh mpplies for the troops to Cnddalore, nrai'
iriiic^ Sir Eyre Coote wbb encamped.

XUs bazardom serrice he engaged to perfonn ;
aod embai^di^ immediately wiw four Teasels un-
der hie aaatamd, all navigated by Hindoos, with-
out a aingle European on board, except bimBelf, and
ft militKy officer on his pessa^ to the army, he
proceeded) with sufficient caution, to condnct the
long expected stores tonards their destination. By
ft piece of smg^nlar good fortune, he passed the
Preneh fleet near Fondicherry, in the offing, at
neb ft distance as not to be discorered, sttbe ma-
Bient when fliey were occupied in reputing dieir
water casks, which had been stated, while lyuig
OD sbore to be filled, by a party of the Bridan
f^renadiere. This prondential escape enabled him
to bring in the whole of the cargoes eatmsted to
hea conroy, which proved a moet seaaonable relief
to the army, aheady reduced to extreme necee*
dty, and threatened witb inqwnding famine. For
tbfa fortunate adtentuie, whick produced him
newly ?100(^ be received Ak most cwdial ac-
knowledgments of the Genecal, who invited him
sext dfty to dine widi Ihs StaET, and placed bim
at bis i^t bond, in teatimony of the m^ vslori
be 8^ upon bis scTVicee.

He costinue4 iff eome ^me, to be employed In
carrying down supplies, without meeting widiai^
^ftg in (heae Toyegea partkularly interesting. Oa
one of these ocodtnis, however, while ceoveyiDC
ft TiduiMe nrgo ef military stores for Sir EdwaM
Hugbn, wheee amnrautien bad been azbauitad


in a )ate agi^Hiieiit frith the enemyv wder SnC-
frnn, 1m WHimfortnBRtely captured by the K?ncb;
nd canied pruoner to Cnddalore, whicb had lately
fallen into their hands. Here lie found die ot-
fieen and craw of the HannibiJ doomed to dw
same c^HJTity. At first die officers were per*
mitted to ba at large on parole, and entertiutted
hopes of- bekg ikortly exchanged ; bat theaa ex-
pectBtims were sadly dieaf^KHnted.

Hyder Ali, who hod- OTemui and deaoIat?d s
great pan of the Camatic, and hoped, with the aa-
fflitance of the French, to espal uie British fiwB
the whole of that territwy, was Aen nmng every
efirat to get En^iah prieoners into Ihs huids ; in
order to tempt them into his ranks, either by
bribei7, or the tOTtnras ot a lingering death. Snf<
frein. was prevaited apon, hy an offw of 300,000
mpeee, to deliver up to him all his prisoaere at-
Cnddalore,, though tia greatest indi^iation waa
teetified by the Commaiider and Officers of the
fort at this infemouB bai^ain. All the c^ttires on
parole were accordingly ordwed to be snrrendwed,
withont delay, to the escort appointed to cairy
them next day to Seriagapatam, there to j<Hn tte
etandard, or be exposed to the hmtal cruelty) of
the Hindoo c?nqnerov>

No Booner wa? diia mtelligence contmniucated
to Cqttain Wilsmt, than he determined that rerjr
luglit, if poenble, to e&ct his eacape ; aldwn^ no
oner alta&aldre remuoed, than dropping ?rrai the
into the river that ran at t^ foot of Ae
nhopesof making hia way acroaa the cown-
BMne nenb^ aetwment, I


be discovered. He intimated hia deeign to a bro-
tber officer, and faja own serrast, ?Beiq;aleae boy.


JAUla WtLSOM. 105

who both neolTCd to mocmBftuy Umia iaa fligl%
Utey had concerted to meet (m tha nmpana as it
grew difk, before the gnud was wt, and nlMiUr
dn^ down ?mm d:e bftttteueHt ; b?t ere the boor
Arrived, hk cempamon's heun fuhd him. TIm
C^ttin, widi hie boy, etoU onpercelred to the
pot, and as not meraent was to be loM, ha
leaped down from a hoght of about forty feet, ami
fortunately phcbed on hie 1^ ; bat the abock of
ao great a deecent nuKie hia diin etrike agaioM Ue
kneea, wIA each violenoe, that he tambled faesd-
1m^ into tht riTcr. Upon lecareiine himeelf, he
retmned inatantly w Ae foot of flbe wall, and
canght die boy, who dropped from the Han?
bewht, safe in nia anoa.

AU that pan of the T^jore country is low, and
intersected by iiTcn branching from die great Cole-
non, aeme m wfaidi are rery wide, and dangerous
ftvm dte nudity of the tides. These obstacles,
however, Mttbarresting as l^iey van, it was neces-
aiay to ennmnter. As their hopes of safety de-
pended m^nly on die distance they conld reach
trefore die morning light, he poshed resirintely for-
ward; and taking the boy on his back, as he conld
not swini, he crossed three anns of the rimir, di<
recting his course towards Porto Nuovo, about
fonr Imgma and a half distant. Near tins place,
they wwe challenged by a cendnel, whose in-
qniries they fortmiately duded by conoe^ii^ them-
selves. Ibe river h^ewaa very tnoadf and gready
agitated by the ti4p- Takii^ die boy again on faia
bode he plnnged in, hot after they bad adnmoed
a considerable way, die boy became so terrified
in the midst of the breakers, dnt the C^itain was
compelled to rBtum and pat him a-ehore, odMt-


wiae they nwt hnre ineTitaUy periibed Uq^etlwr.
Afl?r directing bim to a place of aecurity, he
phn^^ed again into the WBTea ; Imt the tide ranain^
m so BtroDg, he found it impomible, with all ha
eSoTta, to gun the c^podta aide, and was glad to
tarn lwck,afterbraigcamed to a conndenble dis-
tance up the stnam by tJie impetnoaity of the

Here he provideotiany discorered, on the irj
beach, a canoei irtiit^ he instantly scozed, and was
preparing to lanscb, iriten two Indians m^ied upon
hhn, demanding to know trinAar he wai goug^
and yrbat Us intentjens were. Seizing the onttiR-
ger of the boat, aa hie only wci^wii of defence, ha
told them, in a detennined tone, tliat he had lost
his way, md was proceeding to Tranqnebar, where
be had n^;ent boHlnesa that required instant dis-
patch. Ovetawed by his stem and undaunted air,
tbetwoblack assailants Itdd down their paddles, and
when he hod diawn the canoe to the river, they
peaoaably rawed him across. He continued his
ronte, brOBFed by moon-light, and afWr trsrelling
aereral . leagues, he reached the Coleroon before
day-break, mock exhansted with anuety and fa<

IIm width of this m%bty river, the panent of all
the otbns be bad croesed, canaed a momentary di?-
may and beintatian, as he -stood friendless aua.BoU-
tary on its sandy brink. But the approached morn-
ing, and the perils of delay, disedpated his reluctant
timidity, and casting himself into the flood, after
long sUugglinr, and almost in a state of insensi^
Ulity, ha readied the land. before sun-rise. He
now coi^Tatnlated himself that all his dangers were
past, and hia liberty secoredi tnittkeee flatterii^



eXpectfttioiu proyed only iLe harbingera of new
and more afflJcUng calamitiea.

Upon ascending a sand-fcank, to look around
him, he was immediately diacovei?d by a party of
Hyder's CBvalry, bconring the coast. Unable t?
fly or leaist, he was seized in a moment, and
Bopped naked, his hands tied behind his back ;
and in this sitnatioii be was driven before them se-
Tend miles to kead-qnBrters, under a boming snn,
and covered with blisters ; having travelled, as ho
snpposed, since he quitted his prison, more tban
forty miles, iHsides all the rivers he had crossed.
The officer there, niio was a Mahometan, and
one of Hyder's chiefiuns, interrogated Wilson
sternly, whence he come, and whither be was
gomg? The prisoner gave him an ingennon*
accotmt of hia escape from Cuddalore, and tha
reasons for it, with ?11 the circumstances attend-
ing his flight. Tbe officer regarded him at first'
as an impostor, and could not credit his narra-
tive ; telling 'him, that no msn ever yet passed
' Ae Coleroon by iwimmiog, or could possibly
esc^M the alligators. But being sssured of the
het by evidence he could no longer doubt ; his
indignation changed into tevereae^ and be began
to look upon him as a being of acHne supeiitM: tv-

Brom this place he was mardied back, naked
and half-famished as he wea, to his former prison;
aad as an additional pimislunent for his flight, he
was refused permission to join his fellow-officers,
imd thrust into a dmigeon among the meanest ctip-
tivBS. Next day he was bnmght out, duuned to
a common soldier, and in that d^lorable condi-
tion, tn a homing climate, wdered to march on foot

t? SeringapMam, nearly &n bnndrwl milw distut.
HU companioni, thoo^wuabletoimcniehimany
radrsM, expreBMd tbev ooncem bjr endwTonnng
to idleriAte bis nuHries, and supplying lun> vilh
olottiM and otber aecessaries for hie long and toil'
some joaraty. But the aTarioe of his Iwutal cos-
dnctors soon deprired him of these slender accom-
modatioiu ; for no Booner had they reached the
first halting {dace, thw th^ again stripped faim
to the skin, and left Urn ooca ia?? expoaed to
the lays vf a rertiod sun.

They anUed insult to cruelty ; and after gisdiBg;
him 00 all day) M uight tbey thrust him, still
diaioed to his feUonr-aufCarer, into a dai^ ua-
wbolewme pmon, crowded with other miaauble
?bjects. In Tsiious Tilkgea through which they
pMsed, he was exlubited to the conatry people aa
an ol^eot of cmicaty, many of them having never
bef?re seen a white rotut. Tliere be was oom-
pelted to present himself in ali possiUe positions,
tad to diqtlay all the geaturee of which be was
tumble, that bis mercenan' keepers nug|ht oblaiu
moB^ at the expense of uieir active.

On their way, be, with otb^ prisonere wera
brought into Hyder's |H?sence, who strongly urged
tbem, aa the only means of i^unii^; their tib^y,
to enKst in his service, and profeai his religion ;
wUch some of tbem were induced to do, to escape
from the borrUile barboiities they had suflbred,
But Captain Wilscot, though a stranger to any no-
bler priocdples than tlraaeof boaom'^Tejeiaed tbisof-
Csr with diadain, and resolved to enconntw death
with all its horrors, rather then desert his conotiy,
or eschange the creed of the Christian, for that of
Mabootet; althon^, aa a mattw of hid), be pro-


. J


li*Uy ragardfid all religioiiB vbh eqiul indifiii-

! cooMquence of this iDhnman ti?atment^ and
the forlorn state to which he was reduced, from
ifae want of food and clothing, hie health had be-
gun to niik under snch r complicatioii of sereri-
tiee. He reached Saingapatani, however, greatlj'
weakened by disease ; i&a limbs corroded with the
inns, his body corered with sore?, and emaciaMd
with dysente^, which had attacked him in addi-
tiau to the rest of his affiictioas. Here a new ee-
liea of coUmiities, and more i^grarat?d wretched-
ness awated him, for be was throst, withont food
or medidne, into a noisome dangeon ; and cooped
up with one hundred and fifty-thn? fellow-suf-
feren, who were chiefly phaonera of Colonel
Macleod's Highland Regiment. He was loaded
with the Tery irons wluch Colonel Baillie had
worn, of thirty-two potrnds wei^t; and kept
chained to a common soldiw night and day. Thu
oxtracndinary rigour was inflicted as a punishment
for his daring to escape, as well as for his rejecting
the tempting offers of Hyder's friendship ; for die
Other officers, among whom wae General Sir David
Baird who aflerwards avenged their wrongs by
stoimiii^ this very city, were permitted to be M

In lUm horrible cs^itivity, be remtuned two and
twenty montiis, of nuvaried and inexpressible ml-
aery. The place of confinement allotted to tits
common soldiers, w? a kind of area or square, co-
rered above, but exposed on all ^dee to the wind
and lain. Thus, widiont any bed but the earth,
or corering except the rsga wnq>ped round him,
he continued, fastened to his wretched companioi^


-ftnd wfiering the extremity of diseaae and |)riva-
tion. Their wliole allowance was only a ponnd of
rice a-day for each man, wliit^ they had to cook
for themselves. Iliig scanty porUon, which was
often of bad quality, was scarcely sufficient to
maint^ lift;, much leas to appease the cnringB of
raging hunger ; and they were compelled to the
disagreeable resource, in order to make ap the de-
ficiency, of collecting and frying the wfute ants,
which pestered diem in their prison. 1^ rice was
brought in, not in separate rations, but in a larga
basin ; and in order to secure an impartial distri-
bution, and prevent any ironi taking more. than
their s)iar^ ^^y provided themselves with a small
piece of wood, rudely formed into a spoon, ndiieh
no one was sofiered to use bal in his regular

, Such unexampled misery was mote than the bn-
man constitution could bear. The hardy and ath-
letic Highlanders fell among the fij?t nctims.
Dropsy and flux were making daily inroads into
this melancholy group of sufferers, and rapidly di-
minishing their nnmbera. How Captain Wilson
escaped, b truly astonishing. OAenwas die dead
corpse unchaii^ from his arm in the momiug,
ikiatwoth/eT lifiog vif^tim might take its place, and
fall by the same disease. Yetbeliimself recovered
from the attack which he had when first carried
into prison, and for more ibm a year miuniained aT
tolerable state <>f health.

Before his captivity exjared, however, he was
seized with the usual symptoms, and felt the effects
of the disorder that tad cairied off so many others,
llis bwly and legs swelled exceedingly, so that his
^haina were too strait to be endured : bis lace be-



CADie livid uidbloBted, Bad ereryappearaiicescemet}
to indicate the moment of his dissolution to b? at
band: And when his circnmstances are considered^
ezhauBted with famine and digeose, breathing
the infected rspauTH of a prison, and beaiing a
weight of iron, cankOTDg and consuming his flesh,
it leenia next to a miracle that he could ever have
recovered or survived. A singular incident, how-
ever, whether by design or accidentally, is notsiud,
proved the means of unexpected and matantaneous
relief. He happened one day to exchange his
vsual allowance of rice for a small species of grain,
called ratche [HeF, wbicb be eafferly devoured, and
being very thirsty, he drank toe liquor in which
k was boiled; and such was the effect of tliia diet,
that in a very short time tus bsdy was reduced al-
most to a skelet?n ; and though jn?atty weakened,
he felt completely relieved. Tne sam? remedy
was recommended to others, and tried with great
success by many of his fellow-prisoners.

By this time the ravages of death had greaily
thinned their numbers, and it is probable the few
that reDMuned, the living monwnents of All's
cmelty, wtrald not have str^gled much longer
with their mUeries, had not the victories of St
Eyre Coote )iap[?ly emnpetled the Barbarian to
mbmit ; and extorted flrom him as one of the con-
ditions of peace, the release of all the British cap-
lives. At this auuiuacement, the prison doors
flew open, when a scene of inexpresMble wretch-
edness preeent?d itself. Of one hundred imd fifty-
three brave men, only thirty-two remuned, in a
state of disease and eniaciation, that told too. plainly
the dismal history of tb?r auiferings. Their hu-
mane and compasuonate deliverer, Mr Law, son


to the Biihop of Carlisle, immediately provided
them with food ftDd clothes, and dreanngs for their
ironndi ; but the kindnesfi of their fneiule hnd
nearly proved, to soma of them, as fatal as the
cmelties of their bpprenora. Thongh cautJoned
against the dangers of exceHS and repletion, their
rarenons appetites could not be restrained ; and
they devoured tlieir meat with such roiacity, aa
com^etely to Burcfaarge the weakened and ex-
haust^ powen of nature.

Of this number, Captain Wilson was one. Af-
ter devouring, with too great avidity, a large piec?
of beef, he waa almost instantaneously seized with
a violent fever, became delirious, and for a fort-
night bis life was despaired of. His conetitndon,
which had resisted more than human natare seemed
capable of enduring, sust^ned, in the moment of
liberty and abundaDce, a severer shock than it
had yet received, from the complicated infliction of
fetters and &mine. Bnt in the counsels of Su-
preme Wisdom, it was determined that he should
not thus perish : for He who had watched over him
in prisons, and in perils by sea, re^lored his nn-
deratanding, and brought him once more back from
the gates of death ; thongh as yet be acknowledged
not the hand of his deliverer, nor expressed one
sentiment of thankfulness, in gratitude to his beuft-

A supply of clothee had been humanely tm-
warded to die destitute captives, by Lord Macart-
ney ; bnt there not being a sufficiency for all, some
liad one thing, some another. To Captain Wil-
son's share, a very lai^ military bat fell,' with a
banian and pantaloons, very ranch in disrepair.
As soon as he was capable of undergoing the fa-



tignee of tbejonroey, )ie joined lome otlters of )<n
co<mtryiiieD,utdpn>ce?ded to Madras. Herehewna
receiTedsodwekomed, in the kindest manner, by his
fonner frienda, who were not a little nstoiiished at
the grotesqne figure he mt in bis tatteied and motley
habiliments ; triiicb, added to his niei^;re person,
made him very mudi resemble a maniac. Their
hospitable treatment toon restored him to hia
. wonted strength and spirits; and lie began to
think of entering ^ain on service) as he had yet
obtainedbnt a rery scanty promion. Accordingly,
he made a Toyage to Bencoolen and Eatana, as
first mate of the Intelligence. BeneoeLen ia a
most mibeslthy place, and few i4? visit it escape
widnnit the pntnd feTer. On this- occasion, there
was a rery great nwrtahty Kumig the crew of the
Intalligence; every EnsopMn oaboanl, except Cap-
ttua Wilson, hBTing ili^ before they left Pulfy
Bfty. A racruit of black men were taken in to
navigate ibe vessel) end after visiting Batavia, they
retnined t? Bengal. This proved to Captain Wil-
son a very jH?fitsble voyage, though bis health had
sn&ied mateiially.

Ib this manner h? continued, fer a year and a
hdi, t? improve his fortune ; and became himself
the Commander, aswell as a sharer in the veae^
By one of those mercantile qveBaktiona, the eac-
cess of (tdiich seems often to be dfetermned by the
BMSt triffit^ urcmnslances, he rose at once to
pro^>erity and independence. Taking advantage
of a sadden and nnaipected turn of the wind, he
got. the start of all the other merchantmen bonnd
for the same fori, and finding the markets very-
much in want of the articles with which he warn
freighted, be obu^ied his own price for the greatur


B there, was no cwnpetitw to
Thna in one montli, and by a
Hmgnlar occurrence in hia favour, he rekUttod
turn Bnfficient to indnco him to retire irem bnsi^
neaa, and exchange the twle and hazards of iha
eea, for the comforta of domestic society.

^Vith this view he embadied, in 1794, as a paw
tenger in a ehip that was retunung from Bengal to
England. On the royage, he had frequent diiqnite*
about religion with a Baptist misnonHiy on board,
vba was greatly scandalized at his infidel prindpleay
?a well as hb careless conduct ; and used to ohterre,
that he shonld hare more hope of converUng ihs
X.BBcars to Christianity, than Captain Wilson. On
arriving in safrty at Portsmooth, he immediateljr
began to look sboot him for an agreeable abode,
in which he might repur his shattered health, and
enjoy the thuts of hia fortonate enterprise. He
aoon discovered aplace la his mind at HomdoM),
in Hampshire. This* he pnrchased ; and set him*
self down contented, anticipating mnch h^pinaaa
from the apoiia of the country, and the faslnouable
society in the ne^bbourhood. Being umnsnied,
he found it neceegary to have a pi^^P^ person to
insn^e his bonsebold et;onamy. litis duty ha
devolved span his niece, a prudent wd agreeable
person, and one whose sentiments were imbud
with tme, piety.

Here he lived nearly two yearag decent andeo-
ber in his conduct, but careleea and tuteoncamed
about religion, and an utter stranger to its prin-i
ciples and its power. Dnring all the psils and
Rimeringa he had uodergraie, his heart appear* to
have remained as insoieifate as the nether mUlatoiie
to any thing like feelings of gratitude tn dvvotion.


Ko hiiiniU^<ni, no pmyer, no Mnse of ain, no i<e>^
coane to dw bkmd of a Reileeiner, no regard fw
die futnre welbre of bia ionl, ever seema to bavo
mtered his Aon^ifits, m" alarmed hs ciHiscience.
He came out of die fnniace as hardened and im-
penitent as ever, his principles unchanged, and
the obduracy of his heart not softened widi the
tean of repentanco, nor melted down into godly

Hi* DMTdes had no better effect than his chas'
'tisements and afflictions. He returned to life and
healtb, with the same callcKU propei^ties, the same
etabbom nature, the same forgetfnlne?8 of God,
and the same' insensibility to those manifegtations
of dhinfl care, that had in such a wonderfol man-
ner ted him by a way which he knew not, pre-
sraved him in deaths oft, in hunger, and thu^t,
and nahednesB, in joumeyings and in prisons,
in pwils of waters, in perils in the wilderness, in
perils by the headien ; and after all these dangers,
CRiwned his labours mth uncommon auocess, by
means iritich appeared almost miraculoos. Bnl
dta plans of Omniicience are inscnitable ; and
while they are dineoted by infinite wisdom, they
M? also charactaized by benevolence. Hii Di.
Tine Master, who had chosen him from the b^^in-
mag to be the henld (rf his crass, and to carry the
message of eternal life to the neglected solitndes
of the Indian Ocean, b<n? with him in his igno-
rance and rebellion, and was gradually preparing
hhn, by a series of proridences, for that peculiar
work, iK which be aftorwaids embarked with so
BoUe and dinntereated a zeal.

Ci^tain Wilson's infidelity may be ascribed
maioly to two cmses, Uie want of an early and


Saiptnnd acqnuubmce with religion ; and his resi-
dence for ho many yean in India: a conniry whkk
hts [Hwed fatal to the prindplea oi rtsay EtKo-
peans ; who, makinc wealtli the ?ole object ot tlinr
worship, proBtnte U<ar bearta befwe the dmae oE
this golden image, with a more nnbaUowed devo-
tion, than if they bent the kneeai the chamberaof
AMBtic idolatry. His mind bad been rendered
completely callons, by the events and occopations
of his life ; and thijB baleful mfln^ice had darkened
down np<m his tacoltiea, ao as to obliterate any re-
muna of religiiHt, aad sU Muae of God'a moaiff^

Like all oAer disables of Deiani, beentertunwl
lofty c<HiceptioDB of unman nature, awl was deeply
imbued with a s^lf-CMUplacent admiration of hu
own goodness. He considered that he had so con-;
ducted himself as to merit the congratulationa of
the world, and bad done nothing he conld reproach
himaelf with, aa unjust to his neighbour, or offen-
aire in the eye >! God. He bad even in some uit
etances b^ved with a generosity that he thoogb
could not Ul to BeaxB for him the divine ^tpro-
bation ; and when compared with otheia of hia
coontrymea in that part of the world, he flattered
himself be ot^ht rathet to be celebrated as a auin
of exalted viitae, thati regarded as an wdnliever,
or a unner. He was ciBBcioaa of the goodness Of
his heart, and the general integrity of his aetiona,
and therefore saw no reason. M embitter hiB fire-
sent enjoyments with diaagreeable or alermu^ re-
fleciiona. Beaides, his many wonderful esn^tea,
hia singular preservations, and above all, his anc-
c?ea in hia mercantile engagements, wbicfa had
raised him to affluence, after being atripped trf all


he possested, led bim prondly to inagine ihat he
was not only a child of fortune, but in special fo-
voai with the D?ty.

He had, while in die prime of life, obtained en
easy competency, ratnrncd honewitbaconatitutioa
nnsnbdned by an esatem dimate, possessed a
cheerM mind, which fitted him for company, and
(m wbat the world calls a man of fa^ion ; it was
time, tberefore, he conceired, to enjoy himself, and
to adopt the maxim of the rich mas in the gospel,
" Eat, drink, and be merry, for thou bast fftodB
laid up for many jean." In iius slate of tranqiul-
lity and easy indifierence, he felt no desire to in-
vestigate die eridences of religion, or bare his re-
pose broken in upon hy conuderations abotit the
moral goremment of the world, die method of
man's acceptance with God, or the fiqal retribu-
tion to be awarded hereafter to the righteous and
the wicked.

It is difficult, indeed, to imagine almost any thing
more unlikely, than that the subjects of revelation
honld engage, orintcrcMamiDdsowraptupintiie
flattering opinions of snpeiior worth, and the ro-
. mantic schemes of earthly happiness. TheDbjections
most have appealed to turn nnmeronB and formi-
dable, against receiTing a hook ara revelation from
God, die design of which was to teach him that
bis heart was deeply depmved, ^diat he had been
a rebel through life agunst his Maker, that he
had incurred his displeasnrB, and must expect par-
don and happiness solely thfongh the anmerited
mercy of faim he had ofiended. These sentiments,
however, hnmiliating and repngnuit as they were
to his present syttero, he came at length to adopt.

The conversations and exemplary conduct of


bit neiee, had no Btnall share in difi^ing tiiis prO'
paratory influence ovez hit mind ; thou^ he re-
gBrd?l her anxiety about religious ordinances, as
and her avernon to mingle in fashionable society,
he miitook for b. moTose cont^npt of innocent
gwetiea and eod?l amusement. Ha was favoured
also with the acquaintance and headship of Cap-
taia Sinu, a gentleman who had retired from the
active duties irf hia profession, upon a respectable
competency, and was residing in the inunediaM
neunbom'hood. Captain Sims was then advanced
in fife, but he had for many years, regnlaiiy at<
tended divine worship, and prdesaed a zealoas at^
tadiment to the prindplea of vital religion. He
had frequently introdneed the snl^ect to Capitun
Wlson, representing to him ^?e dangers of infi- .
delity, and 'endeavouring to impress his mind with
a conviction of the trath of a divine revelation ;
but though a confirined believer himself, he was
better acqnunted with the interior ef religion,'
than qualified to defend its outworks. He had
tudiej] the Scriptures with great care, but had
employed his mind about the general evidences of
CmiBtianity too little, to meet the sophistical red-
sonings of his sceptical companion.

llie Indian C^>tain proadly defied the arUUeiy
of his heavy dennnciationa against uabeUevers, ana
emiled at his entreating him to abandon the. ranks
of seep^csm, in which he had enrolled himself,
and to join in affinity and allegiance with tlie or*-
thodox party. Citations fr<un Scripture to prove,
that his principles were wrong, vriUi him had no.
anthmity, because be disbelieved them ; and de-
manded better evidence than mere assertion, that


the IMble was really tiie word of God. He found
it MHf, therefore, Ui oblam b. temporwy victory
wver Ua friend, and to foil a less deiterons com-
batant, wbo was nncere in his profession, but nu-
kilful in the use of hia weapons.

Captain Sints, unable to defend himsetf against
the spirited attacks of Ihs ingenions antagonist,
wisely withdrew from the field, bnt left, as, a sub-
stitQle, a bock, written by the late General Bum,
mtitleil, " The Christian Officer's Complete Ai-
monr ;" beiBs a dialogue between a Captain and a
M^or, on Ote evidences of revelHtioo. Of this
treatise, Captain Wilson fcemI only the title voge,
and Gitdiag that it related to the defence of Chns-
Canity, be retunted it, after hanjig kept it care-
leady by him for a fen weeks.

These conrereatians and discnauons, IraweTer
nnprofitable at the time, were not without their
good effects. Occanendly, and at intervals, tran-
sient convictions would strike f lis consaence, like the
flashes of lightning that crow the path of the be-
nighted traveller. Me would eometimes indulge
the reflection, that if Christianity were from God,
bia plan of life waa altogether wrong, bis estimate of
himself eiToneons, and his hopes of fatnre happi-
ness fattadoos. Yet thongh his judgment might
attest the propriety of a caadid investigadon of
the snhject, nia neart rose with indignant oppoal-.
tjon, to admit sentiments wbicli were at variance
with the system of fais whole life.

It happened that Captain Sims had invited the
minister of the cluf)el at Portsea, (the Rev. J.
Griffin) where he attended divine worahip, to
spend a few (lays with him in the country. Du-.
i^ng duB short visit, he was btrodaccd to Cap-



laui V^on, aod this ?eemin^y ncodratal df
GumsMnce, not only proved die happy meem of
liis converaicm, bat Imd tbe fomdfttion of t cor*
dial att?chiu?nt between them, thatwas only brdcea
off by deatb. - At one of th^r dinner partiet,
the topic of conTeraation duuced to be on the
autbMiUcity of the sacred Scriptures ; and Cnp-
tun Siwa pleasantly remarked, that, as be bed al-
ready beea foiled on that subject, be referred the
canae to bis yonng fiieod the miuiBler, who ma
better able to muotoin the contest than be waa.

The minister politely declined wtekt might seem
an obtrusion of his sentiments on the company,
and added, that he thonght the matter t4M aeivma
and important for the orasaioii, althoogh be was
ready at all times to defend die tnilh, according
? tbe beet of his abilities. Capimn Witson emiled

at the gravity of the clergyman, and lAieeryod, that
it wotdd be ' " '

te with a dogma^cal air, " t am glad
a opportunity to conveise on it ; for I have

obtmsion: " I assure you, Sir,"

ooutinned he with a dogma^cal

never met with a clei^yman yet, and I have c
veised with aeveraJt that I could not foil in a quar-
ter of an hour." This teemed a challenge that no
man of btmonr could dediae ; and when the party
broke up, tbe two combatanta, embrainng the is-
Ikbtfnl opportnmty iHiich a fine erebing ia Joly
affiwded, adjourned to a ahady bow? in the -gar-
den, there to debate tbe point, whether Chiia-
tianity was a revelation from God.

Tlie minister reminded him to treat the anbject
with all the eetionsness it deserved ; and v?y ge-
' ' ' ' of W

neronaly propoeed to allow him the chmee
own mode of argument, either to object or re]
as be mi^t find moat agreeable. CqnauVni



admiued tbe subject vm aeriotia, anil that be m-
teiuled U> Ueat it u such ; bat ntber dediDed ??-
Using iatu B formal and lexical moda of reeMming ;
oEwerTing, that if die principal objectionB were le-
moved, ha was ready to sdmowledge the Scrip-
toreH aa the word of God ; and would endearoui
to confcHin hia principles and hia conduct accoi'-
dingly. He granted at once tbe mperior ezcelr
lence of Chitstianitr, and that none of tbe writ-
ings of the Mahometans, tbe Hindoos, oi tlie
Chinese)- could bear-a comparison of claims to di-
line rerelation, widi tboee contained in tbe Old
and New Testament ; but be thought tbere were
difficulties comiected with its evidences and its
doctrines, which could not be Batiafaetorily es-
pluned. These it appeared to him impossible
to obviate, in such a way as to produce convic-

Being requested to state what he thought most
objectionable, the following, after some delibera-
tion, were urged as tbe chief reasons of hia incre-
dulity : lliat tbe Scriptures give an unlovely re-
[xesentalion of the divine character, contrary to
what >4ipeaiB in the works of nature, that they
increase our perplexitiev with lespect to religion,
by requiring ns to believe myBtenes, or truths not
wilhinthe sphere of OUT undnstandiog, that what
is assumed as a rerelation from God to the world,
and as a universal remedy for all Its intellectual
errors and moral evils, bad not, after so many thou-
sand yean, reached one t?kth part of the inhabi-
tants of the globe, that the magnitude of crea-
tion renders it alt4^etlier improbi^le that the Su*
preme Being baa conducted himself towards die
inbabitanta of this o?npai?tively insignificant apot


of the nnirene, in the mumer the Scriptnrea re-
pKient him to bsve done, ?nd that Joduim and
ChriBtianity, instMd of being a benefit, bad been
an injury to the world. Hiese he confeved were
the UMWt wei^ty and fonnidable difficulties, and
though there wore othen in detail, yet if these
could be removed, the reat, he allowed, would hare
venr little influence.

Tbeoe objectiona, the reader will perceire, have
been produced and re-prodnced by infidela in va-
rious fonnB, and ae often refhted in the moet aa-
ds&Ctoiy manner ; but as it would uot have ans-
wered hw present deMgn merely to make this aa-
ertioo, the minister condescended to reply briefly
to the serial paiticulan, in such a way as 1m
hoped would tend, if not folly to tepel toe ail-
ments, at least to weaken their force. He stated
as a general preliminary, that it was nnphilosophi-
col, and contrary to the acknowledged methods of
sound reasoning, to object to the tiiith of a pro-
position, because that truth contained some prin-
ciples difficult to be comprehended. Such * )h?-
jndice would be a mighty barrier to die attwn-
ment of knowledge in almost every science ; in
chembtry, mathematics, natural hiatory,&c irtiere
iheie are innumerable prindplee, the truth or rea-
lity of which ia proved by iBContestsble evidences,
alUiough the tmtli itaelf contains first principles
^t cannot be explained.

This mode of objecting, he obaerved, would
apply with equal force agunat Deiam as against
Christianity, since thwe were many portions in na-
tural, Bs well SB in revealed religion, against which
nmilar difficulties might be urged. For example,
the perndssiou of moni evil, the providence of God,


the ezistenM of spirit m diatinct from matter, and
eoDfieqnently a fatnre state of being, nagbt all be
denied on the Hame priaciple, since each of these
truths have mysterioa connected with them ; end
yet many Delsla believe them, and admit the evi-
dence by which they are ^uved. This therefWe
elearly shewed the muasSonablenMs ef those who
-objected to the evidences or which revelation is
founded, merely beeatue the subject was ftnmd to
contain some inexplicable dtfficnltiee.

He next replied to Ms objection as t? the Scrip-
tural representations of the divine character,^ on-
loveliness and seveiity. He observed, that our
conceptions of character are often rather pictnrea
dnwn after our own fancies or feelings, than exact
resemblances of the trnth ; and that which is ex-
cellent in the esteem of one man, often is, in the opi-
nion of another, qnite the reverse : Thiu, a disobe-
dient son, an indolent servant, or a condemited
criminal, will form their estimates as to. the cha-
racter of a father, a master, or a jut^e, vny dif-
ferently from a virtnooB child, en indusbioas ser-
vant, or a loyal subject. The one will see good-
ness and virtne, where the other can discover no-
thing bnt harshness and seveiity. One who has a
competent forttme, a comfortable rendence, and
pleasant gardens, &c will think more favoiuably
of the kindness and muDificence of the Deity, than
the slave in the mines, or the beggar who nwidets
on a precarions charity. If it is tme, as S?riptwe
asserts, that we are b a state of enmity and rebel-
lion against God, is it to be wondered at if we
should dislike the description be has gives us of
himself, or deem those ieatares unlovely that we
cannot look upon btit with terror P



He diewed him, on the other hand, that tbey
lUuBt atlopt very partial and erroneoiu views of the
dirine diaracter, who woald conceive of it u all
goodness and mercy ; foivetting, that at the same
time, to be coi|uet?nt with itself and with obr idew
of perfection, it must poasMB also the attdbutes of
^ostice and holiness. These latter attributes are
in Scripttue associated with his goodness, in order
to form a complete and perfect character. In or-
der to apply this argument^ and bring it home to
the case of his opponent, the minister drew a con-
trast between the two systems, and left his friend
to infer, which of them gave ^e moat fovonrablft
representation of the goodness and benevolence of
the Deity that i^ich assured us of a future 8tat?,
which brought life and immortality to light, and
directed na to the means of obtaining them ; or ^lat
which left these momentous and interesting qties-
tione in darkness and nncertunty. " Is this then,"
he asked, " a proof of the goodness of God, to
leave you in a state of the moat awful suspenae,
on snbjecti! that so nearly concern yoor greatest
happiness ? Is this a mark of goodness, to giv?
you the dim light of reason, whidi, like that of th?
glow-worm, only serves to make die gnmranding
darkness more vimble ; and to reftise that li^ht
which is able to dispel yonr darkness ? To give
you a conscience capable of tormenting yon, with-
out die method of having it appeased, without
knowing whether he will pardon few sins, or
many, and on what conditions ? And is this the
system that is founded on the goodness of God ?
No ; the subject will not hear looking at ; the fur-
ther you go, the more die mind is perplexed. It
is revelation that gives die most lovely eihilution


?f tliu goodneHB. Tti?? tbe donbtB and fe^ irfthe
atuciom mind are reaolred. Life and immortality
are brought to light b; the goapel ?"

To this Captain Wilson had notlung to Teply ;
but h? mentioned some particular pasM^es in tne
Old Tealament that he could not reconcile with
his ideas of the divine goodneBB, anch u the dis-
tinction between. tbe offeringB of Cain and Abel,
die onuunaad of God to the leraeUtei, with re-

rct to the nationa that were to be ^peUed from
promised land, and eapeciailf the destmction
ofthe Canaanites. Of theae the minister gave him
BBch expUna^ns, as satisfied him that the Scrip-
ture account was not attended wiA greater diffi-
culties than any other, but tbe contnuy ; and that
even as matt^? of foct, they appeared not to be a
greater violation of justice or uumamtyi than the
African slave-trade, which he scmpled not to re-
concile with his principles.

The Cantm, fiodii^ that be could make no
ground on nia antagonist, ahandoned this pcnnt aa
indefensible, and retved to what he conudered a
more tenable poaiUon, the absurdity of Scriptvire
requiring lum to believe mysteriea. The mimsler
admitted, that the Scriptures contain a variety of
trutln which may be considered as mysteries ; that
is, which imply something in their nature, degree,
or mode of existence, which lies beyond the sphere
of our con^rehension ; not that the docUme or
biitb itself is hidden, ttx this would be a contradic-
Uon in terms. But he contended, that these were
not more mysterious than a number of princ^iles
which are commonly rec?ved by philosophera ;
die evidences of whose existence are so stroi^, that
they cannot reliue tbeh assent to them ; such as


the pbnwHnewi of anunal and vegcteble nttUtjry
dM limiMtioii trf matter out trf nothing, the etcr*
nity and inunewity of the I^Tine B^ng, which no
finite mind can cmnprahend. " If theref<H?,' he
conclndad, " the innpired rolnme contuns a tb-
riety of tratfaa which lie beyond the iphere of our
limited capacity, it ia rather an eridence of its di-
vine authenticity, than gainst it."

The Captain was willmg to allow, that he migfat
reCMve Bome truths whicli he did not fully com'
prehend, bnt could nerer he brought to bdiere
what was ctmtrary to the nature of things. He
ioitanced the doctrine of the Tiinity ; and added,
that this was so conDaiy to reason, ihat he had
hardly padenoe to attend to evidenoes whidi at*
tempted to prove snch an alwiirdity, as that three
are one, and one is three; or that die book which
ctwtaina such prepostennu poBitions was the word
of God.

The minister again reminded him, that the Soip-
twes contained some things hard to be understood,
nd therefore to attempt to explain vb&t is inez-
plicable, would-be as ridiculoas as it was impoa-
aibte ; Init this, be obaerred, amid be no reasonable
vbjection to onr receiving a revelation from the
Deity, if otiierwise proved, that we could not nn-
deratand the mode of his essence or existence. It
was too assuming, to makp onr judgment of the
Deity a standard by which to try the evidences <rf
B revelation from him to man ; shice, upon such a

K'ndple, it would be, impoaaible for die Divine
bg to make a revektion of himself to his crea-
Unes, Buppostng that there was any thing in the na-
ture of his existence, incompatible widi om' modes
of remoning. And as to beUeving nothing that is

conQury to the dictates of reacon, be questioned
wbetber, in this nssertitm, tbe Captain wu quits
correct. " Do yon aot," (mid he,) " believe thai
God IB ereiy wbero presajt, in the most strict sod
philosophical sense of tbe word f and yet do jaa net
88 firmly belieTe, that them we innumerable worlds
of matter in tbe nniT^se, and also innnmerable
Bpiiita, who are distinct, intelligMit, fi-ee agents ?
What power of reasoning is yonr mind endowed
with, fay which it can reconcile diese two oppoMte
pTopoeiti(?is ? Can two beings, two mbstances,
occupy exacdy the same space at tbe same time?
If you believe the other two {H<^)omtions, yon
most also belieTe that they can. Bat u not this con-
trary to yotir mode of reasiHung; mt as ftr aeyoar
fetefipti<aK go, contrary to die nstiue of tilings ?"

Thedoctrineofdiennityof the Deity, so clesrly
tao^t in Saiptare, and which i^ipeara to ns now
to be a self-endent position, for many ages, he told
him, had to straggle with tlie reasoningB of men
before it obtained eztenure belief ; and even yM
had not obtained nniversal reception. It was con*
trary to the reason of tbe andents, seeing there
were so many oppoute prindples in the universe,
both moral and jMiysical, tliat tiiere should be bat
one God. The belief of a plurality of deities
was general throng all nations, a fact which
mi^ serve to shew how dangerous it is, to make
OUT ideas of the nature of the divine existence a
reascm for refusing to examine the dums o( Scrips
tore to be a revelation from God ; since, had men
always acted under the influence of this principle,
the doctrine of the divine naity nught still have
beMi boated as an absurdity.

llie Captain agreed that there was eomethuig


in the nature of Hpiritnal b^ngs that we could not
VDiIerBtsnd, and seemed to pwcei?e the absiudity
of his prescribing a mode ofexisteiice to what was
incomprehenuble, or o( makiiig hmnan reoeoR the
standard by which to determine the nature of the
divine eBsence. He therefore proposed to take up
hja third objection to revelatiui, viz. that It had
never been univeraally Icnown, a defect that ren-
dered it,iaagi?atineBsure,of bo oee; since it could
Dratber be a rale t>( duty, nttt a remedy for misery,
where men had never beard of it. " Itia noi
deined," rallied his triend, " tliat the want ^ the
nnireraal diffosion of revriation, is a serious evil to
tliewwid; but may not the ot^ectton you new
urge, have been one cause of preventing ite Iweom-
ing uuverBal P If ytHtr argnment is vtuid, it never
cui became so ; for if dl mm refuse to examine its
claims to divine aatfaenticity, tilt it is tmitereally
known, it is morally impossible it should ever be
recei^d by the whole world, tor the objection
would [H^smt an insupei^le hurier to ha g?ie-
ral receptkiu. This is reasoning in a drde, and
terminates in absurdity : It is, in fact, to say, that
it on^t not to be noiversally received, till it is

characMr, and of his mmal government, which
wonld jnstity db in conclndii^, di^ be wonld at
the same time make the discovery to all."

Upon this suppoeitioD, he shewed him iLat his
objection was quite unsupported by the analysia
of the divine government ; and was extremely in-
conuBtent in a D^st, who pnrfeased to believe
that God bad given a discovery of himself in hm


'works, raffidently intelligible to ^11 mankind ; and
yet Deism was not universal, tbe numbers of iis
diaciples being few, cumpBred with Cbmtimia, and
still smaller compered with beatlienH and ittolatere.
Tlw objection ought therefore, he obeervod, to
hare no weight niui him, becatue it applied with
more than eqoal force againBt hie own eyiteui. " I
see no altematire for you," (be concluded), " up-
on your own aivnnient, but either to adinit the
principles of Atheism or Paganism, ot to go calmly
into the evidences of ChriBtianity." That the
Scriptures are not universally known, he informed
him, was one evidence of the tradi of some of the
gr?(t prindples which they contain ; for thfey de-
scribe men as in a state of rebellion sgmnst their
Maker, not liking to retun God in their thoughts.
It was not then a matter of sorprise, that men should
make objections against the divine origin of a
book, which prescribed rules to which they have no
wish to be conformed, motives of action they never
feel, and dennnciaticns of wiath againat sins to
which they are strongly attached, both by inclina-
tion and habit. But it can never be an excuse to ,
the objectors of Christianity, that it is not uiuver-
ally received, or that others have neglected totn-
qnire into its authority, or refused submission to
its propoeala. Such a plea would rather aggravate
than extenuate their aiminality. In applying die
argument, he begged his friend serionsly to cona-
der, diri however s<?ne might plead before the tri-
hntial of their Maker, that they never had en op-
portnni^ to invcatigate the clums or the doc-
trines of Scripture, be would not be entitled to
make tliis plea. " Let me entreat yon then," (he
conclnded), " patiently to examine their evi-


dencea, and study their contents. I am peranAdod
you wifl not be offiinded with me, for n^g tliis
eonwatnem; once it mnat appear to youasped?a
of hypocrisy in me, to profess tobelicTe the truth
and importance of revdation, and he deairaus that
otbera also should believe its divine origin, and
participate in its beneGta."

Tie Cfmtiun ezpresaed hiroaelf obliged to faia
nsitoT for aia good wiahea, howeTer mmecesBary
be might thmk them i bat dropt no remarks that
could indicat? what iinpreaaion hb Hi^amentB and
eaneat exposlnlations had made upon him. It
^ipeara, however, he could advance nothii^itt hia
own vindication, for be immediately turned the
conversation towarda another objectimi, which he
drew from the extent or magnitude of creation.
It seemed to lum hi^ty improbable, he said, that
the inhabitants of this comparotively insignificant
spot,shon1dreceive that kind of attentioD described
in the Scriptures, since the globe we inhabit, pro-
bably bears a less proportion to the nuiveise, tiian
an orange bears to the solar system : When we see
ihatthe tvatera and the air are full of animation, and
that v^etables and animals are little worlds covered
with inhabitants ; is it not natural to suppose that
the globes which float in the boondleBS extent of
?pace around ns, are also inhabited P And when
we consider that our own is the cenUe of a sys-
tem, with planets like our eartl), and some of them
nunch larger, revolving round it ; is it not probable
that the fixed stars are suns to other systems?
Now, that a Being possessed of such vast, and
to ns, boundless dominions, should speak and act
as thou^ all his odier works were made for
the inhabitants of this little spot ; and that he who



made an<] garena alt, ihonld nnite Uouelf witb
human nature, and die to restore man to hsppi-
oesa, ?eeined bo much beyond the bounds of pro-
bability, dtat he wondered how any man of a phi-
loaopbical mind could betiere such things.

Before replying to this objecticKi in deuul, the
minister reminded biu that the whole argument
was weak ; and one part of his view eironeotu,
aince Scrmture nowhere represents, tliat ell die
works ofGod were made for the benefit of man, nor
that any of them were made exclusively for lus ad-
Taniage. " I do not," be proceeded, " deny some
of your probabilities ; it may be tnu^ that tbe stars
are snna, and theee swis have [danelwy systems,
and these systems are 'jill inhabited ; but it may
be osefol to recollect, that these are only proba-
bilitdea and not certainties. It is &om one tnun
of pH^tabilitisB diat yon deduce another, so that
the probabilities iu^;ed against the truth of reve-
lation are not deductions troro known partB ; this
to a iMowpher (that is, to a man of close rea-
soning) must rery much weaken the objections.
To probability tLen, I wonld oppose probabili^,
and tbua balance your oinection, or, as I tfaiuk,
torn ibe scale ^jainst it. The pnibabilitieB in fa-
vour of reTelatioo, to be deduced from the minule-
nees of the works of God, are, I think, equal both
in oimiber and weight, to those which form the ob-
jection arising from the m^;nitude of his works."

This he illustrated, by referring to the nice ad-
jnetments in the minntest parts of the animal struc-
ture : the adaptation of the eye to liglit, the ear to
Bonnd, the langs for leBpiration ; and in short, the
whole animal economy, which extended even to
die smallest fly or insect. This minute attention


of tbe dirine Being fa> tbe t^ratimia of nuttter,
made it probable, that he ia not leas attentive to
the operations of mind : and coDMUering that all
these arrangements are connecled witb aiumol of
human happiness, ibe inference obnoualy was, that
he who has been so kindly attentive (o die body,
had not n^lected the soul ; that he who has given
light for the eye, has given Onth for tbe imdeT>
standing : And seeii^ that the Sci'iptnres contain
principles as suited to the comtort of the mind, as
food is suited to the sostenance of tbe body ; the
probability is that these truths are from God, because
there is as pleasing an adiqttation between these
troths and the Mate or condition of the human
mind, as there is between food and hunger, l^ht
and Uie poww of Tision.

But the magnitude of his works sn^esla pro-
bebilities in fovourof revelation, as well as the mi-
nuteness of tiiem. In eurveying the greatnesa of
his power in creating such boundless works, and
his astonishing wisdom in the management of
them; who can resist thepermaBion that he would,
for die same reasons, magnify his condescen^ou,
goodness, and mercy, by some method correspond-
ing with that by which he has displayed his wis-
dom and power ; and nowhere is tins so fully to
be seen, aa in those Scriptures which relate the his'
tory of the redemption of the world by the Son
of God. This is an event whicji fills m with aa
much astonishment at his loving-kindness and
tender mercy, as the vastneas of his works fills ua
with astonishment at bis power. Philosophy pre<
eente a magnifiGent display of the greatness of
God, but the Scriptures ^ves us also a grand dis-
play of his goodness. Here, therefore, the prtn
bability is also in hvonr of revelation.

ia estimatiiig the argilnieiit from the magmtade
of creation, t^id the comparatiTe insignificance of
man, there was one fact ve ought not to loee eje;fat
of, the auperior exeettence of intelligence to tnat
of matter. The inh^haitta of this earth, consi-
dered as intelligent creatnreB, were of more ini'
portanee in the scale of b^ng, than all the innn-
nierfible wortda of nntter which God had made ;
aad which ^peered, either directly, or remotely to
minister to the good of man. The demonslratioiiH
of beneficent design, therefore, arising from the
^oAs of God, were proofe in favour of the Scrip-
nrea being a rerelation from him ; aiid tluit he had
done emy thing to ihew his concern for the pre-
MQtandfatnrebtippiikeMofhiBCTeatitree, Betides,
it was enongh to expose the weakness of the objec-
tion, that the whole reasoning was bnilt altogetiier
upon hypothesiiB and probabilitv.

These aigmncnts, thongh they did not ^peer
to die CaptMii altogether satisfactory, or conTinc-
log, yet tended, by hia own concession, to set the
mbject in a more taTonrable li^t. " But how do
you account for it," (said he), " that the prin-
ciples of the SeiiptDrea hare done so little good in
the world ; and baye been the cause of so much
enpentition, tnvn^, and bloodshed P" " Yoa
appear," said tJte mmieter, " to take these things
for granted, ih thoa^ they were self-erident posi-
tions ; but I must beg ledre to deny the statement.
Chriatiamty has done rast good in the world, and
has not, properly conmdered, btien the canse of ett-
perstition, tyranny, or crnelly. It is certainly
much to be lamented, that some, for ambitions pur^
poses, imder the mask of religion, have i^ '

BDpeiBtitioas obeervancee, to divert the ai


?f roenfronithrirJDatn^rtsi mod l)kv? perMmtod
niyriadB wttli mrelentiiig aererity, for daring to
think for tliemselres. Bat IpregumeyoowUlsdmit
that due was done tram politica] motirea ; and no-
thing caa be a atronger proof that thwe thii^
cannot be furly attributed to the priiich>l?a of
Chmtianity, th^ the Catholics haring prombited
the people from leading the Scriptnree. Wko
does not perceire, that had ChriBtiamty jnadfied
their conduct, tbey wonld most readily have cir-
culated the sacrad book in thor own defence P"

Nothing, he justly observed, could be more opp^
site to die apicit of crtielty and oppnsnon, mm
tht langoflge of Christ, or the prindples and ex-
amples retarded in the New Testament ; and no-
dung can be more nncandid, than to ascribe to
Chriatianity, the vices and miscondoct of those who
have diupuced the name and profession of Chris-
tians. It must be evident to every one, that unce
the Scriptures have been man freely ctrcntated,
and more generally read, theatateofeodety in En-
rope, and the world at large, has gradually increased
in amelioration.

Here the Captain, im^ining he had found in this
sort <^ argument, a two-egded sword iriiich ks
could tnm with advanti^ i^md hie adremry, in-
terrupted him ; and observed with a amile, " you
certmnly have a h^ipy knack of getting clear of
a difficulty. When I object to the mystery of
your prindptea, you refer me to your practice,
and when I refer to the bad practices of the vota-
ries of Christianity, you refer me to your prin-
ciptea." " Notwithstanding your pleaaantry," re-
jomed his ftiend, " I am persuaded, however indig-
nant you feel, and not more BO than I do, at the coDv


duct of thoHe who have di^nic?d Uie Chriotian
nanie, by their uDJoBt and cruel actioiis, yom do not
beUeve it ia lairly to be Bttribnted to the principle
of ChriHtiamty. This, bowerer, ii only the nega-
tive part of Um ntbject ; but there are, I think,
MrongpoHitireevidencea that the gospel has proved
an extanuTe bleasing to the world. In order to
?ee this tmtli in a Btrong light, we ebonld contem-
plate the ancient atote of the world, where reveU-
tion bad not readwd ; and we shonld also compare
those parts of the world now, where Christianity
J>aa not been received, with those where it has been
differed to have ile nnraetnuned and native influ-

It conld be proved, he observed, from vBjious
evidences of htstorical facts, that Christianity had
been the cauae of Polishing the practice of human
eaciiiices, which once prev^ed both in Britain, and
variooa parts of ^e Continent of Europe, where
vast numbers of human beings were every year
immolated, as the effect of their false reUgion ; but
the benign genim of the gospel had Imig since
trodden down their cmel altars, and wrested from
them their bloody knife. It had restored women
to their proper stalion in society, and thus tendeit
to render one half of the inhabitants bai^y; and
by them to soft4n the mannerH, and promote tiie
happiness of the other half. The eacred institu-
tion of marriage had been sanctioned, and guarded
by the Christian religion ; divorce rendered difli-
cult and unalttusabte, except for high crimes ; fe-
males and cbitdren were thus protected, and (be
^eat and depopulating vices kept in check, by the
bws and manners which it faad difiiieed.

, Slavery, that awful poof that man is a tyrant


to man, that bane of tmmaa happiness, that
di^[race to dvUized nations, owed its abolition nt
Europe, to the mild awl equitable kwa of Cbria-
tianity. The crnel maooar in which skves were
treated by the andents, is writlaD in lines of bkrad
on die butoiic pages of ahnoet every nadmi)
England, and overy kingdom of the CwriuieDt, had
ita marliet for alaveB bb well a* for cattle, till the
goqiel infiiaed milder piinciplee into their lawa
and naagea. It is to the infloeace of Christianity
that Europe owes its advanced state of dvilizatioo,
beyond the other parts of the worid ; end where^
''-' ' ineff

ever it faaa had the most ezteneire and :
<^)eration, tiiere is the most improved and happy
late of society. These, he concluded, were known
and public fects, which could be accounted for ob
no other pruuaplea, than those ?nfiH?ed from the
Christian revelation.

The C^tain was here allowed an opportunity
of oSfenng any remaiks ha had to make, by way
of refutation or defenca ; bst as he remained silent,
the mimster began to infer, that be either found
his objectione giriog way, or grew tired of the c?B-
versation. " 1 will relieve yon from that snspifjon,"
replied the other, " for I assure you, I never was
more intnested in a c?nverBaiian in all my life,
and I sbonid be smry if our friends came to in-
terrupt us : but there is one thing more I should
Uke to have your remarks on, which has often OC-
cured to me to be v?y nnaccomit^le. If Chria-
tianity contains a divine revelation, how is it that
dnre is sncb a diveruty of opinions among diose
vAo believe it to be the word of God ? There
are as many opposite e?itimente as there are
pi^es, and almost as many sects as sentiments;
now then am I to know what is right ?"


Tbie objection, fan friend fnuwered, would apply
more forcibly to tbe system of Deieta dian of
Chnitiaiw, giDC? tbe fwrner differ among tbem-
eelrci u mvcb Hthe iMtOT; and tfaoogb tbey
m^t bave a few geatimeiite tbat are fixed, tbe
tar greater part were as fleeting and mtttable as tbe
clotidB ; for anumg all the DeiatH that bare ever
written, tbere were not two tbat had agreed even
upon the ontlinea of the aystem of natQTsl reli-
gion. But he begged to remind him, that the real
difFerences among Christians were fewO' ^lan is
generalVy anppoiied. Some of tbe opinions in
which they diffiwed, were about such comparative
trifles, that they bear no proportion to the senti-
ments in which they agr^d. Besides, as revela-
tion never pretended to afford BapemUnnl powers
of intellect, to preeetve all who received it from
tbe possibility of any error ; but proposed its trnths
to the minds of men, in tbe stale in wfakb it found
tbem, it could not be matter of snrprise, that there
should be differences of opinion on subjecta so va-
rious and complicated; espedally considering
whet a diversity of degieee there is in the strength
of human reason, wut aeCKi influence the cUs-
pontions of tbe heart have over tbe dedsions
of the nnderstandmg, aiid how deep and exten-
Rve are the prejudices of education. It shonld
also be remembered, tbat many who -professed to
believe Christianity, were not under the influence
of its doctrines; and had an interest in giving
them snch explanations as suited their pride, their
evil passions, and worldly spirit As to 'ha diffi-
culty of knowing what is rignt among snch a diver-
rity of sentiments, he was told that the Scriptures
did not lay him mider obligation to be abmlutely


gnided by dw opuHons of aor ; that be wu to
txemae bia own fecnlties, ana fonn hta own o|?-
nioiu from the Srriptam dtemaelvea. If A?
bsart, added his friend, be trniT nader the in*
flneBM of die tratha of the gOBpel, the jndgmNit
will not be easeatially and finally wrong; and
whererer umb are mumim miH about tbe split and
temper of ibo gospel, and ftel iti infinence, they
can differ without dis^reeingon Btd^ecta of mmoi

Aa they had ^raady ipent a conaidrad^ tima
b thia diaeoaMOD, and conld natvxpect much mora
loimre to proloog the debate, the miniater contd
only advert in a very conoTy manner to aoBoe of
the leading pardculan ?f Um Cbriatian eridencee.
He represented to him the necessity of rer^timi,
and the ineffieacy of Deiam to answer all the pur-
poses of religioB ; thongfa these were stated ratlier
as pieliminaries to the grand anbject of inquiry :
That no better eridence than the history of the
hesdien world was required, t? prove tliat a rare-
ladon from God was absolutely necessary, to
make known the attributes end will of the Deity i
as well as to teoA the reality, and explain the n*-
tare of the divine govHnment, a subject deniedt
or miaconeeired bj Ftigaus and Deuta, and of
which Scriptnre tioae has givm a correct and con-
aoling view : That reTelstion was neceaaary to
aasare us of the reality of a future state, to give
ns a deeisive standard ctf right and wroi^i to de-
scribe our duty to God, to ourselres, to our rela-
tivee, and to our neighbours : That it was necea-
aary to satisfy the guij^ and anxioua mind, wbe-
dtw God will pardon Mne, and by \r\M endnice
we may know he pardoiu tbrai.


capta? jambs WILSON, 139

Thtae were poiBU eaaential to Uie (>sp|iiiieM
of Bum, evpeaaiij to tbe iiwpimitive mind, eTen da-
rifigiwahh; bntmcRvpcCDliaily so, in tlie time?f
?fflicti(m nid of ifproMUiig diMolotion. Oftfaeae,
Deism conld give no MtisCKtory amwer to men's

ma inc^Miile of bringi^ tlie mufd, tha bekrt, and
(be dMadeote to a state cf rest mid tran(|ttiUitT.
It waa defidcM in strong and dear motifes t* pni-
dace a holy life ; and appeared olmowlr nneqnal lo

vam. Th? jvindplea and eondact of arowed
Dctsta WBTB fwtbe most part immoral, and nncon-
eemad aboat dl rel^ioii ; and the manner of tbeir
death faaa gewalljr been aach, as mil bsar DO com-
pariaoB vidi dte death of a nBtclondof Cbriatian
witM C SS Ci, -fw- nafeignBd reiigiiatioD, manly fwti-
tnde, Of eberalid willmgneoa to die, and a oonfi-
dent expectation et fiitnre felidtr.

Tke minieter next directed the attaiti<m of hii
convert, to the evidences arking iium rerela^oo it-
self, from the nature, the number, and the designa
of the facts recorded in Scripture. He diewed
htm that if the fads were true, the doctrines could
not be Alee ; for die principal doctrines rested on
die prindptd facta, whid) were socb as nona
Wt OmnipatenGa conld have effected, and were
preferred for die pnrpoee of confinning the doc-,
trines taught by Moses and the pro[^ts of the OItt
Testament, and by Christ and his apostles in the
New : That the Scripture history had been suffi-
ciently ctaroborated by the wiitinxia of the ancients,
and the costoma and nuumew of Eastom nsiioasi
That the critical observations of the most profound
lingaists, the disqnistioDs of those Vest awinaintud


with OrieMsl liMrettm, tbe modem gewfra-
pbicRJ (bscOTeiies wiUun the epbere gf acrad hl?-
tory, together with the deepeat rasearchea into
chnmoli^) and tbe mo?t accnnte astronomical
calctdattDiH, all nnitett to pmie the sathentieity of
the Scripture fscta.

The C^)taiti here confeMeii,thatnncehiaretiiiii
from India, on hearing Ins niece refer to Hnne parte
of the Bible, be had been forcibly stmck wiui se-
Teral tilings, which proved die Scriptures to be an
Easteni hook. Among othet tUmge, be remarked,
that tiie iMigntige of one of the Psahne, where
Daridaa^ T^Hmmiomtegtmjf head leUkoilt and
my eup runneA over, moat likely allades to a
ciutom whkbhai continued to diiH day. "lonce,
{asys he) had due ceremony performed ok myself,
in tbe honse of a greet end rich Indian, in the pre<
sence of a large colhpBny. The gentlemEtn of the
hoiue, poured upon my head aad-annsadeligfatfiilly
odoriferous perfame,- put ? golden cup into my
hand, and poured wine into it till it ran over; aa-
mring me, at the same time, diat it was a gredt
pleasure to hhn to receive me, and that I should
find a ridi supply in his house. I thiidi tbe sacred
poet expressed bis sense of Ae divine goodneee,
By allnston to this cnstom."

His friend assured him, that on a more eareful
pemsal of the inspired writings, he wonld discover
Tarions other allusions to Eastern manMrH ; and
that so many bistorinil truths, and matters of fact,
tmited to coiToborate the claims of revelation, as
could not possibly meet in any imposture what-
... j^

been institnted, in memory of certain t
tiooa ; wlucb still remain the venerable me


of their reality : that nuJi iact* as th? departnro
of the leraelitea from Eg^l, the destroying ol
die first hem. of all the ^^tiws, ? memgry
of wUeh tkc pMSorcr was k^t, and by the Jkmi
, ttiU cootiDning to be kaptr the di^eiwm of the
Jews, and yM lh?r contHraing for ao many agea
a distinct pec^la, the agracoaeat of propWiaa
and Urtorictl evieBts lespectuig (be dtiM of Ba-
bylon, >Sner^ Tyre, and Jovsalean, Uie le-
smracliaa of Chiia^ the oonrareiaa of St Paul,
dw gift af tfmgBee, die butKntions of Bqttiam
and the Lord's Sivpper,>-?nd dM iireeinjble soccesa
of the goapsl, in opposidoa to tba Masonings ?E
the Grecian philoeo^ien, the maiignant deaigns of
the Jews, and the systematie and persereriDg ef-
(orta of the Roman gorenmeat, ^were all aoch
etBgvlar and nnpar^leled events, that it q>pears
^nost impossible for say mas seriomly to con-
eider them, in oonnecticHi with the tniths they are
deaigned to eatablisb, withont feeting an awe npim
his ^irit, and a aeciet convlcthm in hia nnBd, that
the Scr^)turM are the word of God.

Of the fnlfiiment of some of theae pfedictiona,
the Captain ixinfeased diat be had himself had oc-
cntar demooatratiMi. Besides the Jews, whose
dispwion and distinct nationidity for so many
agee, was vary remark ahle, thara waa anodiK
people eqnatly distinct, and triuMe {vopbetied
chaiacter he bad often seen reiiScd, vie. ibe Ish-
maelites. " 1 bare freqaently," says he, " had
them in my service, and eeen then) in Tariona ai-
tnationa ; but no chni^e of place, conneetion, or
ctTcniastanc?B, in the least altera their cbancter :
Tbeir iand it afftunst every Man, mtdeeery man't
iandis affomtt tAem, Nowingcanbe more uxu-


nte than this deacripdoD, which the KUegiveaiH
?f tbam."

- As the evesffl^ wu diswing on i^ace, tad Uine
#(ndd HOI peraoit them to proaecat? the anbject ai
greater leogtli, the mJnJHtnr.in older to straDgtben
the impivaai?He which his BrgnmentB had eridently
made, Kcommended to the Curtun lucb books aa
tnated on the several topics Uiey had been dis-
ensnng. A course of syateniatic reading, be thon^t
beM fitted to obriate all difficulties, which emdd
not poeaiblj' be done in a hasty conversation ; and
.to extirpate evMy linguiog donbt that miglit still
iork in tin dark recesaes of ha heart. Leknd's
" View of the Deistiod Writer^" aad Hriybur-
ton's " Inefficacy of Natnial Religion," wefe
ptnnted tnit to him, Sfl teats by which" to Uy tibe
efficacy of bu syatem; He was advised likewiM
to peruse Kyu's ' History of the ESscts of Re-
ligion on Mankind ;" Butler's " Analt^y *rf N(t>
tnral and Revealed Religion;" Leslie's " Short
Method widi tiie Dostai" Newton "On the Fro-
pliedes ;" Campbell " Ob Miiadea ;" Lerdner
"OntheCredibaityofthoGwipelHistOTy;" West
"OirdieResnTFectionofChristi" Lytteh<m"Oa
the Convcruon trf St Fanl ;" and PiJey'e " Hone
Panlinie;'' " From these," added his 6iend, "your
mind, I am persnaded,' will receive snch' ? r^l-
gency of evid?ice, that yoa frill as readily admit
the divine satbenticity of the- Scrip^Kes^ BB yon
do that Hgfat is die mediom of vision, w that lif?
is the cwuo' of sensibility. Before pwttng, I nnut
bc^ leave to remind you, tkat of all the subjects
that can possibly engage yoor attention, this ia the
most important. Be not snrprised, therefore, that
I feel a sincere and tnendly concern that you



may bdiere ittito ?tosal life ; that yon laay expe-
riMtce the happiness which I believe notfaiag edge
cm eSwd ; end devote year life to gl<Hify Him, who
' s so wonderfully presMred and . prospered yon."
uitain Siras (md tbeir other fnendsDO(v?Di?red :

Has he convinced yon ?"Hmd he, addressing hitaself
to Captun WSsoD ; " I will not say mucb about
that," replied the other, " but ho Iws said some
tini^ I BhoU never fillet." Hare the sutrject of
controversy wee dropt, and t^ evcinkig ^>ont ia
cheerfiil coovneatim.

The io^resnoit prodnced on Captain V/iS,BOif*
mind, thon^ it conld hardly yet be said to amonnt
to coBfirDoation, or en^re conviction, had the effect
of roBHing his attention to the subject. He read
Major Ekrns' hook, which he had fonneily re-
tnmed nfi(q?ezied, with the aridity with which a
hungry man receives food. Every p^e fortified
end confirmed the prindplee he had heard incnl-
cated. Pot some daya he coB&tBed to pemse tho
Sdiptnres, occanonslly conretsiiig with his niece,
and the Captmn of mBiinos. She attended the
Baptist Chapel at Portsea, and under pretext of
obliging her, he proffered to drive her down to the
{ilace of worship on Sabbath ; bnt his chief object
was tO'bear the minister, with whom he had held
die late interesdng conversation. He eiprassed
himself hi^ly delighted, with what be considered
the simpliraty of the worship, md the deep inte-
rest the congregation appeared to take in it. Bat

' ' mfavouiBbJe for di

prejndices of one who had objected to the myste-
rions doctrines of Christianity. It was diosen
from the ^gbth chapter of the Romans, and
treated of the sulgect of predeatiDBtion, a subjecj


wkidit ia whatev^ new it isukoD) is not luat-
tokded with difficnltiM.

The preaeber, who nUtHalljr felt ibuoiu, when
ou enterii^ the pnlph, he pcrwired att auexpected
hearer in ms lat? aAreraaxy, and wevkL ^adly Intv*
changed the BDb}ect ; h?d the good fortDoe, how-
ever, not only to Ueer wide of any thing Hke vtka-
rire or obnoxioas sentimenta, Ik( be illustrated
his knolty t?it in nch a maaaet, that the Ci^iltUB
ever after re^^ed it tw highlv inatmment^ im
his coDverrion to God. Notwithstanding the dtf k
and nn]M\miisBg theme, the doctrine was ^?eeated
to him in each a light, as roused Ins soul to a
?ense of las danger, imd GonatcBined him to seek
in earnest, for jxvdoi^g meiXy and lUrine teadii-
ing. He listened to it with a fixed attMitaon, which
cmtld net escape obsarratioik It seemed, to pro-
duce a oHifliet of feelings in lus breast, like what
we may conceive ta have beoi the conQici of the
[MimaryeleRaaitB<rfBKim, when blended indiaoe;
?ach Btriving to oh^u its ntaatloD and inflnence
in the oniTerse. His mraiary, rewon, conedeneet
imagiDationt and pasBi<?4 were^ aU in agitation.
Hie pr^udieee lor and iq^tdnst tJie deetnne, y*
bopeeand feats, bis love tod hatred, laise^laatom
in loB aanl, which ha could not snbdae ; for whUe
hu heart rose io rebellion ae^st the sorneigntjr
of Cod, the events of his nliole Hfe appeared be-
fore him, as iocoatmlable evideoeee of its trMh.
The silent tears which he endeevonred ttr soppreea,
and nhiiii be was afraid to wipe off leet be smnkl
iUtract notice, excited in the boe?n of his friend,
feelings of b^ievolent and sympathetic joy.

When iba service was ended, be declined giving
any opinion, and shewed a rehictaace to enter iot?



vimvtnUiaa on tbe mtgeot ; bnt when uone, ha
felt diacompoaed, uid a^tated with refleotums,
dtoiigfa he 8carc?iy knew to what he shotiM atto-
Imte them : at <Hie time he was angry with him-
self, for aUowing his fedings tO cany hini away ;
again, he tbongbt it coold be nothing else than ^
inpiesaions of the Deity nponhie mind, or the coin-
dd^ee of the principlea explained in the sermon,
viA Ae drcnmstancea of hu life. He waa dni^
dternately a^tai?d by specnlationB on the tradw
he hod heard, bbH by lh? emotionB they had ez<
dted. While reason and conscience, on dte one
hand, floggested diat he ong^t patiently to inves-
tigate the matl^, and if found to be troth, then to
embrace and acknowledge it ; the notion of en-
drasiasm on the other, and the dread of beconung
an olyeet of ridicole, returned witb increased force,
ana determined him to reaist the cnirent. The
puniid remembrance of former tins, and the feur-
fnl apprebenaiona of futurity, recnned to a^rarate
this internal conflict. On their way home, he e:p'
pfsred Tery serions; and obanrred to his niece, "If
what I hare heard to-day be true, I am a loat
nan." With great affection ahe began to preeent
the bright ude of Chriatianity to his mind, aaanring
Mm that he would soon find more pleasure in be-
lisTtDg it^ than he had erer fonnd &om tha

He now became exceedingly pm^ve and
thoo^tfiit ; the Bible and religioua booka fcamed
bin conatan^ and almost hia only companiona. He
attended regularly and pnnctually ibe place of
wwship, joined with fervonr in the aerviee, and
aeemedwhoUyabeortied in the inquiry, What shall
I do to be gaoed ? This change in hia prindplea


ke soon manifeeted to bis acquaintance, by ?
change in his habits. But Uiou^ he was ardent
and sincere in' his desires for eternal life, still he
im^lijied he might believe in Christianity, withont
altogether renonneiDg the w<?'ld ; as be was ac-
qimnted with meny who, tho^b they professed to
be zealous Christians, yet mingled in gay society,
widiont losing or impairing their religions irapres-
sions. He was persnadeii, therefore, that it WM
notnecessaryto abandon his former associate*; and
that be might freqaent their company, widi a new
to their religious improvement, without going tH
the accustomed iMigthe of gaiety. For a time h?
accepted tbeir invitatioBB, sad recdred their visits j
but endeavoured to carry his pivpose into execu-
tion, by makii^ every entertunment svbservieiit
to tbeir Bpiritoal edification. With one, he would
converse on die truth of the Bible, and the neces-
sity of practising what it enjtnns. Wi^ another,
iie would epeak of tiie sin and folly of swearing,
and taking die IxHrd'a name in vain. To a third,
be represented die importance and sanctity of the
Sabbath, and the guilt of not keeping it buly. To
some oftheloquadousladi^, he hinted somedouble
whether idl die anecdotes they related of thwr
neighbours were quite correct, and whether they
sight not bear a more favourable construction
thut they gave them. On some occasions, he even
Tentured to mention the cerlunty ^ death, judge-
uent, and a future state ; and to make allusionB
and ^pltcationa, intimating that he thon^t it Aeir
du^ to consider on those subjects.

For a while he supposed, from the thence with
which he -was heant, that his coBvenadons bad
made some usefid impression, and that dii< inti-


nMcy mi^t be eontinned with advantage ; Imt be
SCMH) found that hia g?y aseodates prc^ted littl?
by bia exhortations, and only waatea an opporto-
Bity lo rally their forcfes, ttnd turn the corrent of
ridicule agWDBt hint. One remarked, from the eo-
lemii cast of his countenance, that he was snrely
Toty ill, and about to die, another thought him
excelleDtty qnfilified for the Methodist Chapel,
another took the Lord's name in vain, ana then
apdo^zeA. The lady he had questioned, as to the
ootreciuew of her reports agiunst some who were
not of her pafty, bad no donbt but he would soon
turn pariKm, and that she would see him with a
white wig on a white horse ; while a witty officer
kept the company, for an hour at a time, in a roar
of blighter, by relating a number of amtising anec-
dotes about the Puritans and Methodists.

llieCnptain fo&nd the artillery of wit which he
had ofien poured on others, now returned on him-
self. He frequently tried to stem the torrent by
ai'gKment ; at other times he attempted to go with
it, by joining in the laugh till it had spent itaelf,
bnt all in Tain. They were resolved dther to
rout him ont of his strange notions, or to laugh
him out of th^ society ; but as they could not do
the former, they gradnally accomplished the Other,
by breaking ofE the connection. This convinced him
at length, that it is impossible to ^rre two maa-
tera, that there is no conunnnion between %hl
and darkness and that a feithful and sincere
Christian is constiained to come out from among
the world, and to he separate. Bnt though one
class of soraety shtumed his acquaintance, be soon
fotmd that another as eagerly courted it. Many
rqoiced to hear of his conversion, were soliciUuii '


for hia ffiiritiial wel&ra, and cbeerfdlly aided Uf>
uuod in Its ntoKfiua thei eTtmgelieal and e^ft-
limental tralh.

As be had now mud) leisure, he occapied Ins
time chiefly in reading, and in receiving oecseional
nsita from Ina miniattf. Most of t?e principel
irorlfs on the evidences of Cfarisdanity, he atadied
with great attention ; tmtil he had obtained anch a
firm penmaaioB of the truUi of revelaticMi, as to de-
elare that nothing in the world, not even Satan,
with all hia principalitiea and powers, coold per-
nade him that the Bible was not dw vord ef the
Most H%h ; nather oenld any thing have maaei
bun froin his erron, to completely as that preeioiu
Teltuae had dene. He read the Scriptures daily
with bettw lutderstaBdin^ and with increased 4a-

Like most yom^ Christiana, however, lua hiih
was occaaionally obscnred, and hia soul involved
in doubt and despondency. ReAectioB and self-
axaminaiion taught him to discover m faimadf
many deBcienciea. Sometimes be began to qiiea-
tion, whether hia knowledge were not merely Hwo-
leticd, the effect of human, instead of dinne teadb-
ing: whedter hupleaanrea in religion werenot the
excitemwile of mere human passions, instead of the
exercise of pnre and heavenly sffectiooa ; whether
his confidence in the divine promieea were oot
I?eenmpti(Hi, and hie zeal for God iha mere off-
sprii^ of novelty or self-applaoBe. Bnt time, the
corrector of mistakes, and a proper eonrse of
leading, soon relieved his mind horn ita perplexi-
ties, and gave lum clearer views of the wammt of
faith, and the nature of Chiistiaa oxperiHUe.
IWogh tie pwceived that the wKtificaUon of the-


u JAM8S wiLaoK. ? ' 149

'Spirit fonas Uie evidence of <
heareiiiBndiaaBesseatuiUy necessary to Mlvstion, aa
an interest in the justify ii^^rigbteonBneas of Christ ;
WUkenise saw that tli? atonement of the Re-
deemer, and the promisee of Ood,' constittite tlta
fonndatiOTtof ?nr hopes of acceptance with him.
Oti this basia, be was enabled to build the sapef-
etraetnre of his f^Ui, hope, and practice ; and
ii^en the endences of grace became weak andiu-
dietisct, be bad reconree to these first prindplea,
tw revive ?ni strengthen them.

Early in the year X796, he was admitted a mem-
bei of ^e congregation at P<n1?ea, where be gflve
diligent and exemplary attendance, although his
resilience was ten miles from the place of wor-
dup. ' As he was natnrally of an active and bene-
TORQt torn of mind, and perceived cleai'ly that tb?
deNgn of God in imparting divine grace to the
heart, tvas not only to save the individual, bat to
make, him the means of saving otbeis, it began to
be a mbject of considerable anxiety with him, and
even am endence of his being a tme Christian,
whether, and how far his fttith wonld induce him
to exerdae this benevolence in behalf of others :
And to ench redections aa these, is to be ascribed
the reason for his ofFerin^ himself to the Mission-
ary Society, to conduct Uieir first expe^tion to die '
ishnds of the Pacific Ocean.

The thoi^t is said to have oriranally occntred
to his mind, from a sermon which he had heard
on the fuifa of Abretuun, in leaving his country
sad hie friends at the call of God, not knowing
whedier he went. While meditating on the mh-
ject in bis own garden, and reviewing other circnm-
tancea of the Patriareb, Ik was much afiected at


Ae wnden wrongbt fay ftatit ; ud ndtmrod As
hy the writer of the Epistle to the He1?em>
^eae contemplstioiis led him to etmxnst hu onra
&ith with theirs, itnd to ask the qnestioa, whetbi^
U called in providence t? anffer or to florre Hke
ibem, he could m readily gire up all f<? Chiu^
and go forth at the divine bidding ?

In a few weeks an opportonity seened to oBm,
ef putting the.Btrei^th of his prindplee to die test.
He observed in die Evangelical Msguine, an ac-
.eoBBt of a de^(n to fonn a Misnonary Sooety in
Sjtmdoa, sad to couTey the goifwl, if passible, tA
the ialaods in the South Sms. He ^tpiored of
ihe project, and it Mrack his mind very iorcibly,
wbtrtber, if be were called upon to take the imB*

' nand of the expedition, he could fredj' devot*
litBiself to the service, and embark once more int
ike de^ ; not in qoest irf woridly sabatmce, hU
to carry to hestboi lands, tressares more valnaUe
than the {^Id of nations. He felt at the momeat
&at be could do it with pteaiaiire ; hepeicavedMi
bith aqoal to the suri&ce ; that he coold qnit
hit prosoit comforts, ?M:^mtw the perils of tb?
ocean, and bave aU tha dangerH and difficnl^es
to which such au eaterprwe mast necea?>3y cs^

He determined to.aoconpony hia nuaister lo
tlie general meeting of the Hampsture Awociation
tf MuflNtcri, tobeheldat Saliilnry; for the por-
posa, snuiDg otho- objects, of deciding on the-
inteaded mission, and promoting its aocomidi^

* QieDt. But the remit tended rather to -damftaod-
diseouTage his zeal ; for although they were imani-
muusly in favoar of the mimonary attempt, and-


fcigUy Belauded his desiro to promote bo glorioiH
u CMwe, ibey could entertctb bat little hopes tbat
Ilia Mrncea wonjd erer be required ; as it seemed
M them improbable that a ship would ever be em-
ployed solely for that pnrpose.
' A brighter prospect, howerer, soon opened up.
The Snt general Missionary Meetmg was an*
nonnced to take place at London, in order to con-
sult what steps were proper to -be pnrsned, at the
tommeQcement of so |;reflt an undertaking. The
Captain -reeolred to make one of the party. He
Ustened will) serious attention lo the discourse*
and spee^eB tliat were deliTered on the occasion ;
and ut^ deliberations not only met witb his cor-
dial approbation, but had the ^ect of fully decid-
ing hu mind on the snbfect. He solicited an in-
terview widi one of tbeir leading members, which
he readily obtained. After some c(?iference con-
cerning Me nisnon, he intimated widi great mo-
des^ and diffidtmce, but with a firm decision of
pvrpoee, that if the Society could not find a bet-
ter cmdHotor, which he wished and hoped they
Might, the service'shonid not be impeded for larJc
of nsnttcal Aill, and that he was ready, without
any other reward than the satisfaction resulting
hmn the serrice, to devote himself to the work,
wbateTH' ineonrenience to lumself it m^ht be at-
tended with.

' A letter was inmediateljr addressed to the pre-
rident of the meeting, in- the Captain's name, of-
fcring his HTrices te ^ Society. A committee
of the Directors was appointed to ccHiTerse with-
him. They were eqnally charmed with his mo-
dsety, ability, seal, and devotedness of heart to
the woric'i wd GOBCDired in opbiiHi, that nafking


could tend more powetfult; to the
of dieir deaigna, ^laDhaTiogeucb a man t
maud the vessel tbst should caavey the nieai
t? the place of their destination. It seemed t*
them an omen of SQCcess, that Giod was thns iwaing
np, in different places, men unknown to each other,
for the fulfilment of his own gracious puipoees to^
wards the heathen. The offer was therefore emr
biBced by the committee widi delight, and seemed
to animat? their confidence, that God would pro-
vide all other necessary means for the equip- '
ment and execution of the enterprise.

The Captain was next prosentod to dte Direc-
tors, and his demeanour at once confinned the la- '
ports they had heard of tua character, and his fit^
neee for the service in which he had volunteered.
It was their unanimous opinion, that a man more
highly qualified for the t^k coul4 lurt be h^ed
for, if they had sought the whole island. They
fotmd him in alibis manners a gentleman amiea
that was conunantUug an age yet in the vigonc
of manhood, with the maturity of experience uui
withal, an amiable diffidence that seemed oal^
conquerable by the calls of the nUBsicm, and ths
deep impressions resting on his own heart. Afterthe
lapse of a few months, which were spent in seek-
ing out and examining miBsion^nca,providingfuDdBr
and taking other preparatory; measnrea, Captuo,
WUson was informed of the tesolotuMi the Siwety
had come to, of making the attempt in a ship to>
be purchased by themselves, and requesuing hinv
to imdertake the command.

The afhur having arrived at this state of matu-
rity and ded^on, the Captain sold his house aC-
Homdean, fixed bis niece in London, and wenl-



dihher hmuelf to mperintend and fonrard di?
aeeeBtery prepantiaiiS' He songlit ont snd pnr-
hnnfiil II |iiii|iiii iiiiiifiljiliirliinit flfftlf; engaged
Ae marinerg, uid took an actire share in ev?ty
Ahig connected with bis d^MTtment. The eliip,
which was called the Duff, wu manned by three
priBcipid officers, beiides a goimeT, carpenter,
steward, and mil'inaker, fifteen Bailors, and Uie
G^Main ; moM (rf whom made a profession of being
under the inioence of Christian 'principles. In
W were em1lwi4ced, fonr ordained ministers, a sur-
geon, with twenty-five other miswonaries, OT
ettleii who had for Ae moat part been employed in
bosiness or mercantile engi^^ements, bi^ily necea-
sary to impart the principles and babita of civiliza-
tion to the Sontb Sea Islanders. Besides these,
tbere were six women, wives of some of the mis-
sionaries, and three children.

Sereral of the Directors visited the ship, and
*rowds of pious people, who left a Twiety of pre-
aents, either for the misaionariea or for the natives.
The tetl of Captain WilMin bamed with all the-
fertOltr of a first imfovsmon ; md he declared faim-
aelf ashwished, after what he had seen and
heard, ^at none of the prominent ministerB in
Zxmdon slHnild offer to go as miseionariea. He
was eqnally snrprised that any, who vrere not ab-
solBtely bornid by circnmstancea, and had felt the
power of tmth, and knew the state of the heathen
world, conld qnietly remain in England, while
millions abroad were perieJiing for lack of know-
ledge. .

The novelty of the scheme, and the pnblidty
given to the whole [voceedinga, excited a vwy
g?na?l and lively intenst in their deagti. 1% wm.



a new event in the. ProUetwat Cbnrch, for an ei^
peditioa to be wholly employed m eonveyitig th?.
messengera of diviiie troth to tho most distant part
of the globe. By Uub means, the attention andt
the benevoleoca of the public were attracted, in a
manner snch as they nerer conld have been, had-
the Society been more limited and private ia- thi?
first outset of its operadoiu). It was of immense'
importance to the Mieuonary cause, that tbey
should commence on such a scale, and with an em-
bosBy HO well calculated to excite an interwt in,
thereligioosworld: And t?dua partly maybe as-
cribed that universal diSiigioa of the misaionary:
pint, which has since imparted its eaei^es Ur
so large a porUon of Cbrktendom, and lighted np,
a sacred flame, whidi has not only eontinned tO:
blazein?i%land,bnt spread to manyof the chorchea
on the continents of Europe and America.

Whether the islands in the Sonth Seas were the
most eligible spot that could have been [utdied,
upon for making this experimenti it is needlesS'
now to inqivre ; yet it cannot be deiued, that the'
mtnation possessed many advantages. Their tn.':
treme distance, and the glowing, and even exagge-
mted descriptions of tbem, whldi represented them'
as equalling, in natural charms, allthatthe imagina-
tion conceives of the Elysian fields, or the primeval
paradise, threw an tdr of adventure and romantic,
antidpation over tiie enterprise, that twded to in-
ciease the popularity of the enbject.. TbS' station-
was, besides, one that could create no jealousy or
opposition, nor give the smallest possible offenca.
to onr own or to any other gevermnent, or national
church upon earth. P^h^ thwe we? no others
place to which the Mtentimt ood ene^etic <^ra,~



liana of die Society could hare been directed, at
diM pertartHd period of tbe world, witliont nxtat-
iag alarm or oppow^n from some quarter or

The character of tbe misuon, and tbe object
which it profeaaed, aooa dispelled any unfavour-
able snspicions that iniglit iave been entertuned
against it, and obtaiDec) for its ag^ta and its trans-
actions, not merely pnblic confidence, bnt eren of-
ficial patronage and protection. In prodncing thia
effect, the condnct of Captain Wilson, his skill
as k DBTigBtor, his prodence in presiding among
Aa misaianaries, and bis succes in the royage,
it tnuat be admitted, contributed in no snrall
d^ee. He certainly bad an arduous taak to
perform, sncii as made several aged and expe-
liaiced Christiaits tremble for the ark of God, and
the event of the expedition. He had duties tA
dischai^e, which required great diveraity of talents,
knd even opposite qualifications. Among the
sailors, he had to maintain authority and com-
Viand, and yet conduct himself towards them as a
brother in Christ. Among the missionaries, he
had to superintend their arrangements, and pre-
side in th^ meetings and debates. His autho-
rity on tbe quarter-deck, was here to be softened
down into Chrifitimi meekness, and Ae character
of commander, exchanged for that of a counsellor
and a friend. Such a situation required great firm-
ness and decision of mind, and yet mnch real
kindneas and pliability of temper.

On tbe lOtb of AuKuat, 1796, the expedition
sdled from the rirer Tnaine?, baring for their flag,
koisted at the miEen-top-gallant-mast-head, three
doves argent, on a purple field, bearii^ olive branches


in tbsir bills. At Spitheod, where the CaptwA
joined her and took the comnmnd, they were de-
tained, waiting fiw wind or convoy for aome weeks.
On the 23d of September, the convoy being Kt
lengdi ready, the Dull, in company with more
than fifty others, weighed anchor ; wafted by pro-
pitioDH winds, and under the auspices o( the emc-
tual fervent prayers of many thousands of British
Christians. Hie C^tt^ was fumiBhed, by the
DirectoiB, with an e^^cellent Letter of Instructions,
by whidi he was to regulate his conduct, aa btas
it mij^t he expedient, both with regpect to the
Toyage itself, and also widi relation to the
establishment of the mission. Although Otaheite
was Uie place destined for mnlfing the fint attempt,
ijieir plan embraced a field of moch greater extent.
The Friendly Islands, the Marqueaaa, the Sand-
wich, and the Felew Islands, were specified as com-
ing within the limits of their ent^^rise, and aa
being desirable stations for planting the knowledge
of the gospel.

^^ithin six days after her departure, the Duff
passed the Island of Madeira; on the 14/ih ol
October, she touched at St Jf^o ; and on the I2th
of November, she cast anchor in the harbour of
Bio de Janeiro. The officers, missionaries, and
whole ship's company were in perfect health ;
their conduct had been in every respect pleasing ;
and all entertained the most sanguine hopes of
anccesti. After receiving a plentiful supply of
provisions, they left that port on tlie 19th; bnt
finding it impoesU)le, from tempestuous weathei,
to beat round C^>e Horn, tliey bote away to die
eastward, to go by the C^)e of Good Hope, and
after nearly circumnavigating the globe, (bey


landed at Otabeite, afitec a voyage of five months,
on the 4th of March, 1797 ; where they wer? re-
ceived in tlie most triendly maimer.

TbU iatand, as well as most of the others which
are spretMl over the vast e^anse of the Southern
Ocean, had, thirty years previous to the anival of
the Xhiff, been repeatedly visited by Enropeans,
who were traversing ihaae nnexplored re^ons, ei-
ther for the purpose of enlar^ng the bonndaries
of HUence, or with the hope of discovering new
ftnd promiung Gelds for commercial speculation.
With one or other of these objects in view, a buo
ceMdon of adventurers, among whom were Watlis,
Cook, Bligli, and Edwards, besides several Conttnen-
lal navigators, had paid occasional visits, and kept
up a friendly intercourse with these remote islwi-
ders i althon^ the only letum they received for
their attachment, appears to have been a knowledge
of some of the arts and vices of dvilized life ; and
the communication of diseases that bad diminished,
and seemed to threaten the extinction of iiiB whole
race. A nobler olgect bad engaged the attention
of the present expedition. They came to comma-
nicate the word of life ; tbe greatest blessing, and
the most inestimable gift that was ever imparted h>
mankind. It was not avarice or science that had
attracted them to these distant shores ; but the de-
sire of repairing the injuries and miseries wbicli
Eniopeans had partly occauoned, of presentrng
^em with a remedy against their moral and spiri-
toal degradation, and saving tbeir soiils as well as
their bodies from dwtruction.
. The missionaries, before landing, had made all
necessary Bn-aogameDte, and separated themselves
into divitions, accor^g to their respective esta-


blishmeDta. Eighteen were allotted for OtaMt^
ttnforths Frieiwlly Islands, and two for the Mw
qnesas. Thoee destined for Ot&heila, were imiDO-
diately provided by the chieb with smtable htxota-
nodationB. Nothing conld have exceeded tbo
kindness and Ktt?niion of the nativm. Tbor io-
portment was frank and peaceti^. Every day
they attended worship, and listened with soiona-

able to make to them, through an interpreter.

As BOOD as they were fixed in permsaent and
commodious settlements, the Doff suled for tlie
Friendly Islands, and on the 9tb of April they
made the hari>oar of Toi^ataboo. Here the mis*
rionaiias diaembarked, and it was their good fMw
tone to be received with the same respectful and .
hospitable treMroent ; they were taken under tha
protection of the goTemment ; a house and a por-
tion of laud was fomisbed them, and oo at-
tempts were made to molest either their peraons or
their properties. The remunder of the misBitni
proceeded on thw' voy^ie to the Marqaeaas;,
ieariiig tbdr brethren perkily content with tli?r
ntoation, and thankfal for the kind reception they
had experienced fi-om the natives. At this plac?t
the last two of the brethren were settled ; and
thongh there was not here the same appearance of
dorafort and fertility as m the other islands, thejr
experienced an equal degreo of respect aad kind-
ness from the inhabitants.

Having now established the nuaaionaries in thdr
respective destinations, Captiua Wilson relonied
once more to Otaheite, anxious to know in what
cncnmstancea he mif^t find the tw^diren whon
he had settled tlKTb. _ The repnt he heaid WW k .


every iMpect pleanng. Th^ bod in general en-
joyed good hraltb; tne aatiTealiad conHbmtly ob-
emd th? same respectfat bebaTiour towanis
tbem aa at firat, and bad never failed a day to mp-
fly them with atnmdBnce of provisions ) ae to the
Boccesi of their religiooH laboura, It waB a point of
vhieb tliey could not yet say macb more than

' that a[^iearanceBwer8encsaraging. Before taking
bis filial departure into the Smiui Seas, he ag^
*isited the other Btatjene, wbere he bad also tbe
Btia&ctkm of learning, that no threatening danger,
and no mBt?Tial obMacle bad occurred, to oppose
tbe gloriona design in which they were engaged ;
but that a door for preaching the word thronghout

, ^ese extensive islands was opened to them, ereA
by unexpected and improbable means.

Tbns was the first expedition of the MissioiiaTy
Society, orowned with a success beyond what they
bad ventored to anticipate, and n4iich far exceeded
tbeir moBt scngatne expectations. Dniing the
nlwle of their extended voyage, they lost not a
ungle individnal, and scarcely ever had a sick list.
After travereing more than twice the circumference
of the globe, passing tfarou^h elimates so different,
amidst eboals, reefs, and uidden rocks, they not
only escaped dangere and indispoutions, bnt ar-
rived at toe variooB destinations, in better health
Aan when they quitted their natjre shores. By
tins experiment, tbe way was opened np, into the
inimmeiable groaps that cover the SoDtbern Ocean ;
and the facilities for extending the ntissionary la-
bours, greatly indflased. The fomidations thta
laid, sncceedinff adrentnrers have built npon with
advantage. Ine seeds of knowledge then planted
irnn Btrack root, and spread with all their happy


electa, over a peat portion ot iImm anenl^htMud
re^oaa. New' and vaat conatries sroniul thoB
have become accecuble, and afFtnded an inwhatw-
tible field for die most t^jotoiu exertkoK of Clnia-
dan zeal.

BefOTo finally qiutting the ieUodst Ct^ttun WU-
eon recared aevaal, both gttieral and indrndasl
teBtiinoiiieB,of ^affection and gTKtitndeof the muH
aionuies. From Tongatdxio, the last island that
he visiMd, he received at his departure, a very kind
and complimentary letter, expreenTe of the ga??-
fnl Bense they entertuned of die many frien^y and
endearing ofbces he had tendered them, in coune
?f their long and anccessfnl voyage. On the 7&
of September, tbey left Tongatt^Kw, and proceeded,
according to their letter of insQuctibns, on thca
way to Canton, which they reached abont the I4th
of November. Here Captiun ^'(ll8on met witb
considerable ridicvTe from his old Lidian Bcqaaist-
ances, on accountof his tdig^oiu enthnaaun. The
eingnlarity of the mamiers of the officers, and di^'a
crew, likewise excited obsfTMlkm. All immwft-
' Uty being utterly disconnteuaacod, not an oath
hcnrd, and an unusnal devoUon maintained, is-
dnced those who witnessed this extiaordineiy con-
dnct, to signalize the Doff, by calling her, He
Tat ComnumdmeHtt. They left Cmna on tbe
3rd of December, and after tonching at the Cap?
of Good Hope, St Helena, &c they anived in
safety in the river Thames, on the 10th of July,
1798;after bung wafted from place to place, ins
most wonderflil manner, and having aai^ nearly
50,000 miles, in little mora than one year and n<n?

The ratnm of the Dnff, utd her snceeaeM voyage


excited IB nnnraal degree of iMereBt, and of gra-
titude va Cod, atamig the friends of the Miatrion-
wcy Society ; while me admuMioD at the conduct
of tl>e Captom, was the subject of almost universal
conTwsaUon. Onher arrival, the ferronr of ple?B-
ing emo^n glowed in every bosom, and dsited
trom individual to individual, like an electric
shock. A day of public tlianksgiving was ap-
pointed by the Society, in gratitnde for the singti<
lar inteiposkion of providence, trom beginoing to
end of this remarkable expedition. As a token of
theirrespect for IJieCaptun, and as a lasting memo-
rial to his &inily, an elegant representation of his
public interview widi &e King and Queen of
Olsheile, was painted, and presented to him hy the
Erectors. His Aiend, 1^ Haweis, one of the
founders, and a most aeajona promoter of the In-
stitution, complimented him with a diamond ring
of considerable value, accompanied with the fol-
lowing note : " Anxious for your arrival, I had -
prepared the foUowitfg little uMeo. I with to
couple my name with yoim. The drcle is aa
emblem of the eternity I hope to ^>end with you.
Hie brilliant is not bri^ter than my afTectioDs,
nor die gold purer than my friendship. Wear me
on your heart ; while mine beats, it will remem-
ber you, and bless God for yon."

A narrative of the voyage, dmwn up from dieir
sevBial jonmalH, under the superintendence of a
committee of the directors appointed for the pur-
pose, was immediately pabliahed, and dedicated to
the King. To it was prefixed a scientific discourae
(J the geogr^>hy and history of the Soath Sea
Islands, where the misuonariee had settled ; toge-
thu with a dettuled acconnt of the natural wA


dvil State of Oisbnte, ttom or^fml docoiMtiH.
Hie Sodety obtained ?9000, for tbe copy-right
ef this volume; of which 12,600 ccqnes were
priated, of the first editi<Hi. This sum, t^elher
with ?4100, received from the East India Co?-
pony, for freight of teas from Chins, and the value
of tiie ship, greatly reduced the (openaes of' dte
Toyage; which, inchiding the outfit of the mianoB-
aries, fumidiiiig them with books and implMnents,
eonveying them to their asv?al destinatioiis over
half the globe, and settling diem oomfntably with
ample stores in the islands, did not exceed ?140,
for each indinduoL

After Captain Wilson's retom from the Sonth
8eas, he resided in London f<w some time ; his
mece haniif; again resumed the sapetintendence of
his domestic concerns^ Thee&eetsof a sedentary
life, after a long sea voyage, soon maiiifestod
diemselvea in a very smious bilions attack, which
indicated a morbid affection c^ die liver, and in his
own opinion threatened bia life. In this -state of
body, however, he possessed grett patiencs and
comfort of mind. He felt that he bad lived to ac-
Gompliah ai^ important object, and he waa there-
ftav not imwilimg to die ; bat He wbo bad fixed
the bounds of his habitatien, added nearly twenty
years more to bis life, though he was frecpentiy
annoyed by renewed attacks of the same disease.

The conspicnons part he had acted, might, had
lie inclined, have given him a commanding iofln-
wce amoi^ the religioos sodetiea in London ; yet
hoBg natiuBlly diffident of bis own opinion, ?
anlijectBnot vitlan the range of lus immediate pro-
fesnon ; and perlu^ not sufficiently inured to the
ftee dwnunons and nnresUained animadreraoas

CAPTAIN jAun wiuoa. 108

of pf^mkr meetaogs, in lliu land of tiberbr, bo db-
cm^cBial with the bsbila end muinen of an Eut
India meTchent,'be found the atoniia of protncted
debates, a sphere of actios not mited to his talenta
aod disposition, and therefore preferred retirement
to the bustle and biuiness of ?^cial lite. He waa
ehosen, from time to time, on the direction of the
afiaira of ^ iba Mis^onary SocLety, but did not
take a point of atlending, unless when ha thought
his nencsntile, geographical, or nautical knowledge
coold be turned to advaatage ; and then be never
-withheld his presence or his opiuions, whoiever
his health would admit of his attendance.
. The oelehaily be bad acquired, greatly widened
the rirde of his friends and connectione ; and
among other fomilies of worth to whose acqount-
ance it introduced him, was that of Richard Hol-
bert, Eeq. of Denmari?-Hill, CamberweU ; a gen-
tleman of very ample fortane, and who had only
one. child, a pious and ami^le daughter. Tliia
bdy Captain Wilsm nurried, in 1799, and found
io her to hi* lat?st dayi a moel tender and affec-
tionale wife. , Witii her he got a considerable ad-
dition to his fortune, which was deesied by many,
a providential cttnpensation for the noble aaciifica
?f time and property he had made, in tfae miesioa-

Um an e:q>erimentd leaaoiv oa the matebility and
nneeitainty of hnmaa poeaasaions ; and tended to
ween hie heart from placing an imdae attadi-
ment on gifts merely t^npoial and earthly. He
had, from motives of pure benevolence, and a
fi^endly concern for promoting theinterasts (rf some
?f hisTclativee engaged in mercantile life, advanced,


on varitma occaaiona, to the eanoout of many ihtm-'
sand pounds. These siuns, from tb? pecnsiMy
embairassments of the times, and tlie failures of
the BritiHh merchants in the Bhipments to South
America, were all swallowed op in ndrenturouB^
and iinsucc?BBM apecidations.

Thongh tliese losses,' on the whole Uttle Hhort'
of ?30,000r deprived him of none of de eomfbrts
of life, or the means of making a reapectaMe
appearance . in. society; for, ihrongh the kind*
nesB of a munificent providence, he still possessed
sufficient fortune for his children, in the right of
Mrs Wilson ; yet they tried his mind in a rerj con-
siderable degree, not only on his own account,
but also on account of those friends and relations
who had partaken of his kindness; andfromwhom.
he now found himsrif compelled, in a great mea-
sure, to withhold bis benerolenc?. They led him
to examine, and to know more tboro^ily hia
own character, which ho ofc^i lamented he had-
not studied with sufficient care. They fomisbed
instmctiTe views of the dispensations of provi'-
dence, by shewing how ea^ly God can retnm to
his people a hundred-fold in tnis life, for what tbey
do for bis cause ; and how easy it is for him to
take it again, when he pleases. Few tires could'
have impressed this tmth more clearly end for-
dbly tlun his, which waa subject to so many
changes, disasters, and reversee. " In how many
ways, (he obaerves) baa God taught me my de-
pendence upon him. All I possessed was by his
special gift ; and the same band whidi had ^ven,
or rather lent, hath a right to take it ^ain. He
aw this was Am most effectual way to hnmblo
roy spirit, to wean me from the world, and to


bring ne Dearer to himaelf; and I tttut be bas
done H."

In dieM reflectionB, the Captun alludea to the
two points in hU character, which were considered
by hu friends, as the most exceptionable ; for none
are withont their faults, and to have described him
aa mcb, wonld, in the esteem of oil that know hn-
uan nature, even in its most improved slate, hare
leaded'to discredit the whole account. Hit tem-
per was natnrally reeeire, and though softened
and rendered aitable by divme grace, yet at times
h partook of eomething bordering on hantenr. Of
this he was himself sennble, and it was to him the
canse of mach sorrow and regret. This, howerer,
was inbdued, and more than counter-balanced by
Ins noble feeUnge of kindness and generosity.
' Another diade, which his fnends alleged to
miiigl& wilk the general excellence of his charac-
Iw, -was a little too mnch attachment to the wealth
of this world ; and a want of a sufficient sense of
Us ?bligBti(m to God, by not devoting a larger
jmportion of his property to the rapport of reli-
^m. It is a qnestion irf'ConBcience, perhaps not
very ewtly dfetennined, what is the exact portion
(^ weir income, which the ridier members of the
chnrch of Christ onght to appopiiate to the cause
of teligicm, or of chmity. There is no fixed mle that
eaa hold uniTersalty, or eren indiridnally ; the li*
berality <rf the wealthier daseee, in the cause of
God, most Tery often be regulated by the impor-
tance of the object, or the particular exigency of
the occasion. Captain Wilson was gmded very
mnch by this principle. He did not drcnmscribe
his benevolence within the limits <rf stated mice,
?r medwdical MJcnlgtions ; bm lefl his beoefactiona


to depend print^ially upon tha nwaber, oi (lie n*<
tore of the demanda made upon bun. ,

The charge of penmioBatieH, howeTOr, on
hardly with propriety be idleged aguut him, wbem
it is coBsidei^ that be had loat, to & conaderabla
amount, by the adrentitrBiu speculations of -otheiai
that he bad a young family to proTide for, wd

that from the geoend report of hia posseasing a
Ten huge fortune, the fri?ndB aS religion wereled
to form too sanguine hopes, and to expect from

n donations or aunnitiea for pions puqwaes, cor-
responding in some messore with his riches,, and-
hia former difdngnished zeal in the aervice. Hie
calamity abore referred to, greatly abridged bis r^
?onrcea ; and prevented him at his death irom lear--
ing any beqaeBt,'aa a token of hia concern .for that
Society and cause, to which he had contributed so
much by his pereonal exertions. Had the com^
tnerdal enterprise, in whit^ so huge a ahue of his.
fortune was embarked, been anccessfol, there seema,
no reason to doabt that his liberality would bare
kept pace with bis zeal, and that the Missionary
canse would hare had to enroll hia name among
the number of ita testamentary benefactors.

Hia family afflictions, and frequent personal in-,
diapositions, produced retired and domestic habits ;
and though lie was not prominent in any of the a?: .
eociations in the metropolis, for general usefnlness,
yet he imprared hia retirement to the benefit of
hia personal religion^^ Hia reading did not par-
take of an extensive lange of aubjects, bat it was
well employed on those of theol^ ; be not only
read, but studied the Sci^tnrea. The wcatl of
God waa hia companion. Part of the day he em-
ployed in committing certain poddona ttt it to.roev


Aorf, snd another part to a repelitioa of tbem, aa
he walked or rode to town, or occupied himself in
hk garden. He had in this maaner learned to re-
raat, whh perfect accuracy, a great part of the
t^tdina of Ihivid, many chapters of the propbe-
dei, and of tlw gospels, and several entire
epistlee of the New Testament. The account he
gives of this extraordinary practice is : That when
be bad flmred at the age of forty-six, and had he- .
ffnn to experience a failure of sight, the idea struck
Wi, that he might peihaps become wholly miable
to read the sacred T<dame. Under this imiwee-
eion, he set himself to learn by heart whole chap-
ters, and even books ; which he rehearaed in his so-
Utnde, whether at home or abroad, in set portions
every day. In' com?e of a week, he would repeat
all be had learned ; uid by this means he retained
what he had previously acquired, and still conti-
nued adding something to the store. The plea-
mre and advantage of this, be felt when laid on a
rick-bed ; and when JncapaUe of reading, he drew
from ibose'sao^d Ireaatties an inexbanstible fimd
of consolation.

By duB means he obtained a most familiar sc-
^uuntance with Scripture, and a great richness in
expmmenlal religion. His conversation with his
intimate friends, was highly instmctive and ani-
nating. His reli^oos feelings were kept so much
Uve by this profitable trdn of meditation, and fre-
quent prayer, tbat be felt considerable reluctance
to company ; as he waa ofEen disappointed in not
meeting with a correspondent dispoeition in olheiB,
tovoHveree on spiritual subjects.

Towards the close of 1813, bis health had be-
pm nmhly to sofier by the encroachments of aa


iBtemal' distemper. No wry alarming ayvapUnuM,
bowerer, at first appeared; bat u weelu and
month? revolved, it was impossible not .to observe
tbe cbange which inaeaaing diaeaae hod made os
bis frame and appearance. In the mtmth of Fe-
braary, he waa imable to ^pear in bis usual man-
ner, as B worshipper in the sanctuary of God. He
had cherisbedaateady attachment to the (ffdinancea
of religion, and his pnnctnal attendance at divine
worship, SB well as his hnmhle, nnassnming de-
portment there, were attested by all who knew
aim. This incapacity, and nuavoidable detentj(?t
from the courts of Zion, were to bim the anlgect of
mnch uneauness and regret.

His last illness was painful and protracted, but
he bore it with great patience and . fortitude,
Xhoi^h many wearisome nights were appointed to
bim, not a murmuring word was besrd to escape
his lipa. " I would as soon die," be observed, " at
diis time, as any other, if it were not on acconat
of these ties," (alluding lo bis wife and children),
" bnt the Loid is all-sufficient ; I canttust them in
tbe hands of that God who baa bom my God."
He justified die Sovereign Disposer of eveirfs in
bis dealings towards him, and was rather ?cline4
to enlarge on tbe subject of his merdei, than bis
afflictions. The intervak of r^osa or aUeviatimi
whidi be enjoyed, be occupied with those thonghta
and ezerdses of piety, that were suited to the dis-
pensation under which he was placed, imd to tha
prospects that were opening before him, in unpa-
ralleled grandeur and awM solemnity. " I
marked," says one, who was an eye-witness, and tt
near olnerviar of the operalionB of bis mbd at this
critical jmictnr^ " in the first ^lace, a deep Wid


tmJotlB inveitigMion mto the state of hjs muL
He debated llie matter of lus pereoiud religicm, as
in dis sight and nnder the immediate eye of God>
Considering the ease with which a man may de-
ceive himself, and impose npon otiiers, by an
empty and onprofitable fonn of godliness, he was
deBirons of availing himself of every assistance in
aacertaining the truth of his coadition. He ea-
fag?d serioflsly in examining the grounds and eri*
denCes of hia own conversion, fearing lest he
sboiild take too oinch for granted, or regard a
change of sentiment and a reformation of manners,
as converrioB ; without the inbeing of that spiri-
tnal life, and those concomitant fruits of the Spirits
which the Scriptures represent as indispensable.

Habitnated daily and ^niliarly to converse with
death, be would talk to those who occasionally
visited him, with as much calmness of his depar-
ture irom the world, as of any trausacdon to which
he had been accustomed while in it. His futh
WW strong and imwavering, and swallowed up
every fear. The exwcise of this holy prin^ple,
laoieover, was not resbicted to the concrans of his
own son], bnt extend^ likewise to those of his
iainily. He would pray earnestly for them ; and
expressed a strong deure that they might be
truned up in Scriptural sentiments, and thus
brouj^t to tlie knowledge of Christ : hut it was
evidrait he had no diaquieting care concerning
diem, and no prevuling wish to continoe wim
diem. The cords of earthly attachment were all
loosened, and the willing qtirit waited, without
perturbation, the signal for its flight.

In this state of readiness for the hour of his de-
fBrtnre, he would s<HiietiiiieB express himself ^s-

VOL, II. p


A returned, and
; and especially
when tfae rerolTii^ Sabbath witnened those con-
flicu on earth, which he longed to oxchange fw
the rest and the tiinmph of heaTen. Sorreying
the wast?s of diseiiee in hia emaciated fronie, he
excliuined, " What a different body will this be
in the momina; of the resorrection, if I am found
in Christ I I hope I shall be enabled to wut witil
pauence till my change corae. i aim not afmd to
trust my aU in the hands ef ike despised Naza-

His nights, wfaicli for tlie most part were sleep-^
less, he passed in prayer, and in the recollection of
those passages of Snipture ihat were familiar to
his mind. He infonned an old friend, who kept
watch at bis bed-side, that be had repeated, in con-
tinuation, on one of those occa^ons, the Epistle to
die Hebrews, from the first to Uie elevenu chap-
ter inclusire; and he believed without the 01

of a single verse. It is espeually worthy of ob-
servation, that he derived the nbnost solace and
refreshment from the manyportionsof sacred writ
which he had committed to memory. And from
a person^ experience of the benefit accming from
ench B familiar acquaintance with tlie Bible, he
enjoined it upon his children, and recommended
to his young friends in general, to copy his ex-
ample in this respect ; on^ to begin mud) earUer
than be did.

Until within two or three hours of bis dissolu-
tion, he was blest with tfae continuance of his in-
tellectual faculties; when the powers of nature be-
ing completely exhausted, the unfettered spirit
mw allowed to take ita joy&l flight. Contem-


pistil^ his nndisturbed Bod tr^'^Qiul exit, it pay be
tmly and empbaticatly Mud, " The end of tliat man
was peace." This event took place on Friday,
Angiut IS, 1811. The Captain was in the fifty-
fourth year of hia age ; he left a widow, a son,
and four daughters, to lament his loss.

The life and death of Captain Wilson famish to
every serioua mind, matter for mnch proBtable re-
flection. The whole of hia eventful history, dis-
cOTers a beantifnl and interesting development ilf
the procednre of divine Providence; which appears
tnysteriooB, yet wise in its operations, dfWn af-
flictive in ila eventa, yet kind in its demgns, the
miunteat parts accoratety arranged, and all, like
the seaaoDB of tjie year, terminating in some grand
and beneficial resnlt. The storms of commercial -
life, the tranquillity of doniMtic retirement, the
blasla of temporal adversity, the beams of prospe-
rity, T^giooB friendships, and family affiictious, all
Gtmcnrred in fitting him for an instrument of good,
or in promoting his final and everlasting welfare.
Who wonid hare looked, ae Dr Haweis says,
for a convert in a hanghty unprincipled Imlia n
merchant ; or for the commander of a Christian
mission, in an infidel sailor chuned in a prison at
Seringapatam F Who could expect the Deist,
viha retomed from India contradicung thefuth irf
Christ, and blaspheming the canae of the cross,
within five years afterwards on- the quarter-deck,
in the midst of ^prayer and praise, carrying the
evedastii^goroel to tibe Isles of the Pacific Ocean?
Yet aw^ are tiie mystetious ways of providence,
neb the inasiatible inflnen<? of truth, .and soch
the power and efficacy of Christian prindplea.



SoAHK Jehyns, a gentlemaa of learning and ?b?-
litiea, and an elegant and miscellaneOna wiit^
ra^ks among the nninber of diadngniabed laymea,
who havo Tolnnteered their services in the canM
of revelation. In hia yom^er daya, hu mbd had
bf eome means, been warped aaide to the paths of
mfidelity, in which he contimied to wander for
manjt yeftta. Like other diadplea of that &ahioR-
able creed, he waa not ipariug in the avowal of
his eentimenta ; bnt time and reflection brought
him to a sense of hia folly ; andbydnlyexM^iatng
the poweta of his reaaon, he aiTived at thoee c(hi-
nctiona wbich not only leckimed him (nm hia er-
rors, bnt drew from him a very pf^mlor and iue>
fill tract in defence of Christiamty.

Mr Jenyks waa bom in Great Ormcnd Street,
London^ on the Ist of Janvary, 1704. He naed
wittily to observe, that he considered bimaelf at
liberty to choose his birtlb^y, as he came, into the
world exactly at twelve o'clock at night ; and ac-
cordingly he. preferred dating his existence from
^e commencement of the new year, which in all
avilizcd comitries was celebtKted aa a day of ge>
neral festivity. He was the only-'Ban of Sir Roger
Jenyn^ who was descended &om the andent and
iee)>ecial>le family of that mme, at Cbnrcbillj in


S^nwsottlure. Sir RogefH country ceudence.
was at Ely, and aflerwarrb at BottiBham-Hall,
new Cambridge ; wbereheapentmacbofliistime,
in the-perfonnaDce of sacb dnl ilaiiea aa becaiae
his station. H? bore the character of an nprigfat
and dilignn magistrate, wm a conatout enconrager
of indnaby, and laboured mncb in csnyisg into
execntioB the draining of the great level of the
fens. Hi? gerrices and loyal priadplea procured
him the bononr ef koightnood from bia M^eety
King William, in 1694.

The mother of Mr Jenyns, was a daughter of
Sir Peter Soame of Hayden, Baronet, in tbe
comity of Essex ; a lady of great beanty, and en-
dowed with an excellent ondentanding, which she
had improTed by reading. She was ^so well in-
stnicted m the priocipleB of religion, which she
manifested both m her life and conrersation ; and.
dime excellences were heightened by gracefiii and
polished manners. Under her tuition, his inEtnt
mind was carefully initiated in the elements of
nrtne and religion ; and as soon as his years per-
mitted him to enter on his dassical studies, she
snirendered her cbaige to a domestic tutor, the
Rer. M> Mill ; who continued for some time to in-
Mmct lum in tbe ndimental knowle^^ of tbe
daasics, and snch other acquirements as were pro-
per'for his age ; bat more adrantageooa pnrsnita
iiaving induwd him to reUnqtdsh his charge, be was
succeeded by the Rev. Ste^ioi White, mioae bro-
ther gained no small diatiactioD by his cwitrorersy
mth ^e Dissenters ; and who became himself af-
terwards Rector of Holton in Suffolk. Under hia
superintendence, yonng Jenyns prosecuted hia stu-
dies with great enccees ; and though the solitude


of a domwtic edftcatiwi be leu ^Toonble tc tha
?xcitein?it of emnltfion and andjitiali, iIhd fmbtie
eenunsriei, yet he produced exemsee in ^igltah,
and also in lite Lstin and Greek lingn^^ which
were highly creditable to Uia diligeace ud joAer-

- In i72S, be wsa lent to the Uwvenity of Cam-
bridge, and admitted as a fellow-cominoner of 8t
Jc^'i, nnder I>r Edmondson, at that tame on? ?f
t^ principal tutors trf the coll^^. Here he spent
three years, pnrniijig with great indosliy dw
oo&rse of nudies in which yonsg men of forlnne
uanally engage. His behavioiir was most lasdaUe
aiul oiderty ; Hid be found so mu<Ji satiebctitHi in
the r^nlar disapline and employments of a col-
lege life, that be was often heard to say, he me-
oosnted the days he had resided there, unonff tbe
happiest in his life. He left the Unireraity, how-
arer, without taking a degree, most prolwbly in
coasequei^ce of his isarriage, which took place
when he wh very yonng.

The lady to whom he was imiled, was a cousin
of his own, the natural daugfatA' of his uncle, Co-
lonel Soane of Deerhan Grange is Norfolk. With
ber he received a corndderaUe fortune, bnt in all
other respecle, the alliance, which was lUiely a
mere union of interest, wu uidK^y. She appears
to hare been deficient in virtue and prudence, ?
qualities which are necessary to settle conjugsl
h^tpiness upon a lattiDg foundation; and sfter
some years, she eloped with a Leicesterehire gentle-
man. A Beparstian was homi agreed upon ia
fgnn, and Mr Jenyna consented to ^ow her a
iBaiBtenance, which was legularly pcad her, till her
death in 1753. Tlit nrcnmstwice of his en^y

soAMB jHinras. 175

mnniige, iiit?niipted lite plan of life he had formed
after Imvinr ibe UniTereity. He MiUr^ npon no
profesHon, but lived retiredlf in London in win-
ter, and in Bummer in the country, at BottiBhanut
flmploying himMlf jHincipally in following ont his
Uterary puiBoits, and calttva^g his poetic^ talents.
Soon slier iaa fitther*! deCtmt, wtneh happened
shortly befMv the gen?al election in 1742, be-
Mming muter of a considerabls estate, he guaed
the hono^ of being elected one of the repreaen-
taliveB in Parlitonent, lor ifao county of Cambridge,
md coBtiBsed to bold a Beat in the Howe of Cwi-
mona for nearly forty yean, Nther for the eountf
or bcHvi^k ef Carabn^e ; except wbeu on the call
?f a new parliament, in 1754, ha waa retomed for
the hmaa^ of Donwich in Sn&lk, which be re-
preeeuted fi? fbitr yean ; bm upon Lord Dnpplin
htmg caUed to (he U{q?er Henae, Mr Jenyns agtdn
Boc^edcd him, la member for Cambridge. His
dectioiii, with ?m exception, Wh? always uiumi-
'mona ; a drewoatance very honotsabletofaim, and
the U^eat leettmeny dtat conld be givwi, of the
faroarable ^i^Mnion whidi hia eoaatitaeaAs enter-
tained of his poblie condnct.
' When Mr Jenyns fint ent?
fonnd the Honae of Commons ?

a Bari of Orfer^ who had long held the
nkm of admininrstiwi. With ? high adminttttM
of hutaleDUaadp^ticBlmeRaiwea.hBwilH^lyen-
liated hi^elf amoi^ Ub fti^ds ; and dorii^ ^ lo?g
ssdenuits of Ae ftnt year of his pariiunenttfy
carear, when the (^patition pany were nai^ their
utMoat eflbrta to displace the faUtog mirfhter,
Kb JenySB, miaaked, and lofaiowit te Sir RoW*^


gwe him fais mj^iort &r as he conld, withoat
contnbnting his eloquence, for he seldom or nevtrt
addressed Uie house on any nAject. Tltoagh he
was endued with an aCDt? BBd comprehensiTe oi-
deratoading, and possessed sufficient knowledge oa
all the leading questions that were discussed, yet
not being bred to any pTofesaicHi, by wluch he had
opportunities of cultiratdng his oratorical powM? ;
and being notnrHlly defective in that fluencv and
readineee, which are necessuy to command uie at-
tentim of an. assembly lilie the Honse of Com-
mon8> he made no attempts to intrude himself vpon
its notice as a public speaker.

After Sir Robert's retirement from Ae admi-
mstration, and after he was raised to the peerage,
as a Mstimouy of his sovereign's gratitude tor his
Herrieae, Mr Jenyns waited oa faim to congtatn-
late him on the occasion, when Lord Orford grate-
folly admowledged the sapport he had given him ;
at Uie same time declaring, " ih?t bad those to
whom he had, dnring bis meridian of power, shewn
the greatast friend^p, and loaded with all die
favonn be oenld confer on them, but borne aa
kind dispoMtiona to him as he had done, he would
not tlwn have pud a visit to an ex'minister." Af-
tet the dissolution of Walpole's admi
Mr Jenyns uniftHmly ranked himself a
friends of govonmenl ; a compliance woico oaa
been reckoned hardly cansistent with freedom of
opinicni, or the nanal attachments of party. Widi-
out giving a public assent to every mearare of
everymimatwof theday, he contrived, not only to

E've him no ofience, but to recommwd himself to
1 favour ; and in 1755, he was appointed by his
majesty to a seat in the Board oflnde and Pbn-

30AMB J8MYNS. 177

tuAoBB, whicli he conturaed to holtl, tbroogh ell
changes, ^ die biunaew of the Board waa n-
mored into another depBrtm?t ; b^i^ tranafaired
to the greet officers of state, and those in the list of
his Majesty's hononrable Privy Council; At thd
time of its abolition, in 1780, besides Mr Jenyna, it
constated of the Eerl of Carlisle, Lord Anckland,
and Gibbon, the celebrated historian ; and had foe
its secretary, Camberland, the dramatic poet. Mr
JenyiiB constantly attended his duty at tlie Board
of Trade, and acquired a thorough knowle<^ of
the commercial inteiesls of his country, whidi he
waa ever aoxions to promote, ae ftr as was con-
ustent with souod policy.

Ilion^ he made no figure bs a speaker in Par-
Itament, he was e diligent and ssefol member ;
irad there were few whose opinion was more ts-
laed, or whose knowledge et national aifairs, and '
cMutitnlianal questions, was more extensive. Hia
sentiments on varions political topics of the day,
way be found m his writings ; where, however,
they are not laid down with moch precision. From
his having observed the causee, BJid weighed the
coDMqaencea of the <^HMition te Sir Robert Wal-
pole, be bad imbibed an early disiaste to ell sys-
tematic opposition ; and nothing that oecnrred du-
ring hb iMLg seat in Pariiwnent, ever tonded to
alter his mind on the sabject. Me bed with great
aaaidoity slndied the Britufa constituticm ; and few
men nnderstood it bettM, or held it in higher ve-
neratiMi ; being firmly pereuaded, that of all forms
of civil goveniment, it hod die fewest imperfec-
tions of any to be found in wicieni or modern
times. This made him avwse to all innovatioiis
end speculatin projects in state ti^uia.


Oar tenitorial ocqniratioiiB both in dw East and
the West, he always conudered as enlar^ng the
British empire beyond the bounds dictated by
aonnd wisdom ; that they were too distant to be
properly governed, and conld not be defended
en the gvoand of common justice or buma-
mty. America and the East Indies he com-
pared to two immense disproportioDate wings,
which be was apprehei^Te might, some time oi
other, fly away witH the small body of the island
to wbidi they were attached. Being by temper
inclined to mildness and moderation, he ezpreceed
his opinion, in the unhappy contests with our
TrensBtlantic brethren, tlmt tlie Colomsts should
be left to thems^Tes ; and in a humorous piece of
pfwtry, be declared bis approbatimi of a scheme to
that effect, by the Rev. Dr Tucker, Dean of- Glo?-
cester. His opinions, however, were, that this
wantonness of liberty woidd work its own antidote,
and that the Colonists, when tired of freedom,
would voluntarily resume tbeir dependence on the-
mother country.

During the recesses o? ParliMnent, Mr Jenyn?
always retired to his estate in Csmhridgeahire,.
whera he offidated as a-magistrate, and exovised
charity and hospitality among bis tenants and neigh-
bours. From this practice be never suffered pla?ea
of fashionable resort or public diversions- to allure
him, as be was persuaded his sutmners oonld not
be batter spwit than among his own connections ;
and that be could do more good at that tdme in
his own parish, than in any other utnation. He
fceqoently lamented the prevulins ftshicm, which
often carried gentlemen with their bndlies to
scenes of dissijntion, remote from their housea and


properties in the c?iiiitry; the consequence of
which WBS, that tlie money whidi should revert to
the districts from wlience it was received, w?i
Innied into e. different chsnnel, tenants deprived
of the advantsges they were entitled to, from its
expenditure among tnem, the ties (rf reciprocid
fellowship weakened, and the stream of ijiarity '
stopped, which otherwise would have gladdened
the hearts of their poor neighbours, th?r inferioiB
deprived of their example, enconragement, and
protection ; wliereby the mumers of the country
were altered for the worse, and many mischleb
necessarily occauoned to the public

His character as a eenntry gentleman, was not
more laudable and exemplary than as a ma^a-
trate, in which capadty he constantly acted, and
regularly attended all meetings for the purposes of
public justice. In his otficuJ conduct ne was
strictly conscientiouB and npri^t, avoiding all
contentionn and qnarrellings ; and from the general
opinion that was ent?rtuned of his inflexible in-
tegrity, and mmerior noderstanding, he was much
rerarted to. nom his natural aagacitf , quick dis-
cernment, and long experience, on bearing and
examining parties, he seldom &iled of obcaimng a
complete loiowledge of the cases tiiat came before
him. His decisions, accordingly, were in general
satisfoctory to both tddes, as he always gave his
reasons for what he did, with a clearness and per-
epicnity accommodated to the understanding of all
who heard him. Of the ability with which he
discharged bis duties as a cinl officer, there needs
no better proof than his own statement, that du-
ring tlie many years he had acted in the commis-
aion of the peace, and the many difficulties he bad


net with, he had nereT been called to the Conrt of
King's Beni^ to account for Iub not undentand-
ing an Act of IVliaoiBiit.

Tbe?e numerotu engagements, togethtir with a
rariety of literary performance^ of wfaicli we ahall
take occasion to speak immediately, engrossed die
greater portion of Mr Jenyns' life, which was
protracted beyond the ordinary span of hiUDBn ei-
iatence. After straggling for three years with .the
weakness and infirmitiesof old age, he was seized
with a fever, of which he died in course of a few
days' ilhiess, on the 18th day of December, 1787,
at his house in Tihiey Street, Andley Square, Lon-
don. He was int?rTed in Bottisham Chnrcfa,
where, in the parish registef, and contrary to the
common forms, the Rev. Mr Manaell, afterwards
Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Bishop
of Bristol, inserted a very elegant compliment to
his memory. Mr Jenyns had no femily, hnt he
left a widow ; his second wife, whom he had mar-
ried in Fehroary, 17.54, and who was the daugh-
ter of Henry Grey, Esq. of Hacknev, Middkeez.
This lady, with whom he lived in tne enjoyment
of great conjugal hiqtpiness, eurrived him nearly
ten years, havn^ died at the age of ninety-four,
July 25th, 1796.

Of Mr Jenyns' public character, the reader will
be able to jui^ ttom the preceding sketches of
his conduct as a country gentleman, and a mem-
ber of Parliament. Although his versatility as a
politician, and his adherence to legal power, in
whatever bands It was lodged, have been thought
inconsistent with manliness and independence of
^irit, yet it would appear, his integrity was gene-
tally acknowledged and reqiected, sinc? no party


?%Ted t? remove him, dtongh it ia evident his opi-
nions, vrhicA be did not conceal, w^e not always
. in unison wid) tbeira under whose banner he in-
listed. In pri^te life, he was eqnally averse to
give ofience. Ail his bii^rapbers agree, that he was
a man of great mildnes?, ^ntleness, and sweetness
of temper ; which he manifeatad to all with whom
he had any concern, eiiber in ibe bosiness or the
social interconrse of life. He conducted hla
hoosehold with great regolarity, and with sndi
scnipnloua punctuality, that he has sometimes
been accused of being penmioUB. This charge,
however, appears to have been entirely unfounded,
as he was not only liberal and generons, bat waim
andoctive in his benevolence. He had great sym-
patny for the miseries of others ; and no person

<r more strictly practised the necessity im
on those who fonn the superior ranks o
Fe ; whose duty it is to reconcile the lower classes

to their present condition, by contrihnlJng their
utmost to make them happy ; for be was most
kind uid courteous to all hu inferiors, not only in
his expressions and his behaviour, but in asBisting
them m all their wants and distresses ; ever con-
sidering his poor neighbours as parts of his tamily,
and as andt entitled ^ bis care and protection.

As a companion, he is represented as highly en-
gag^g and delightful ; for he possessed not only a
wdl-informed mind, but had all the liveliness of a
man of wit, joined to the greatest urbanity and po-
liteness of manners. " He was a man," (says Mr
Cole), " of lively fancy, and pleasant turn of wit,
very sparkling in conversation, and full of merry
conceits and t^^reeable drollery, which was heigh-
tened, by his inarticulate manner of speaking

VOL. It. Q


Aniagli hk broken twth ; uid all Has mixed witb
the BtmoHt hniaanity sad good B&tnre, as he wae
hirdly erer severe upon any one, and by no means
eatiricsl in his mirth wid good humour," Tbeae
qnaliliea made his acqaaintance much cotuted by
all who had a taste for brilliant conversation, sa
they were assored of being del^hted wherever he
was ; and that though they did not posaees the
same talent, ^ey never would be censtffed by him
because they wanted it.

His peTBOD was delicate and diminutive, and hie
appearance the reverse of being prepossesung ; yet
his amiable aitd fiicetions habits made ?n ample
amende for the injuries and defects of nature.
Some cmiooB traits of his person and character
have been recorded by Cnmberland, in the Me-
moirs of his own Life ; which, though rather coarse,
and with too much affectation of the ludicrous,

Ee a very lively aai picturesque description of
friMid. " Soame Jenyns was the men who
bore his part, in all sotieties, with the moat even
temper, and wHlistmbed hilarity, of atl the good
companions I ever knew. He came into your
house at the very raom^at you hod put upon your
card : he dressed himself, to do yoqr party honour,
in all the colours of the jay ; his lace indeed had
long since lost its lustrej but his suit had faithfully
retuned its cut, since the days when gentlemen
.wore embroidered figured velvet withshort sleeves,
boot-cufla, and budoam skirts. As nature had cast
him in the exact mould of an iU-made pair of stiff
stays, he followed her so close in the fashion of
his coat, that it was doubted if he did not wear
them. As he had a protuberant wen, he wore a
wig that did not coTH- above half his head. His


eyes protruded very mnch; andyettlierawwrooM
betweea Mie of tbem and his ooae, for another
wen, that lidded nothbg to bube?Bty: yetlheud
ODce thia good man rery innocently remaric, wbaa
Gibbon published bis bistwy, that he wondered
how any body eo ng!y conid write a book.

" Snch was the exteritn- of the nan who waa the
eharm of the circle ; md gave a zest to every com-
pany he came into. ' His pleasantry waa of a aort
pecoliar to himself; it harmonized with er^y
tiling. Soame Jenyna told yon no long storieat en<
growed not much of yonr attention, and waa not
angry witii those that did. His thoughts were
origuiEil ; and were apt to have a very wfalmrical
mflinity to the parados in them. Ill natnre and
povonality, with the single exception of his line*
upon Johnson,* 1 nerer hevd faU from his lips.
Tliongh his wit was harmlese, the general cast of
it was ironical ; there was a teneneas in his repar>-
tees, that had a play of words as well aa of
diongfat. He had a brevity of e xpre n aitm that
never hong upon the ear ; and yon felt the poiat
the very moment he made the posh."

Frota (Ma survey of his domeetic and convivial
character, we shall next connder hint asanantfaoT,
and a convert to die Christian religion. In the
former capacity, be guned no small share of cele-
brity, althg?^ tiie popolarity of his writings haa
not been lastiDg. In yootfa, being mudi of* bean,

* " Here lira Sun Johnson : Rnder, have a nre,
IVead lightly leit joa wake ileepiog bear -.
Religious, mora], generoai, and bunuDe
H> was ; but BelF-Bufficient, proud and vain ;
Pond or, and ovetboaring in diqiule,
A' Ctoiuiaa, and a uholar but a brute."


mnd galknt in hb ftttention to (He ladies, big tongv
and e?ly perfomiBnces are Iwctared with a gay
Mid 8{Hightly homoai ; cud beepeck a mind suffi-
dentty at ease to trifle with the oamota, but not
always attentire to delicaojr where it interfered
with wit. The first, as w?il as the longeat and
best of fait poems, was the " Art of Dancing," in-
scribed to Lady Fanny Heldkig, afterwards Conn-
tesB of Winchelsea. This was written wiien he
was only twenty-wx, and published without hia
name ; bnt when discovered, it was considered as
the prehide to greater performances. He conti-
nned for some time to cultivate his talents in this
way, and produced short pieces on a variety of
snl^ects ; " An Eseay on Virtue ;" " The Modem
Fine Gentleman, and Likdy ;" " Hie Squire and
ParscHi;" " Inutattons <tf HonKe,-" Epistles,
Songs, and Translations. Thw are Hght, easy,
and bumorona, with conudenble animation of
fencT, and el^aoce of Ters^catioa ; but nndistin-
guisbed by any qtxiliueg of superior poetical ge-
nius, akhough they procured him no little favour
in his day, and have been received into some of
the standard collections of English poetry.

As a writer of prose, few can be compared with
faim for purity and elt^ance, though his opinions
and sentiments were often queetion^ile, aiod did
not escape the ordeal of severe criticism. He was
first known to the world in this department of
writing, by a " Free Inqniry into the Nature and
Origin of Evil," pablished in 1757, a work which
gained him the character of the moat elegant
wntet of prose since the days of AUdison. His
main object in this Essay, was to give a satisbo-
tory ej^lauation of the difficulties which have


[tresaed npon every theory of ibe existence of evil,'
under the gorenunent of aa infinitely wise and'
good Being. HJa fundwnental prindptee are, tiist
Bftlor^ erUs could not hare be?a prevoited with-
ent die loss of ?on?e nperior good, or the peraita-
aion of greater evil : And as to inomi evil, that
it is permitted in order to provide objects for ib?
joBt infliction of those pbyaicHl evils which were
in their nature tmaroidable. These ideas he pnr-
soee in a variety of acute remarks and ingeoions
illnstrations ; w}iich,however,were thought to denote
rather a warm imagination then a solid jndgtoent.

Bnt the ehBrms of style could not protect his^
work from objeetkms of a serions nature. Fanph-
leta were pnUidied, and private letters were ad-
dressed to him on ihe occasion, some of them con-
tuning much abuse and misappeheneion. His
most fonnidable antagonist was Ttr Johnson, at
that time editor of the literary Mg^^ine, who
ably ctiticiBed this Essay, and with a bold hand
swept away the theories which a lively fency had
formed. The snbject which ^e Etee Inquiry dis-
cusses, is one of great importance, and perplexed
with difficulties which have long engaged the spe-'
eolations both of philoeophere and divines, but
without receiving a very satisfBctory solution, be-
cause they relate to questions which lie beyond
the reach of human investigation, and cannot be
determined, so long as manldsd are permitwd ta
see but in part.

In answering die question. Whence came evil ?
Mr Jenyns steers clear of the Manicbean system,
of two oiiginal principles, a good and a bad ; and
adopts that of Pcme, considerii^ evil, not in r^iard to
tbe individuals who suffer by it, bnt as itaffectsthe

186 coNVKRTS raou invisxiitt.

whole syirtom of the naivene ; in nfaich riew be
oonclv^es, that evil ia <mly ui imperfection fiir ovei^
balanced hy a preponderance of good ; and that
far the Deity to hare endued created bmnga with
perfecUon, that is, to have produced good eichi'-
av6 of evil, IB one of those impoesibilitieB, which
even infinite powor cannot aGcomplish. On tfaia
part of hia Bubject, he makes many elegant and
acute observations ; which, however, are for from
being infficient to silence ci>rio?ty, m' repress dis-
content. Whoever pushes hie resrardwe into tiiese
regions of metaphysical mysteriee, must alwATa
alwndon the inquiry at last in daikneas and doubt.
Many of Mr Jenyna' aipunents are certainly bet^
ter adapted to amuse than to convince ; some of
them are fondfnl, theoretical, and even ridiculous.
In shewi^ the advantages of evil, and the good
effects that heman euSeiii^ may produce, he en-
tertains an opinion, that there ii some iaconceive-
abte benefit in pa'n, abstractedly conudwed; Umt
pain, however inflicted, or wherever felt, comnm-
nicates some good to the general system of bemg ;
and that every aninud is, some way or other, die
better for the pain of every other animah He
even supposes a kind of sympathetic prim^le, like
that of gravity or attraction, to ran throng all
created existence ; and that the evils suffered on tbia
globe, may by some subtle and inexpUcabte means,
contribute to the felicity of the inhabitanta of the
remotest planets. And as we are allowed to hunt
and destroy animals merely for diversion, he con-
ceivee it possible, that the same privilege may be
indulged to hemga above lu, who may deceive,
ttnment, or destroy as, for the ends only of thrar
own i^easnTe oi utility I


' There is nradi fine m^g. and k grant maoy
cxctlknt passagea in diis Treatise, yet many of ii?
liypodMns we extraT^ant and dawiriDg of repre-
hBDHion ; thongh, perlu^, the honest inteniione oS
tlw sniher did not merit that bittemeea and irwy
with ndiich he has been cbasdsed by tb? great
eoloesus of criticism ; whose disBertatioD is mitMn
with too aauii asperity, though many have con-
lidered it as the Gtst of his compoaitioiiB, for
strength of aignment and brilliancy of wit. Mr
Jenyns smarted sererely under 1^ castigation,
and gare vent to his feelings in the angry epitaph
on his critic ; which waa an ill-timed resentment,
and nnwor^y of his genius. The oppoMtitm
that this bo<^ met with, howerer, did not aitw
Ins opinions : to a sabsequent edition he prefixed
an iotroductdon, in which he endeavoured to reply
to his opponents, bnt withont retrectii^ any thing
he bad formerly maintained ; and his reply is an
able Bpeomen of controrersisl writing, inlt i T ig
the utmost candour with uvility and good hnmonr.
Mr Jenyns wrote likewise on political and
other topics, which he embelliahed with his nsoal
eloquence. He was one of the fashionable can*
tribut4?s to " Hie Worhl," fint published in 1753,
to whidi he communicated five papers, all cha-
racterised by purity and vivacity of style ; and in
one of whitdi he eipreesed that opinion in favour
of the doctrine of a prc-?xistent state, which he
afterwards insisted upon more gravely, in his
" Ori^ of Evil." In 1756, he wrote a pamphlet
in bvonr (rf a national militia ; artd one in 1767,
entitled, " Hiongfata on the Canses and Conse-
qnences of the l^h price of Provisi(His,'' which
be imputed to the increase of the national debt ;


tbs we^th of {mvata indiTtdoiLi ; and the poverty
of tbe public The newspapers were filled jrilh
answers and reftttationB, but tbe ratnni of plenty
soon made the controversy be fwgonen. 1Kb
ol^er pt^tical pieces are, " (^edions to the
Taxation of onr AmnicHn Colemes ;" " A Schemer
for the Coalition of Parttea ;" and " Tbot^fate oit
tbe National Debt."

In 1782, appe??d his'" DisqnisitionB on Seve-
ral Snbjecta." These are metaphysical, theoii^-'
cal, and political ; in all of which he advances,
amidst mnch valuable matter, a number of para-
doxic^ theories, to whkh he seems to have been
prompted merely by a love of novelty, or a deiire
to shew by wbirt ingenoity opinions that contra-
dict die general sense of mankind, may be de-
fmded. Among other answers to which this trea-
tise gave rise, was an admirable piece of hn-
nouT, entitled, " The Dean and the Squire," al-
luding to Dr Tucker, whose opinions on uvil li-
berty q>proached those of our andior. Tbe IMs-
qnisitions are characterised by sprightly wit and
acute penetratioi] ; and may be regarded as an
extraoidinary prodnctimi from a m?i in his 78lh
year. Their style is p^aps more elegant and
animated, than that of any of his framer writings ;
and if mere elegance coold atone for defect of ar-
gument, they might yet be read as mmlela of
chaste and correct English. The last of hb per-
formances was " Thoughts on Parliamentary Re-
form," written in 1784, when that subject was in
agitation. In these be directs the whole force of
hrs wit and argument against those innovations
which, in hie opinion, tended to anarchy and H-
centionsDesB ; but whidt were at war with the

18 be advocated at the commenceBient of
Ilia poetical csieer.

As a prOBe writer, there seems to be but tmo
opioion with regard to Mr Jenynt ; that he is en-
titled to a place among tbe purest and correcte?t
nothorB in ^e English langiiage. As a poet, bo'
has had many equals, and many luperitxn ; duMgh
he has point and brilliancy, he is deficient in that
creative and lofty imagination, which inaiki tfaa.
tme genius of poetry. His prwe compositione,'
whether serions or sprightly, are dM^ngoished by
ramaricable accuracy and perspicuity ; though diey
have now ceaaed to attract that peculiar interest
winch they did on their first appearance.

The performance nlikh ezdted most attention
on its publication, and which has survived the ne-
glect and oblivion of his other works, was bia,
" Treatise on the Internal Evidence of the ChriS'
tian Re]igi<Hi," published m 1776. The author
tells us, that it contains those arguments which
produced in hia mind, a conviction of die tmtb of.
Christianity. He had, in the earlier and gayer,
part of his life, imbibed ^e principles of infideli'
(y, of which he scrupled not to make an open
profession. It is not very certain by iriiat meana
the impressiona of a regions education were era*
dicated ; although tliere is every reason to believe
that an engagement in pursuits inconaiateat with
Chmtiaiiity, drove him to that expedient, as an ex-
case for his conduct^ and a diield ag^st the arrows
of self-reproach; and tbia seems the more probable,
from passages in his work, which ia a narrative
of his own experience. " If any one," says He,
" be attached to a favouiito pleasure, or eagerly
engaged in worldly pursuite, incompatible with the


precq>to of religion, he miut either relittqiuah those
pnrraiu with uneBainess, if he believe ; or should
he be determined neither to repent nor reform, he
mnit persist in them with remorse and dissstis-
fection. Such, therefore, generally commence
Bnbelierers in their own ilefence ; for the most
hunrmoantable, as well as the most ugoal obstacle
to onr belief) arisea from oar passions, appetites,
and interests."

By whaterer canse his reli^ona priodples wcfe
perverted, the restless anxiety of his mind set him
to tbink of giving Christianity a mcH? minnte coa-
- nderation than he had yet bestowed npon it. Hcf
studied the Sacred volonte with care, ?nd probably
called in to his ud some of those able controrer'
aial defences, which the iofideHty of the eight?enth
centanr bad occasioned. The experiment be tried
for solving this importmt question, proved snc-
tiessfid ; and he has himself stated the argnment
which weif^ted most in overpoweringhia scruples and
objA^ions^ " The well-attested miracles by which
God hath beitie witness to the veradty of his ser-
vants, and to the tmth of doctrines delivered by
Aem-; ihi completion of prophedes delivefed
many hundred years ago, are no inconsiderable
evidence on the- side of revelation. But the mter-
nal evidence of the Christian religion, I must con-
fess, carries with it an authority which has in-
flnenced my mind, more than all the external evi-
dences. It was that which bore down my pre-
judices, and drove front my heart the infidelity,
that for many years I had unhappily cherished."

The proofs which had thus convinced bis mind
of the divine origin of this religion, he was anxious,
ifl justice to the caose he had neglected or injuredj'


to commiuiicate, in bs dear and concise a manner
as he was able, thinkiag they might have the same
effect upon others. From these honomahle mo-
tirea, he published his " View of the Internal
Evidence of the Christian Religion ;" a work
which got into a rapid and wide circnlation, and
was generally regarded as an ingeniona defence of
Christianity. The clergy welcomed this accea-
aion to their cause, in a layman of superior rank
and acknowledged abilities ; and by some of them,
he was honoured with very flattermg testimonies
of their eradtnde and approbation.

Mr Jenyns' method to prove the truth of the
Christian religion, was by a process, in some re*
Bpects the reverse of what had been often adopted.
I^B opinion was, that we should begin, by shew-
ing the internal marks of trinity which are stamped
upon it ; because on this, the credibility of the pro-
pbecies and miracles, in a great measure depends :
for if we have once reason to be convinced that
tliis religion is derived from a Bupematnral origin,
prophedes and miracles will become so far irom
being incredible, that it will be highly probable
that a Bupematoral revelation should be foret^ild,
and enforced by superoatural means. Upon this
plan he undertakes to demonstrate, that Chris-
tianity could not possibly be doived from human

wisdom, (


The following are thepropontions upon whicli
he builds hia theory : Tuiat from the NewTealit-
ment may be extracted, a system of religion en-
tirely new, both with regard to the object and the
doctrinee ; not only infinitely superior to, but im-
like every thing winch had ever before entered into
the mind of man i that from the same botJc may


also be collected, a eyBtem of ethics, in wbich
every motiil precept, founded on reaaon, u carried
to a hitler decree of purity and perfection, tbau
inanyof (Im wisest philoBophera of preceding agea:
?^And laatlf, that such a eyetem of religion and
morality, could not possibly have been the work
of any man, or set of men ; much less of those
obscure and illiterate persons, who acto^Iy did dis-
cover and publish it to the world ; and that, there-
fore, it must nndonbtedly have been effected by
the intefposition of divuie power ; that is, that it
niuat derire its origin from Goil.

In pursuing this argument, he shews that, as to
the theology contained in the Scripturea, its supe-
riority is too obviooB to be contradicted ; and that,
whatever we may think of the authority of these
books, the relations which they conttun, or the iu'-
qiiration of dieir authors ; no man who has eyes
to read, qr ears to hear, can eotert^ a douht,
that they promulgated doctrines, not only on-
known to ml antiquity, bnt as inconcdvable to the
wisest of mankind antecedent to their appeatsnce,
as the Newtonian s^^tera is to tlie most ignorant
savages in the wilds of America. With r^ard to
the ethical part of Christianity, he observes, that
it not only carries moral parity to a d^pree beyond
that iocnlcated by any sect of philosophers, bat
that it wholly omits or disparages many virtues,
on which they placed the highest esteem, such as
valour, patriotism, and friendship: recommending
others which, for usefulness and sublimity, will not
bear a comparison ; unless any one should under-
talie to prove that humihty, patience, forgiveness,
and benevolence, are less amiable, and less bene-
ficial qualities, than pride, turbulence, reTenge, and


matigmtT ; or that k real immortaUty in the king-
dom of beaven, is an object Ima ezahed, leM la-
tional, and less (rorthy of pnrsnit, than an ima-
noary immortality in ue applause of men. From
SieBB premises, Miich were incontrorertibly true,
his conclcuion followed, that nothing bat the sn-
pernatnral interposition of divine wisdom and

erer, coald have originated or established a re-
on, so &r surpassing all preceding systems.

Tliia defence, howerer, eloquent and peispicti-
ons as it is, \ras by many thought to stand on
tfoestionable gronnd. The work was regarded as
being of a auspicious tendency, and the anthor as,
in many points, proving himself to be an insidions
enemy to the cause he pretended to plead. Those
who call themselves rational (Christians, thought he
yielded too nrai^ to ^e orthodox believer ; while
tile orthodox believer was shocked that he bad
conceded the possibility of certain miracles being
foiveries. A controversy immediately took place,
and con^ned for some time, in which several
men of Uterary character distingaished themselves ;
among whom were Dr Kenrick, Dr M'Liune, the
translator of Mosheim, the Ssv. JMr Fleet, and
a considerable number of anonymons writws ; some
of whom treated both the work and the author
with very nobecoming asperity. The discuasion,
however, proved highly advantageous to the hook,
vrfaich sold most extensively, whfle the controversy
'waa kept alive. It even excited the attention <tf
persons of tank ; and in that way was the means of
doing much good.

The eiTor with which he has been thought most
justly chargeable, is his neglect of the external evi-
dences ; and in hia admitting the use of reason b


?omeinatancea, while he tefnaet Hit) othen. Tie
proofe arbing from prophecies aaA miracles, he did
not, however, depredate, or tejeet as of no conaide-
ration ; on the contrary, he admitted them to faaTO
their proper weight, but he conceiTed they had al-
ready been enforced by much abler pern ; and diot
they did not carry the same degree of convic^on,
with aignmenta that might be dedoced from the
internal excellence of Christianity. Had he pro-
fessed to have defended the outworks, we might
have expected to find an equal display of eloqnence
and ingenuity ; but diia he proposed not to do.

But whatever difference of opinion there may ha
sa to the method of the perfomiBiice, it woold be
nujiiBt to question the author's sincerity, or diabe-
lieve the very explicit arowal he has made of his
convictions. That be was an hteidious enemy, is
? libel and a calumny, without the least foundation.
The whole tenor of his subsequent life and cor<-
versation attested the integrity of his sentimeuta,
and his firm belief in what he had written. " It
was written," (says Mr Cole), " under a (nil coll-
ection of the truth of the Christian lUspensation, and
a sincere zeal for Its eervice. The author, stnu^
with the beanties of its prinoipiea and doctrines, so
?83en^ to the happiness of human creatures,
thoi^ht that a short and clew representation ?j
their internal excellence, might allure the attention,
and procure a belief in the truth of the Christian
religiou, from those who read but little, and think
less ; and who formed too considentble a part of the
bulk of mankind, not to attract the notice and care
of him who felt himBelf interested in the happioeaa
of the whole human race."

The &nth(?''s own declaration ia eqn&lly modeat


tad ingennouB, and- deserrea to be recorded with
that of hU biographer. " Should the few for^oinv
pages add but one mite to tbe treasures with whicn
o^er learned writerB have enriched t)ie world ; if
they shonld be so fortmiate as to persuade any of
OUT minute philosophers to place some confidence
in eBtablished opinions, and to diatruBt their own ;
if they shonld be able to convince &em, tliat not-
tvithstaudi^ aU onftToursble appearances, Chris-
tianity may not be alt<^ether artifice and error ;
ii they shmild prevail on them to examine it with
some attention ; or if that is too mnch trouble, not
to reject it withoatany^Lunination at all tlie pur-
pose of this little work will be fully anawered."

It must have been gratifying to Mr Jenyns, that
ka lived loi^ enough to p^veive, that his little
tvork had Uie effect which the benevolent author
kitended ; which laote than consoled him for the
rudeness and severity with which he had been at-
tacked. He received numbers of private letters,
written with all the humility and pious gratitude
which iJie primitive Christians expressed to their
first instructors, from individuals who bad perused
bis treatise ; and who had iu consequence been
brought over from anbelief, to a Ml conviction of
the truths be had endeavoured to establish.
Among those who have felt and acknowledged its
beneficial tendency, may be mentioned the Rev.
Thomas Scott, author of a Commentary on ^e
Bible. In c^Misequence'ofhearingit recommended
by a dignified clergyman, in a visitation sermon, he
read it, and observes, " that the truth and impor-
tant of the gospel, appeared witli convincing evi-
dence to my understanding, and came with efficacy
to ray heart, by reading this little book."


Iti infloence was not confined to tbia couutiy,
but operated in distant puts of the world ; uid
Mr Cole meotions a letter from India, in which
the writer, confeuii^ his former infideUtjr, and the
puns be had long in Tain taken, by mefliw of booba
recommended te him, written on the tntth of the
Christian religion, to give hii assent to it, cofi-
cludes in these words, " I et^erly wished to be-
liere, bvt could not satis&ctorily. Bnt now, I
thank God, Soame Jenyns' reasons hare, I hiq>e,
trinmpbed over all my doubts ; and I hare giveq
an unfeigned and fiitl assent to his three propo-
utioDs, which, in my opinion, pMye all that ia
wanted to be cleared up." It hu been translated
into several foreign langnagee ; and notwidistand-
ing the critidema and seTere atrictnres of stune
able writere, yet from its admirable style and mo-
derate bulk, it has been much raad, and many of
its obserrations have been jiniTersally acknowr -
ledged t? be equally just and impressive ; and what
may be considered as adding to its intrinsic valn^
is its being the production of a very ingeniona
Deist, who Imviiig, as be says of himself, some In-
eare, and more curiosity, employed them both in
resolving a qnestion winch seemed to be of some
importance. Whether Christianity was really an
imposture, fonnded tm an absnrd, incredible, and
obsolete fable, as many suppose it ? Or whether
itia what it pretends to be, a ravelation communi-
cated to mankind, by the interposition of super-
natural power P And in course of his examina-
tion, he soon found that the fiist was an absolute
impossibility ; and that its pretenuons to the latler
were fonnded on the nwat solid grounds.



Medicai. men have been very generally reputed
sceptical ; and die nuschief has been ihoogbt to
eriginate in die natnial tendency of Bome of their
atndiea : For thu conclosion, however, there eeems
no juBt foi^dation ; mnce there are not wanting
the most iUnstiiotiB enamplea t? prove, that thu
acience has been adorned by practitjonera of ac-
knowledged piety, who have exemplified in their
lives, those principles which have beeo deemed in-
compatible with deep inqniry into the subjects of
tlieir profession. Many who have devoted their
time and their talents to a minnt? examination of
the fabric and texture of the haman body, have
conclnded, from the manifest appearances of bene-
volence and demgn, that b was the work of a Be-
ing transccndently wise and powerful.

These Inferences sbuck even the anatomists of
antiquity, who knew not the uaea and functions of
nany parts, and were comparatively onacquainted
with the curious architecture and eeooomy of th*
whole system. Galen was converted by his own
dissections ; and could not bnt own a Supreme Be-
ing, trom the proofs of wisdom and contrivance to
be found in the mechanism of the human frame-
Successive improvements in the art have added
fresh cmifinnation to thoee aentimente, whiiji a su-
perficial acqnuntance bad drawn fordi. The cele-


Wated phyadans Hartley, and Harvey wbo dif
Gorered tfae drcnlatiaii <A the blood, were ledi, by
ibeir researcbeB, to entertam llie Bam^ profound tb-
BNatioQ for the great Creator, to whose immediate
agency they ascribed the most wonderfal of na-
tm%'B operations. So far, therefore, as anatomical
knowl^Ige is concerned, the preHminuy etodiee of
medics] men appear calculated rather to impresa
the mind with devotional feelings, and to act aa
an antidote ^;unst infidelity.

TTiere are, beaidee, other reasons why this nn-
lONViis and respectable body mig^t be presumed
to be favourably disposed towards religion. There
ia a striking analogy between the two sciencea, the
one administering relief to tbe spiritaal wants of
man, as the other does to his bodily infirnutiee.
Considering how intimate a sympathy there ezista
between tbe af^ctions of mind and matter, and
what infinence the sitnation of the former has in
allaying or inflaming the diseBses of the body, WO
might nanirally suppose they would regard relt-
^on as a vaiuable ally ; which, by rwl ming tho
troubles and agitations of tlie soul, contribated so
powerfully to assist the operations of their sbId'
tary art. Few individuals have a better qiportn-
nity of witnessing tbe benefidal eflecls of Chris-
tianity under the most trying occasions, and hotv
much a steadfast belief in its doctrines, tends to
BUpport and console the eshanat?d sufferer ; even
when earthly remedies have lost their power, and
all external means proved unavailing. It would
aeemi therefore, a strange want of moral feeling,
or even of ordinary curiosity, to remain insensilda
to ita importance, or hesitate to inquire into the
ground! upon i^ck ita truth is established.


Bat it may aeem nxMV wonderfnl, tint from thete
pecxdiHT appoTtniiities and advantageti, ioferencM
and prinnples ebonld be drawn hostile to religion ;
or that the same diHCoveri?8 should bo accused of
leading to eceptidsm, whirh hare conmced
atheists and infidels by the evidence of a thon<
send demoQstnitions. There are, however, soma
among the medical faculty, on whom aoatomy bos
had this effect ; and instead of inspiring religions
sentiments, has either disinclined their thonghts to
the subject^ or confirmed tiiem in infidelity.
Among this number, was Qr Bateman, late phy-
rician to the Public Dispensary, and to the Fer^
Institntion, in London ; a genlleman whose sden-
tific BtMinmentB were of a high order, and wheea
moral conduct appeare outwardly to have been un-

Thomas Bateman, M.D. waa bom at Whitby,
in Yorkshire, on the 29th of April, 177a Ho
was an only son, and had the misfortune in early
youth to be deprived of bis bther, a man of snpe-
rior ci^tadty, and of the medical profesNon, which
he practised very extensively at Whitby. He waa
from infancy of a delicate constitution ; and gara
then no indications of that diligence and abiUty
Thich aflerwaida ^tinguidied him. Atfonryeata
of ^;e, he was placed as a day scholar, under the
care of the Rev. Mr Watson, a dissenting minis-
ter, and an intimate friend of his fother. At six,
be began to learn Latin, for which he must have
possessed considerable talents, as he was always at
the head of the boys of his own age. Thoogh

Ennctnal in the performanciiof his tasks at school,
e eyinced no particular ambition in the puranit of


knwirledgfl, nid ueTer opened a hodt for hia oWn'

With Mr Wfttscn he r?nMaed seven years ; and
Wing then remored to spend the nimmer in the
cotintry, on account of hb health, he became in-
doleot, and lost all relish for books of any kind;
It waa his constaaC puctice to Bit on the top of a
gate near the hoiue, for great part of the day, lost in
ibonglit, without seeking either pleasure or employ-
nunt i a habit which led his father to predict that
he would never he good for any thing. In winter
he was agtuD retnnied to school at Whitby, where
tbe dormant eneigies of his mind were roused
into acti^ty; and as he found his new instruc-
tor dflfident in classical learning, he expressed an
earnest vmb to be sent where he mi^t have bet-
ter opportunities of improvement. Accordingly, he
was removed to Thornton, a village about twenty
miles ^stant from his native place.

Here, from the very first, he dist^ngnisbed him-
self by an ardonr quite unusnal, anii altogether
di^rent from his former habits ; and took th&
lead in every branch of leamii^. Instead of ming-
ling in the active sports of his school-fellows, he
made music, drawing, and botany, die relaxatjons
^ hie leisure hours. He ranged the whole country
in search of plants an occupation which proved
ben^dal to nis health ; and before he left school
he had completed an extensive Bortus Siccus,
Astronomy and electricity frere also among his fa*
Tourite pnisuits ; and having a mechanical turn, he
made a planetarinm, and an elecliical machine,
merely from the descriptions of them in Cham-
bers's Dictionary ; cutting all the wheels of the for-
mer with bis pen-knife. His most remarkable ior-


tmby as a Mcko6\'boy, was bis sound and penetrat-
ing jndgmeiit ; Bnd be was not bo mudi distin-
gusfaed by quickness, as by the nncea^g energy
and ngonr of his mind. Ajnong bia jav^iile pro-
doctioDB, were some poetical tianslatione from tbe
Gredc and Latin, and a few bnmorons stanzas of
his own, addressed to one of fais compaoionB, on
his want of taste and ear for music He was re-
maHcably silent and leseire ; but amidst all his
gravity, he bad a ijtiick aense of tbe ludicrous,
wbich supplied bim frequently witb subjects for
amusement, botb in prose and rerse ; and afibrded
him an agreeable relazatiaD in bis severer studies.
At the age of fifiieen, be lost bis &tber ; and as
his profeauon had already been determined by bis
own choice, be was brought home from Thornton,
and sent to attond an apothecuy's shop, in order
to acquire a knowledge of pharmacy. At the same
time, he (Stained some acqoaiataoce with the
FVench language, mathematics, and minerali^ ; as
osefnl preliminaries to his medical studies. - At
nioetet^ be went to Loitdon, with a tolerable
stock of knowledge, both classical and natursl, as
a foundation for his destinejl profession ; and what
was of more importance, tiwned to habits of great
iqiplicBtion and research. The chief objects of his
attention in London, were anatomy, and the practice
of physic. For this purpose, he entered la the
Lectures at ^^^udmill Street ; and as Physician's
pupil at St George's Hospital, for the winter of
1797-98, under Dr Sailiie, a most distinguished
teacher, and gifted with talents of the first order ;
nnd wbat adds to bis medical reputation, he made
the science of which he was so eminent a master,
K pDfferfiil declaration of his sentimenia agaiiut.


infidelity. No popU could honoureuch a precept
lor more ccmlially, or widi jnsler discrimiufttioD^
than Mr Batenuuu He was alive to all his merits,
and made the most of them by DBremitted atten-

Next year he removed to Edinburgh, flAere ma
Mndies were continned trfth the aame assidnity.
During the Session of 1800-1, he wae the Clmical
elerk of Dr Dimcan, seiuor, at the Infirmary ; and
made the best nse of his advantages in that valu-
able bstitntion. He was hwa the fiort ? member
of the Royal Medical Sodety, in which he Kk*
an active ahare, and had the hononr of becoming
one of its annual prendenta. He was also a mem-
ber of the Natural History Society, where he was
remarked for the instrucUve tendency of his ob-
servations ; and uniformly regarded, by all who
knew him, widi general estimation. In June,
1801, he took his degree, having chosen for the'
snbjact of h? thesis, Hasmorrheea Petecktalis,
which was treated witi great ability, and entirety
his own composiiion, 4 circumstance highly cre-
ditable to his diUgence and his scholarship ; and
which is the more deserving of notice, as medical
theses are very seldom the genuine [wodnction of
tile reputed author, but foi^d in some private
manufactory, where latinity, and other necessary
fomishings, are sold to the aspiring graduate ; by
which ignorance is often eaabled to deck itself in^
neretricions honours, and to pnrrJiaae B reputa-
tion it has never earned.

Dr Bateman had now completed every part of
his preparatory education ; leaving a very favour-
able impression of his talents on the minds both
of his professors and his feUow-studeats. From


<?Tn7 Bdioal he had attaided, he earned awfty ril
tbe benefits tbey contd comimaiicste. Me had
wasted neither time nor money, health nor lalenta ;
.and WBB ready for his vocation, with all the acconi'
plishinenta and advantages enential to his art.
Immediately on qnitting Edinburgh, be settled in
Ixmdon for piactice ; and was admitted a licen-
itiata of the Royal College of PhymctanB, in 1805.
He entered at tha Public Diapensary, as a pnpil
under th Willas, where his aaiiduity soon led to
Joi appointment sa as^atant physician ; and sub-
aeqnently to Ids becoming a colleague in thestuoe
?iatitation, in 1801. He was the tame year elected
Phy^dan to the Fever Institnticai, or House of

In these offices, which he held for many years,
iliis ardonr was unabated ; and he discharged, so
ioog as hia health enabled htm, their nnmerone du-
ties, witbont any assistance. In e^iending his
time, be was very economical ; and as he still re-
tained bia studious habile, be soon became a con-
iiibntor by bis pen to the diHiuion of medicd
Icnowledge. Hia Dispensary Beports, in the Edin-
bnt^h Medical and Sui^cal Joomal, first intro-
doced him to the public as a writer. To the es>
tablishment of that Pmodical, be had given very
efficient support, having been for some time its
joint editot'. Anf>tlier of his early c^mmnnicationa
to that Journal, was an account of tiie Fever In-
titntioD. ISeveral other articles of his, sdentific
and critical, which he contribated from time to
time, may be fotind by conanlting the index of
that woi^ He wrote also most of tbe medical
articles, ea veil as moat of the profes^onal bio-
grs{4iiM, in Dl Reea's Cyclopedia. He composed


with gnat florae}', yet (rith Httle neeemtj of i^
vinoR or cmt?ction.

Daring all the yean of his Isborioiu Btndiee, he
ttevM allowed himself to relax. He was indeed
fond of society, and of ila ordinary emnaemeiits ;
he was also an amatenr in mnsic ; and an adniinc
of poetry and works of imagination. These hei^
enjoyed in their tiim,mth a pecnliar relish and rifa-
city. Fewwerebetterqualifiedthanhe, to enjoy the
pleasnree which could be snatched from Hnc)i books
as administer to a pure and cultivated taste. He
had grown ap In the lore of nature, and his early
botanical pursuits bad helped to confirm it into a
babit. Bnt hia mind and heart were t?o full of
their proper buunees, to be engrossed or oqitiTBted
byanyminor concerns; which were never allowed
to encroach on his studies, farther than as means of
recreation. In piirate practice, aa well as in the
public institutions, with which he was connectet^
iiis conduct was uniformly deserving of pniae.
Neither plessure nor interest could ever wiUidnw
him from the padt of his duty ; and this firmnesa
of purpose being tempered by good sense, and s
kindly dispoution, it acquired for him a propor-
tionate weight in die estimation of his professicmal

His advances, however, to the more profitabls
employments of his art were slow, as wilt gene-
rally be the case, where talent, eren the beet Bsd
most persevering, has to make its own tmasMated
way. In 1811, on Dr Willsn's absence, be be-
came the principal authority on all questions re-
lating to afiiections of the skin. In this depart-
ment, his practice was gradually productive of
mwe emolument, whilst his g^ieml rapntatitn


was beGoming mora uid more etl?B(led by the
confidence which the medical world reposed in hia
thiMty and integrity. The diednctioii he had
gained aa a writer, and a Rkiliiil practitioner in cn-
laneoHB diaeases, was well conbined by the appear-
ance of hia Synopsia in 1813, a work which
justly entitled bim to an eminence no one had en-
joyed beforei in that particnlardepaitmeDt of prac-
tice. As fame trarela fast, eeperaaliy when it car*
ties improvement in knowledge the Synopsis was
speedily translated into the French, German, and
Ibdian langnages ; and among other pleasing in-
stances of approbation with which the author was
gratified, was one from a very high quarl?r. The
EmpertH: of Riisda condescended to request, by
letter, that copies of Dr Bateman'a books migbt
be sent him by the hands of the Imperial AmtHw-
sador in London ; and on the command being Ad-
filled, a ring of a himdred guineas' value was con-
veyed to the author, with tax intimation, that any
works he might write in future, should be tra^s-
mittad in -like manner to St Petersburg.

These incessant occupations wore down a frame
originslly delicate ; and in 1815, his health began
to giro way. To derangement of the digestive
fiisctiona, and snccessive attacks of periodic head-
ach, was superadded a gradual failure of the sight
of his right eye, supposed to be occasioned by bis
unremitted application to making coloured draw-
ings of diseases of the skin ; and as vision in the
left eye was also to a certain d^;ree affected, it
was resolved to have recourse to mercury. But
it soon became necessuy to abandon this course,
on account of the distressinK train of symptoms
whuh ensued, and of which ne publi^eu himself


? my intereMang sketch, is the 9tli toI. of dte
Medico-Chintrgica] Trtunactiaiu. As he was ia-
cajtable of niidei^;<rii3ig fotigue, he conid Dot &ope
to <l?ire much benefit from exerdee ; yet could
he have been prevailed on to retire a few aaiei
into the covntry, and spend some time in entire
rest from his Isbours, there ia every probability hia
jife might bare be?i prolonged. But an epidemic
fever had then (1817) b^;un in London, and Ina
zeal mu not to be fM^ained. He reConunenced
Ilia attendance at the FevM Imrtittttion, and fat
nearly a year, he spent above two hours d^ly ia
the wards of that Hospital ; having in course of
that time, bad the care of alHnit 700 patients. Snch
was hie anxiety to watch the progress of tlris ?ii-
demic, that nothing could indnce him to remit his
exerttoBB, until all the oiicers and most of the at-
tendants had suffered from the contagion.

His strength proving aneqad to the labosr* of
his office, he reidgited his post of Physician to the
Fever Institution, and was in consequence t^-
pointed consulting I^ymcian. But though re-
lieved from the more urgent of his public datieai
and at leisure to devote more attention to his
health, and more time to relaxation, he received
little bwie6t from this change in his circumstances.
In the smnmer of 1819, he left London, for York<
ehire, in the hope of deriving advantage from the
minra^ waters ; when the increase of his distemper
determined him to resign his appointment at tbs
iPublic Dispensary, and to forego all thought of re-
turning to practice in the metropolis. His bealA
Gontinnml for some time vaiiable; and he suffered
nnch trom a pn^ressire silecIJon of '^e digestive
ea^aao, accompanied wilb great oshauatJon irf


Mrength, and on iiritability of nervous feeing, in-
conceiTsbly punful and distressing.

It was at this time, and under these dccnm-
Btancea, that be first torned his mind to the sub-
ject of reli^on, B anbject which he had never
examined with any care; partly from want of op*
portnoity, and partly bom a sceptical bias which
nti had contracted in cowm of his profesaion.
This unb^>py tendency manifested itself dnriog
the period of hia anatomical and physiological stn-
diea at Edinburgh, which strongly inclined him to
the doctrine of Materialism, a system which
mainlainB that the mental fandties aie the resntt of
corponal org?)ii3ation,~llLat the sold of man is ma-
lerial, commencing and terminating with hia mortal
existence. These principles were afterwards con-
firmed, or at least incraaaed by the society which
lie fell into, of some men of cmwiderabte talent,
who had already espoused these pemidona doc-
trines. * Though never able decidedly to embrace
these opinitms himself^ he was yet HutBciently in-
fluenced by them, to become sceptical respecting

* Bendei Dr Bitcnuui, tlicre are instincea of othenin
the medical profesaioa, entangling themBelyes in (he toils
of phtloiopbicnl scEpticieoi ; and sflerwards making
public rwantfltion of iheir errors. Dr Oliver, an cmi-
oeni physician al Bath ; Dr Oliel; of Nortbampton, au-
thor of a book, called " Pyrol(^," in which he denied
the moral aovernment of God, and Ibe immortalilv of
the soul ; Dr Vanderkemp. a Dutch physician, who, like
Wilson, from an inidel became a lealous missionary;
are nil elamplei of rerormed sceptic*; and might, triA
propriety, have been anseied lo Ihs present Election ;
bui as ihey eibibit only different reaturei of the *ame
principle ; it has been thought unnecessary to enter into
nny further details, or make repetitions, which might
piore tiresome rather than agreeable or inslnicliTe.


the tnitb of dirine rerelatiaii ; and lived, io cmw-
qnence, a etraoger to the hopes, aa well as negli-
gent of the duties of Christianity.

Amidst the zeal and induatry with which he had
eootinned his porsnila of science and Uteratnra, he
bad contrived to mix with Ua severer studies, so
hmg as his health penuitted, a large portion of the
disupatians of gay society, of which die enei^ of
his mind and feelings, rendered him nnconunonly
BQsceptible. He always retained a high sense of
hononr, and was strictly careAil to avoid, in all his
conduct, every thing tiuit the world esteems dis-
creditable ; but of the principles of morality as lud
down in the gospel, he had yet no conception ;
and this defectiveness in his moral views, led him
to a total indifference and neglect of all relig^ona
dntiea. His good-breeding restrained him from
making a display of his opinions ; and some of his
most intimate friends never heard him express a
ungle sceptical sentiment. He never spoke of
sat^^ things, or serions characters, with levity ;
and in whatever company he might hear them
treated irreverently, his own tongue was not known
to join in the licence. On the contrary, auch lan-
guage always evidently gave him offence, and hurt
his feelings. Neither did he make unbelief a plea
for immorality, or indecomm of any kind. But
with all these spet^us, and even amiable qnslitiee,
he was obviously wrong in his religions belief, and
had formed his Ufa after a very meagre and un-
sound system of morality.

It was in April 1820, dtat he first spoke to an
intimate acqnuntance on the subject of rel^ion.
He was labouring nnder extreme languor, and had
e^^ressed his conviction that be could not live

EMAN 209

much longer ; but added he, " all these sofltrings
are a juat punishment fcff my Bcepticiem, and ne-
glect of God and religion." This led to a conver-
sation, in coniHe of which he blamed the tendency
ot hia profewional studies for mialeadinc him ; al-
though he concHired m the opmion of his friend,
that the evil lay rather in his never having exa-
mined the eviilenceB for the tmth of the Bible^
aa an actual revelation Irom God ; and observed,
fhnt lie had intended to inquire fully into the mat-
ter, when the oomplmnt in his eyes came on, and
dint him out from reading. Meantime, Scott's
" Essays on some of the m??t Important Subjects
in Religion," were reed to him ; Kod tioA appeared
to produce a veiy snrprising effect on bis mind.
He listened wiUi intense earnestness, and when
the fii?t Essay was concluded, he exclaimed, " this
iB demoiubvtimi ! complete demonstration I" He
theii wished to bear the account given by the
Evang?liatB, of the resurrection of Christ, which
was I'ead to him ; besides many other pass^es of
acred writ ; with swne of wlricb be was particu-
larly struck.

For several days, be shewed mcreasing interest
Ml the subject of religion ; and bad portions of
Scriptu?, and other books, conunuallv read to
Inm ; which totally altered his views and senu-
ments. " It is impossible to describe," (scud he),
" the ehange which has taken place in my mind ;
I feel as if a new world was opened to me. All
the int?rest8 and parsnits of this, have faded into
nothing, in comparison widi it. They seem so
mean, and pahry, and insignificant, that my blind-
ness in living so long immersed in them, and de-
voted to them, is quite inconceivable and astonish-


inff to myself." Heoiienexpre?ed,mdieBtrongeBt
tome, and wilb many Kara, hia deep repentance)
and Ilia abboirence of himself for his fwmer unfol
tife, and rebellion against God ; but be seemed,
from the first, to hare so clear a view of the sll-
snffidency of tfae atonement, and of the Christian
adieme <^ aalTatioii, as &eed him at once from that
distmst which is bo apt to afflict pemtents, on a
fint conviction of their tins.

Hie only subject which created in him mnch on-
eaunees, and seemed to stagger his tatth, was die
miracles recorded in the New Testament. These
donbts, howerer, it is obTioos, were rather the
cfiects of a momentary feeling, ttian of reastnung
or reEection, and more property temptations to
nnbelief, than unbehef itself; and in diis U^t ba
himself considered Uiem. He felt mnch r^ef in
the exercise of prayer, in which he sometimes spent
whole nights, till at length his mistrnst and ^pre-
lieauans entirely subsided ; and lefi him satisfied
on all those points which had presented so many
obstacles to his mind. HsTiiLg recovered hia
strength in course of the summer, he still mani-
fested an eqnsl regard for the suUect that most
dee[dy concerned him. The andity vrith 'criiiclt
he listened to the word of God, bis eagemeea to
att?nd public worship, the change whitJi had
taken place in his tastes, inclinations, and puratuts,
all testified that he was indeed " bron^t oat of
darkness into marrelloiu light." His leisure time
ma wholly devoted to religious reading ; for every
odier subject had now become insipid and unin-
teresting to him ; evrai the paramts of science,
wfaidi bad engrossed so much of his attention.


In ooDtnnting, as he often did, Lis present
htf^nness with aU tlut he had formerly eojoyed,
and called happineea, he acemed at a Iobb to find
worda to ezprcEM how poor, and mean, and detpi-
cable, all earthly gratiScatioas ^peared to him,
oempared with that peace and joy in belieTJng;
which, as be sometimes said, tan tnousBod worlds
would not tempt him to put with. In reflecting
on hia past life, the only thing that gave bun any
satiaiactian, was the hope that hie labours might
have been beneficial to his fellow-creatm?B ; for
whom his charity had now become unbounded.
The blessing of his conversion, he used to remark,
was nerec ont of his mind, day or night ; that it
was a theme of peipetoal thank^ving ; and that
be never awoke m uie night withoat being over-
whelmed with joy anil gratitade at the recolleo-
^n of it.

He bore his bodily afflictions with the most ex*
emplaiy patience, and even dieerAilDess ; regarding
them BB instramental in bringing him to God ; and
that hie almost total blindiuNS, by shotting ont ex-
ternal objects, had left him to devote bis mind
more entuely to spiiitnal things. His &CDltieB,
natorally active and ardent, retained their powers
, in iiill vigonr to the hut moment of hia life ; and
were never once clouded or debilitnted, even in hia
moet depressing nervoos languors. Indeed, after
the whole cnrrent of hia tastes and affections had
been turned into a new channel, their ardour and
activity rath?: inosaaed than diminished, facts
that might have served to lefnte hia beiief in ma-
teiialiani, a system which teaches that mind and
body grow up, decay, and peddi together. Du-
ring the last week of his existence especdaliy, (fa*


Strength and clesrneaa of hm btettect, and of lua
i^nritnal perceptions, were very Temorkable ; aod
?ii some oDfr observing to him, that as his bodily
powent delayed, tboee of bis sonl seemed to be-
come mOTe TigOTons, he replied, " They do, ex*
Bcdy in an inverse ratio. I have been veiy Ben->
rible of it." He convereed with great anima^n,
chiefly on the joya of heaven, and the gloiioni-
change he was soon to experience ; til) within half-'
an-honr of his death, which took place on the 9th
of April, 18SI ; exactly twelve months after his at-
tention had fiiat been awakened to die subject of

The coareruiHi of Dr Bateman, an4 the circnm^-
tancee nnder whii^ it was eKcted, gave rise t6
certMB objections on the part of some of his
friends, as to the pn^iriety ot detuling his scepti-
cism, and the process by which his mind was
brought over to a settled aad. lively futh. llierfr
appean, however, not to be the slightest gronnd
t? call in quesdoD either the manner, or the redity
of his duuige. That his mind became more b?s-
ceptible of the impresUMia of religion, through the
inflnence of mfferii^[B and bodily afBic^oas, is a
bet that need not be cwicealed ; and so for timn
being any objection, is on the contrary a ^m?
eoD&mation of many of the dedaiatioDs of Scrqt-
ture, as well as oi common experience; diat dis-
troBsea end disappoistmoitB aj? often necemary
to open mens' eyes to the delosoonB of the world ;
ad to compel them to look for higher sounds of
^Mification, than in the puisnit or enjoyment of
terrestrial things ; and surely it can bring no dis-
credit on the gospel, that it affords its believers
Mace and consolation, when all other resources
liave fiuled them.


What inflnence die morbid state of his nervona
MnBi^oDi may have had on bis moral or religiom
feelings, it would perhaps be difficult to ascertwD.
Theywereattimes, extremelj' harassing; and over-
whelmed hia mind occa?ODatly with gtoondleaa
^prehensions. Bnt ihoogh this was the case when
be received his first impressions of dirine imOt,
he did not alwa^ continue under these depressing
and gloomy inflaences. For the last year of his
life, tie devoted all iJie powers of hia vigoroos in-
tellect and discnminating judgment, to the iaves-
tigodon of religion ; examining it with the same
caution and minuteness, as he would have done
any other Jcience ; and with an ardoor increased,
not so much by die novelty of the pursuit, as by
the conviction which struck him, more and more
forcibly at every step, as light and knowledge in-
creased, of the paramount value and infinite im-
portance of the subject That the natural fiEtcul-
tiea of bia mind were not, ja the least, weakened
or impcured, was ^parent to all who converted or
corresponded with him ; and with regard to his pro-
feBsioD,he never practised it with more acut?ness and
zeal, than during the last winter of his existence.

The genuineness and sincerity of his conver-
aioD, be himself evinced, by realizing the Scrip-
tural sigos of grace and regeneration. Had the
effects of debility and disease produced no other -
change, but in the state of his feelmgs, the altera-
tion would have been very unimportant ; and, most
likely, had prored as variable and transitory, as
the capricious sensibilities which gave it birth.
But tbe change that took place ia his conduct and
diapositiona, was quite as obvious as that which
sfiected his feelinga and views. Vices which before

ht had tolerated, be now al^rred, reli^ona duties
which he had entirely neglected, were pnitcdially
attended to, and tha aoc'iety of his uabeUenng
companioiu, exchaaged for those of an opposite
character. The natnral siraplidty and int^;rity,
fw which he was so remarkable, remained anal'
tered in the great reTolntioD that took place in bis
principles and habita. He went into no en^gera-
tion of feeling, or excesees oS enthnsiaem. The so-
briety of his temperament, and the souDdnesa of
his trnderstaoding, are quite enoi^h to silence any
nspicions that would attribute the sacred inflnenee
of religion on his mind, to the errors of an intet->
lect impaired by disease and suffering ; ortothoae-
flights of spiritiul ecstasy, which are sometimes in-
dulged, withont any just conception of their natBTB-
and origin.

He expressed, indeed, in the strongest langnagei
dte saperiority of the pleasures be drew from de-
TOtios, to sach as arise from worldly gratifications ;
and in thi? it will be allowed, he was cmnpetent
to judge, as he had experienced both, and contd
Aerefore appreciate thar value, and decide upoa
their reality. And it afaould be remembered, that
tbis was not Ae evidence of a mail disappointed
in his worldly parsuits ; he had been crowned witb
success in the path he had chosen, and had earned
a -reward suJficieDtly flattering to literary ambi-
tion, be had been keenly susceptible of intellec-^
tual delimits ; and of these, as well as of all infe-
rior amusemente, he enjoyed more than a com-
mon portion. But when the only object that can
satisfy tbe affections, and fill the capacities of a
ntionol beii^, were revealed to him ; when lifer
nd imaiorttdity were brougiit to light, earthly


fane, and honcmr, and pleasure, dvindled into

It WW not tlie &nlt of his jad^ment, that he so
Itmg remained in ignorance of those important
truths, whieh at last brought eath effectuat con-
rictioa to bis mind ; for he hod long seen the ne^
?e8Mty of Inqniring into their evidences, and was
determined, at some time <?- other, to enter npob
it ; had ho not been prevented by the loss ?r his
ei^t. The c*ii?e waa to be fonnd rather in the
perrersioq of his Sections, which were entirely
devoted to other objects ; and it requires but
slight obeervBtioa to be convinced how little, in
gweral, the judgment influences the condact, if
it be powerfully apposed by inclination. In most
cases of scepticism, the heart and will require to
be first set right ; if this is done, the nnderstand-
iog will follow ; and difficulties that appeared in-
wmnountahle, will vanish withont explanation,
litongh ^ey still remain ss nnanswersble sa be-
fore, 'nris wsa remarkably the case with Df
Bateman. Those pbiloeophlcal objections ta
wMch be had previously been sccnstomed to re-
cur, appear never to have disquieted his thoughts
EUTter his conveiwon, althOn^ they had received
no satisfactory solntion, and perhaps never wilL

This speedy and effectual tiiumph over all hia
doubts, forms a peculiar featnre in hia bislory. But
the ^Bpensslions of mercy are as various as ike
different characten of men ; and these are always
a^usted rad proportioned to each other, widi iikfinite
wisdom and tenderness. Where the time is li-
mited, its operationa are the more quick and power-
fnl ; for M in the natural world, God in his profi'
dence has ordered, that where the i


^oit, thwe vegetation aball be rapid ; ao is tEw
kingdom of grace, the Snn of Righteonaneea, hay-
ing bot % lit^e while to ahine, die seeds ehMt ra-
pidly, and the fruits ripen fast. Few who consi-
der the whole orcumBtancee of the ease, will be
disposed to ascribe the remarkable dumge that
took place in the mind of this eminent phymuan,
to imbecility or enthusiasm. In the most rational
and most satisbctory sense, his conversion vaa
complete. Mis belief was not a phUosophical per-
suasion that there may be t, life to come ; it was ?
firm and solemn possession of hia whole bean and
soul, with the truths and promises of the gospel.

In point of ioddent, Di Bateman's life is not
eventAil. It was spent in the constant routine and
study of a useful profession. By his medical
friends, and hia actjuuntance b general, be was
uniformly held in high regard. It WBs not the ad-
miration of talent akine, that Hnstained so perma-
nent and so strone a feeling. They knew Uke-
wise, and valued the sincere and steady sentiments
of attachment, by which be whs himself actuated.
In the ordinary intercourse of sodety, his varied
attainments, and umplidty of manner, rendered
him an acceptable companion ; although the ex-
treme reserve of his chaiacter, gave an air of cold-
ness and indifference to )iia deportmmt, very fo-
reign to the tme state of his feelings. His whole
demeanour was plain, and without pretensions ;
and his miimpeaiJiable int?grity formed a solid
ground for that confidence, on which alone intimate
and stable friendships can satisfactorily rest. The
estimation in which his services were held at the
benevolent institntionB to which they were dedi-
cated, was tmtified by repeated votes of thanks ;


the compliinenta of which he well merited. The
testimonies of reapect from the friends and cmn-
psnions of his etndies, were wami and earnest ;
and since his death, tlielangiuige of affectionate re-
collection in wiiich bia name luis been mentioned,
is hi^ly honourable to bis profearioual character.
As a wiiur, he was remarkable for the clear-
ness and unaffected style of his compotntdons ; and
for the paww whiidi be possessed of discriminating
tmtfa, amidst the perplexities of confficdng opi-
luons. Hie worics which he published in a dis-
tinct form, ^^re, " A PracUcal Synopsis of Cn-
taneons Diseases ;" " Delineation of the Catan?oiis
Diseases, comprised in the Classification of Dr
Willan;" " Reports ontbe Diseases of London, &c
tmm 1801 to 1816;" and " A Succinct Account
(rf the Contagions Fever of this Country." The
Tslue of tbese publications baa been folly proTed,
bv the reception given tbem by the medical world.
They are monnments of the unwearied assiduity
with which the author pursued his studies ; and
ijiey are distbgnished not only by acute and es-
tensire observation, but by a spirit of active and
enlai^ed benevolence. Tliougn interrapted in the
middle of his career, snd prematurely removed
from his sphere of usefulness, Dr Bfdeman had
done much {<a the durable benefit of his profe*-
, and earned for himself the universal repnts-
of a sound scholar, and an accomplished phy-
n ; and 'iriiat is not less creditable to bis me-
mory, of a ?rm believer in the truth ot religion.



'Hallbr h one of tlioae distiognsbed literary chs-
tafUm, who hare been not more iUnstriotw in tho
republic of lettera, than TenflraUe M the adroortes
and the ornaments of religion ftnd Tirtue. The
miniber and variety of hia labonra, hvre rendered
bis fame nniTersal ; and such tras the rersstilitr
of hia genina, and ibe indefatigable activity of hia
labitH, that be has gathered lam?ls of unfiiding re-
nown in ahnoet every region of natural and moral
Bdence. Botany, anatomy, fhyaology, meta-
pbysics, mathematics, history ancient and iiiodeni,
poetry, politics, ethics, and Geology, Were aQ em-
braced within die comprebenuve range of hia stn-
^es, and received valuable contributions (todI bn
pen. His tast eradition, and his nnboutided in-
dustry, could otdy be equ^ed by h'- "? '
% and his singular modesty.

' it striking corroborai


Irttrd Bacon B asBertion, tbat while a Uttle philo?o-
phy indinra the mind to Atheism, a great deal
br!ag? it back to rel^on. In early life, " he had
his doabta," as be himself expresses It ; and ?W
nbeatiefied with some of the doetrines and evt-
dences of the Cbristian revelation ; but these
scmples were dispelled by a more piofotmd in-
ught into the works of nature, on the one hand,
and an impartial examination of the Sacred Oracles

on the other. like Newton and Boyle, ia pro-
portion SB he explored with anccen the mysteriea
and wondera of creation, he felt hie breast wanned
vitb derotton to ha great Anlfaor and Govemor.
In an age when ao many iUiutrionB men proMi-
tnted their talents and their tame, in makiog nn-
|irovoked atticka on reli(^on, be etanda a aplendid
and hononiable exception ; and fimishes ? most
memorHble instance of learning and philosophy,
lending their combined aaeiatance to the canae of
rerelatioD, instead of being misemployed inaapporW
iog sceptical teneta by arUiil and pemiciona st^Ja-
tnea. In the itmcture and &dinc of the material
aniTerse, be never failed to trace the vinble foot-
ateps of its dinne Architect, to discoTer mora
ccHirincbig tokens of his existwce, and bnghter
apprehensiona of his Utuhntes. Hie world waa
both his Ubrary and bis oratory, a Voltiine which
be found every where replete with the lessons ?r
piety and wisdom. Scarcely an ohjecl could pre-
Bent itself to bn inquisitive eye, from which he did
not draw useful and innoceiH instruction, ?r atnke
some spark of celeatial fire to kindle and cherish
his devotion. How applicable to him is the lan-
ffuage of the great lather of mdnctive phiknophy,
in one of lus addresses to the Deity : " lliy
creBtaree have been my booka, but thy Scrip-
tNTee much more. I hare sovght thee in the
Gourta, fields, and gardens ; but I have found thee
in thy teroplea." Hieae impreasiona and senti-
nenls in &vonr of revealed religion, he used every
endeavour to commnnicate and impart to otheia,
not only in bis works, but by his example ; for hit
general character was not more an ornament to
science, than to fatunan nature ; and may be coDsi-


HereA aa able a defence of Chnstiaidty, as Mb writ-

Albert von Haller, was bom at Beme, in
Switzerland, on the 16th of October, 170S. His
fadier, a native of that place, followed the profes-
sion of an advocate, or barrister ; in which be rose
to very considerable eminence in his native city ;
and in 1713, was appointed Chancellor of the
Canton of Baden. Albert was the yonngeet of
five brothers. He was a prodigy of early genius;
and displayed a prematurity of talents and appli-
cstion,aBeitraordinary Bsanyiiponrecord. Wlieri
he had scarcely attained his fifth year, he repeated
passages of Scripture ; and was accustomed to
write in alphabetical order, all the new words
which he recollected to have heard In course of the
day. His prioress in the lan^^u^es was ao rapid,
diat in his tenth year, he coald translate with faci-
lity from Latin and Greek ; and compiled for his
own use a Chaldaic Grammar, and a Greek and
Hebrew Lexicon. Such was hia capacity and hia
ardent passion for general literatnre, even at this
juvenile period, that ho is sud to have abridged,
from Bayle and Moreri, en historical dicUonary,
comprising above two thousand lives.

At the same ^e, he composed Latin verses,
the excellence of which astoidshed his teachers.
the most remarkable of these was a satirical poem,
in Latin, iu which he ridiculed liis preceptor, Abra-
bant Baillodz, a person of considei'able learning,
but of a capricious and morose disposition ; and So
barsh and rigorous in his discipline, that the sight
of him ever after excited in Haller the nfost pain-
fvi recoUectioDB. His early inclination for poe?y


and the Belles heUree, pvticulHrly disjleaKi) liis
falilier, m tpt to dnw him ?way from tlie Heverer
study of the law, to which be had deatioed bim ;
but no remonstrance or tidiiM?utiou conld coa&ie
Ua paranits to ene oljec^ or check hia inaatiaUe
deeire for geaarel uiCwmatian.

In 17S1, bM fAtber (yeal; a loss wluch left him
in a grtaA measiuie destitute oi the resoiu'ces of
fortune. He wu then remoted from private tni-
IMD, to &e pnbltc school at tierae, and placed in
a cla?s far beyond his age. There he eihitMted
msnyqtecimenaof nBcamiB(?abHitieB. Heniually
wrote in Greek the exercise which be waa reqiured
to compoae ia Latui ; and his BBnalatioos were
Moetitnea so excellent, aa to attract the surprise
(tf the professors. In 1723, he was placed nnder the
eare of Dr Newhains, a c^bralied physiciaB at
Biewie, wheae sod wh one of bia w^oot com^
luetM. By hkn he was iiuOncted in the elements
?f philosepby ; and here he first iminbed a taste for
ne&>iDe. Bnt his new preceptor being a disciple
of Uie Carteaion school, Haller soon rejected intb
disdidn Aose doctrines, iriiich tended to fetter hia
genius, rather than extend his knowledge; and
eontinned to oiltiyate history, poetry, and polita
Hteratnra ; bnt with as little order and method, as
mi^t be expected jrom bia years and habits.

He compared Uraself, at ^tis period of his life^
lo a wild plwt, which is left to grow withont pran-
iog ; yet tins TBiy cHcumstanee was probably tha
principal CMwe of hia fiitipa proficieacy, and thf
fonndniioii ot that wiirersal knowledge which he
siWwards acquired. It waa here he began tike cus-
tom, wUfh he never omitted, (tf writing his t^inion
?f the boeki be paused ; and oaking large exlotcta



from tbem. The romantic scenery, and nat?i?)
beauties of the place, awakened or rather inflamed
his poetictd enthnnsam, and jirodnced a variety of

KC88 chiefly in German verse. Tbongti but in
mxteentb year, be bad written tragediea, come-
dies, and even an epic poem of four tbooaand lines,'
in imitation of Virgil. Tbe Muse was his &Ton-
rite Btndy, and m> entirely waa he abstwbed in it,'
that the honse in which he lived having cangfat
fire, he nuhed into his apartment, and reacned bis
poetry ; leaving hie other papers, with little r^ret,'
to tbe flames. Yet in a uiort time after, when bis'
taste was more matured, those verses which he bad
saved at tbe hazard of bis life, and admired as
the finest productions of hnman genius, were by
his ovm hand consigned to the same devouring ele^
ment, as unworthy of his pen, and written in too
satirical a strwn. From this &te, such only were
exempted as he thought might attest his poetical
talents, without reproaching tbe goodness of bis
heart ; end some of his pieces at this time, which
were afterwards pablished in the German language,
were read and admired by the whole empire.

Having abandoned the law, as a profeenon
which would have circumscribed tbe freedom of
hie inquiries, and which depended entirely upon
precedent and authority, he resolved to devote
himself to physic; the study of which comprehends
such a variety of literary pursuits, and seemed to
KEford wider scope to the zeal and activity of his
capacious mind. With this determination, be
removed to the University of Tubingen, towards
tlte end of 1723. Hia studies, which bad hitherto
been desultory and unfixed, he now pursued on a
fnore regular and methodical plan, and with his



usual Bidoor, under the professora CsunenrinsaiiJ
Dnrmioy. The former mstracted him in thoM
Bonnd principles of rBtional philosophy, whou cha-
racteristic tenet is first to (loabt, and then to be-
lieve ; and which are equally remote from credo-'
lity end tcepticisni. From die prelections of Dn-
renioy, he first contacted a taste for botany ; and
acquired the rudiments of that science, the baan-
daries of which he afierwards so greatly enla:^;ed.
Under the same master, he studied anatomy, in
which his prioress was so rapid, as to draw from
his t?acher, predictions o! his future pre-eminence.
It may be remarked, as a cnrions instance how fiu*
zeal for knowledge will snrmoiuit obstacles and
impediments in its way, that notwithatanding his
strong and invariable attachment to these sciences,
he represents himself as prosecuting them, as it
werei contrary to nature,^-<uiatomy, although he
could not endure cadavnoua smells ; and botany,
though he was extremely sfaort-eig^ited.

During his residence at Tubingen, he exh9>ited
a proof of his knowledge in mineral*^, by refnt;
ing the error of Tumefort, in ascribuig to fossils
a v^etative power. Another display of his ta-
lents, and tile first of his public exhibitions, waa
the refutation of a claim advanced by Coechwits,
a physician at Berlin, to the discovery of two sa-
livary duds, which Haller showed to be two
vebs. The natural anxiety of mmd which this
appearance in public created, having awaked him
early in the morning, he walked out of the town,
and waa so charmed with the sweetness of the air,
and the beauties of the country, tbat he composed
(m the spot, his Ode to the Morning. Here also
he gave an example of control orer the passions,



wlucli may be cmaidered u race und lUfGcnlt i?
a ytnug tUHi of vigMOOB benltb, and lirely inu^
natm. His soool Aspowtkni, and Ae enticement
of hi* companions, banng in some c4?Tirial party
betnyed him into an act of inUmperance ; this
ditaiy deviation into exceea so strongly imprewMl
kia mind, equally enamoniBd <rf rirtne, and sna-
ceplible of ingenuwis ah^ae, Aat be wtautly
fanned a resolution t* ^stain frtmi wine in ta-
tnre, and adopted a strictDBM of monls, from which
beneT?r dejMtted.

In 1725, HbIIn repaired to Leydm, attracted
by the great celehtity of the iUostrions Boeiba?ve>
Here he fovnd a more ample field for tbe iEoproTO^
vent of his nnnd, and the diH^y ai Ins abdltiea.
He aoon anested tbe attention, and became tho
bvonrite scbokr of Boeibaave; whose example
and enoovragemeut liistered his growing predilec-
tion for botany ; wbile the academic garden, then
one of the ikbeat in Europe, sapplied abundant
materials to gratify his passioii. He noted down
' Ihb msater's Lectures ?n the InetitnteB of Medi-
taste, widdt afterwards fnnusbed matenals for one'
<rf his moat naefiil publications. The impressioB
9i this diatingiiiahed professor nerer left tia me-
morv. In one of hie Letters to his dai^^ter, writ-
tm m his old age, ha adrerts with feeling to the
antgecU " Fifty years bare almoHt ekoKd ainc?
I was tbe disciple of tbe immortal Boeibaave ; but
his image is -continnally present to niy mind. I
have always before my eye? tbe venerable aimpU-
dty of that great man, who possessed, in an emi*
neat degree, tbe talent of pennading. How mai^
times bath he sai<l, when speidung of tbe precepts
of oar Saviosr, ' That this Divine Teacher knew



mankiDd better than SocrateB.' " Besides tLia great
man, Hatler profited by the instractions of other
able DiaaterB. He prosecuted bis anatomical studies
nader Albinus, then rising inh) fame ; and the voiie'
table Ruysch, who had carried to great perfection
the art of injecting anatomical preparations ; and
whose superb moseum at Amsterdam, Holler of-
tearisited with enthusiasm. The precarious state of
his health, at this time, induced uimtoaccompany
two of his conntrymen, on a tour through part
of Germany. But be soon returned, and tcofc
his degree of Doctor of Medicine, though then
only in his nineteenth year. Tlie subject of his
thesis was on the Salivary Duct of Coechwitz
which lie published on the occa^on.

In 1737, he visited England, where he waa far
vonrably received by Cbeselden, Douglas, and Sir
Hans Sloane ; and under the auspices of these
eminent men, he improved hia knowledge of me-
dicine end surgery. His stay was shoit, but he
formed A permanent fiiendship with severHl dia-
tinguiahed characters. His insatiable ardour, next
carried him to Paris. Here he studied botany
under Geofiroy and Jussieu ; and anatomy under
tie Dran and Winslow : the latter of whom was
his fovourite master ; as he was shackled by no
system, but described simply and faithfully what
he himself observed in hia dissections. Paris af-
forded him an ample field for prosecnting his surgi-
cal operations, and he would gladly have protracted
his visit ; bpt, unluckily, one of his neighbours
whom his private dissections had incommoded,
denounced nim to the minister of police ; in con-
?eqnence of which, he was obliged to remiun iw



His inteDtioa was next to trav^ to Italy, vrhei^
nedical knowledge firHt revived after the barbariBin
tf the dark ages. There lie thougtit he mi^t in-
dnlge his eQ^tunaain, and itaprove his taste in,
classical litentnre ; but the passion of home, the
aatioDal malady of the Siviss, prerailed over his
inclination, and induced him. to retnnt to hia tia-
tiye city. In his way to Berne, he stopped at
Basle, for the purpose of studying maUtematica,
and algebra, xoidtr the hautm B^Miiilli ; and in
tjiese, as in eretf other litwary pvrsuil, he applied
with such nowearied peraeveraoce, as if they were
to form tlie sole object of his futnre reaearcbes.
Of his profidency in these etadies he gave proofe
which astonished his niBter ; Inlt he ^ not ne-
f^ect or discontinue his professional avocations.
He assisted profeSBor Mi^ in his anaUtmical de-
monstrations ; and for a short time filled his chair
with great credit, when he waa disabled by a tem-
porary illneas. He likewise attended the Lec-i
Cures of Tmnger on the practice of medidne ; thus
displaying at wee, and with equal propriety, the
d^jnity of a te*cber and the humility <tf a pupiL

After an absence of nearly six years, spent in
tbe indefatigable leareh of learning Haller re-
turned to B^e ; expecting from his coantrymen
die same respect and patronage be bad so libecally
received abroad. But in this hope he wna disap-
pointed. His vast acquisitiona excited the envy
radier than the admiration of his fellow-citizens ;
aod he had the mortification to experience tb?t
nagtecl, which is too fivqnentiy the only reword of
gmius in its native land. He intended t? [h*c-
tiae raedirana ; Iwt these who were already esti^
liahcd, indnstiionsly de&awd his character, by i?-


BAROH uallbh. 227

presentiiig him m attached to cleloErre ilieoriM ;
and bad even tbe addrew to prerent hia obtaking
Ae appcHDtnient of pbTaidan to an hcwpiul, for
which Im was a candidate. Dnring the mmmer
of 1729, he made as excuruon to the motuttaina
of Switzerland, with the view of collecting plontt ;
Mid thin journey, which be repeated annually, ie
rendered memorsble by its sofgetting to him tbe
idea of his Flora Helvetica.

But it waa not merely aa a botaniK, that be sop-
Teyed these interesting re^oni. The grandeur of
their Bceneiy awakened all hti poetical eDthusiasin;
and inspired bii beautiful poem on the Alps, writ-
ten in his twenty-first year a production m Bub-
time and immortal aa the mountains which are the
subject of his song. A rariety of piecea followed
thii perfrnmance ; be wrote hU Ethic Epiatles ;
*' On the Imperfection of Htunan Virtue ;" " On
Snpereiiljon and Infidelity ;" " On the Origin of
Enl ;" ? On the Vanity of Honour j" &c. These
eflTorto of hia early genius, evince a nngnlar versa-
tility of Udent, and nave gwnedbim a place among
the most distingnished votariee of the German
iniwe ; althon^ be never cotwderod poeby ot^er-
wiae than as an amuement, either to relax his
mind, or to console him for the neglect and de-
ttBctions of his oontemporariea. A collection of
his poems appeared m 1732.

Three yeara be continned at Berne, withont
having interest to ]Hmnu? any public employment
The aatiricd verses in which lu occaeionally gave
vent to his indignation, served rather to dimbi^
than increase the nnmber of bis friends. He soli-
cited a medical professorship, and was repulsed ;
but at length die fame of his abilities indnced the


Governmeiit to establish a Tbestre of ABBtomyi
in which he gave pubHc lectures gratis. The d?>
appointmenta he met with, made a strong impress
sion on his mind ; but instead of sinliiiig him in
despondence, ihey added new springn to his activity, '
and redoubled hia application.

It WBS from ihe monntains of the North, Hut
the first (lews were shed on the opening bndi <^
Haller's celebrity ; for the earliest tribute to his lite^
rary taleiits whs paid by the Royal Society of Up-
8al,whoinlT35,electedliimamember. This mea-
sure, which reflects so much credit on that body
of learned foreigners, seemed to pave the way to
more honontsble and lucrative employments. The
same year, his own countrymen acknowledged
their sense of bis great merit, by appmnting lam
one of the Directors of the Hospital, and Keeper
of the public library. In the former office, he dia-
tingniBhed himself by his zeal and humanity ; and
in the letter, he bestowed great pains in ananging
the books, and forming the first catalogue. Fot thia
charge, he was well qualified, from his extensive ao
quaintmce with biography and civil history ; and
it proved agreeable, by affording opportnnities irf
enriching his comprehensive mind, which grasped
at every branch of literature, though not inune-
diately connected with his pTafession, that pro-
mised either to enlai^ the sphere of his own
knowledge, or'to extend the boundaries of general
science : Finding in the library a collection of
more than five thonsand ancient medals, which bad
hitherto been neglected, be took considerable plsA-
snre in classing, and redudng them to order. His
love of history induced him to pay great attention
to Uie Btudy of medals, n^iich he jusUy coii?dered


3 the moat antbentic docnmenu of biMoncal

tratb, and ^m

the fltctnationB and progreM of language.

His ftaae as a scholar, now began to be more
widalf difio^ed. Vaiions articles of his, in botany,
aaatomyi and mediune, wfaidi were written in La-
tin, were inserted in the Journal of NnremUei^.
. As a practitioner, he met but witli indifferent snc-
?ees;.aiidit is stud, he never had a particular relish
for this branch of his profession, as affecting his sen-
aibitities too macb, which were extremely tender.
.Every year continued to extend his celebrity ; and
in 1736, he received, nosolicited, an offer of the
professor^ips of physic, botany, and surgery, in
the University then newly ealablished by George
IL at Gottiogen. Notwithstanding this offer was
accptopauied with peculiar advantages, and very
.flattering marks of royal approbation, it was not
jkcceptedofwithouthesitatiou and reluctance. His
ttfiectione had become more firmly rooted in hia
native place, where his increasing merits had pro-
cured him many sincere friends ; and the air of
.which he considered as in some reBpects necessary
for the preservation of his health : Besides, he had
other and more endearing ties in a young lady, of
greBf beauty and accomplishments, Marianne Wyss, ,
whom he had espoused in 1731, and who had
brought him a family of three children. Her ami-
able qualities were greatly enhanced, by devotbg
her. time and her talents in the most ^ectionate
Bubeervience to his manner of hFe. On die other
hand, as. a coonlerpoise to these domestic attach-
ments, when he reflected on the honour of being
invited by so great a monarch, the dignity of the
^tablishment to which he was called, and the


drtXnmtancA of Iris bKnag u mora inpl* thettiv
for tlie impntrement of hu knawW(%e; tfceM etm-
Hideratioiia induced him to remove to GtMUmgen.

He quitted Bene with modi ngr&t, wiii<^
eemed & memge of die heavier calnaity thtt
orertook him, on his airival ?t hia mew deftiaatioft,
in the I08B of hi? wife. The caniigs ia iriiidh
the7 trsTelled, h&ving bnAea down in ibe itreets
of Gottingen, wfaicb wen nnpsved, aa the dty had
then Ulen tirom it* aocieiit grandenr into m aWe
of decay ; his bdored Marianne recdred ? nMnKl
injury, and died <ni reaching Ae end of her jow-
ney. He consecrated her memory by a beontilU
and pathetic elegy ; bnt her low afflicted him m>
deeply, that it dmoM bronght him to hi? fpwe.
Stndy alone could dissipate his melaneh<riy. Ha
applied himself with redonbled ardour, and fonad
in it the moat effectttal means to sabdoe his aor-
rows ; while the dnties of hie <^ce, by forci^
him into public life, giadnally drew him off from
the contemplation of his own grief.

For sevente^i yean he discharged the impop>
tant fsncdona of hia profeaamahipa, in a manna-
which reflected equal nononr on himaelf, and on
tke academy to which he belonged. Hia long
career was maited dronghout by a series of re>
eearchea, discoveries, and writings, worthy of tie
highest esteem. Here he bad an ample field for
the exertion of bis gigantic talents ; and the poweia
of his intellect seemed to enrnnd in proportion to
hia enlarged experience, and faia opportnnides of
improrement. Extenaively ecqnantted irith dn
sentiments of othen, respecting tiifl economy of the
Imman body ; struck with the diversity of optniona
which they held ; and scnaiUe that tlie only nMau


of farMliyitiiig trath, m* by caraAil ind cMtdtd
c^oHntHm ; be nadeittxric we vdnons taik of ex-
pkring tbe pheaoaiem* of famiMii nature, fimn the
Oli^ud aonrca. In theae pnmiilH, ba sras no leis
indostrkiBB (ban ?sccaeatiil ; and diere was bardly
My fmictHin of tbe body, on whid> bit experuneota
did not Mfiect ? new or a stronger light.

bt Asm iMeardie* faa did not lebonr aloae.
Tlia?nmide of their precejnor inipired his pnjuk
with the lilw orint of ?^?erimental diacorery ;
Avher, Zinn, Znuwrmas, Csldiani, and im^
' 'i the same pur-
a not only tended
^ ^ of medical science, but
pboad die philoao^y of the human body on a
MOTS mm, and dmoat nttirely new bs?B. It was
Us pnctioe to ancomage Uie mom indnetrioua of
Ua atvdmtta, to take some single inject of the ani-
latl eeonomy fm their illvitratioa, and devote
tbmaeli?a oitiKlyto it. In these e^erimenta
he freqMBtly gKn his asatstaace, having constantly
m Tiew that great lelOTm in physiology, which at
lengA bia writings effected. His active influence
wn ^Dplfmd in ladlitating and enridung know-
lt6g& in all its defHuiments. He obtained &dh
GavemmeDt the HHtitatiBn of a botanicd nrdeK,
wUch he Mperinl?aadad : of ao anatomical theatre ;
aa academy for ifaawii^ ; a school for midwifery ;
and a eoUege for Ae in^irorement of stirgjery. He
fvmed the fJsn of the Royal Society of Sciencea,
?f wIbcIi be was ^potntod perpetoal preeident ;
and edited a Liteiary Review, to which he contri-
btfed abovB 1500 aiticlea, in hietory, medicine, &c.

Gottingcn baa the hoftonr of being the principa]
diestre -af HaUer's profeuwnal lahonrs, as welt aa

?l his literary fame. It ww here Aat many of ]aa
?cieatific pnblications were compUed, and ^loi to
^e world; and one can eoarcely conceive the ra-
pidity with which, in the midat of bo -maay avnca-
tiona, and the triple duties of his office, he con-
trived to compose such a number of works ; aad in
BO many .different departmenta. Botany WW a
subject to which be devoted great attention ; tad
had not the field beeu pre-occnpied by the cele-.
brated Linnteus, be would have stood fereoKMt'
among bis contempwaries, as an improver of the.
science. It was at Basle, aa he has informed ns, that
bia hetborizing enthusiasin was firat awakened.
Inspired, m he says, by the genius of that plact^-
which had nnrtured the Bauhins ; and where, at Uiat
period, this branch of Natural History was sncowi
fully cultivated by Staehlin, he laid Uie originatde-
sign of hia future Flora. The annual jonmeys that
he made into various parts of Switzerland, and es-
pecially among the Alps, greatly increased his ac-
r'sitions. He cultivated a correspondeace with,
most eminent botanists, particularly witli
Scheulzer, Ludwig, linnKus, Van Royen, and
Dr John Geaner of Zuric, who had medit^ed
design to publish a Swiss RtMs, and generonaly
Gommnnicaied to his friend, the mMerials idiidt
he had collected. For Linneus he had a hi^
esteem, but it was rather that of taleot than of
Msndsbip. He never would adopt the seznal or-
^rtifidal system of the Swedish naturalist, but fol-
lowed his own arrangement, which he fotmded on
the natural resemblances and affinities of planla.

At Gotljngeo, Haller continued his botamcal
pursuits with undiminished ardour For this pnr-
poae, he took a journey, in the summer of 1738,


mto iim uoent Hercyaiaii Forest; ?d in tin
fMmnag year, be repested his Swiss tour ; of both
wfatch he ptd>liihed acconcitii. In 174S, bis great
battuical woric, on the Planti of Switzerland, the
resnhoffonneflD yean' study, made its appeaianire,
intno Tolomes folio, vrittenin Latin, and embel-
liabed wiA nnneHnu elegant mgrarings. It was
tbe nMMt cafHom Flora erer published, compming
1840 apeciM ; aad at oace raised him to the first
dam ammg the proficients in diat scieoce. He
gires a chrmologicat account of 2fi8 volnniM cited
in the wotk ; each accompanied by a general cba-
raet?a^ m which he points out the merit or demerit
of tha snthor. Uteae remarka are extremely ose-
fnl and Kitertuning, forming almost a histoty of
tlie science down to his own time. He then de-
lineates hts own system erf' botany, according to
vriiid) the plants &re disposed.

Iliroughoat ^is great votIc, Haller is entirely
<n^;inal ; aM sat^sfpng himself with giving t^e de>
scriptioBsaffDrmer writers, he uppeani everywhere
to have copied from his own observRtions. It was
his custom, M he acqn^nts us, to write down the
natsrri finracter of each plant, on the day he dis-
covered it. Each species k illustrated with s
nun^o' of s^tonymes, extracted from former an-
tiiora, aad arranged db mndi as possible in chrono-
l<^;ieal order, a ttetbod highly nsefol, asexhitut*
ing M one Tiew, a Inief history of the plant ; by
poiDtiiig out the firat ^Rcoverer, aad the regions M
its growth. To each plant also is subjoined a
short acoe?Bt of its qnolitieB and usee, both eco-
Bomiod and medicinHL This woric was often re-
published in course f>f which it receired Tsrions
stic?eMire eoirectionB and angmentationa ; and in


1768, it was ^ven in its perfect fonn, under the
title of *' Historia Stirpium Helvetin Indigcok-
mm." Holler's otiier botanical wotki WNe, a c?-
.talogne of the planta growing in the Phyric Gar-
dena at Gottingen, which he had hiniBelf been the
instrament of CBtablUhmg in 174). This little
Tolume was afterwarda enlarged, so as to corapie-
liend the plants apontaneouBly groning in tbe en-
rirons, especially those of the Black Forest It
was the production of three months vacation ; and
had not the importance of hia other engaaetnenls
preventeil him, he intended to have dcaciibed tlie
plants of Germany at lai^ In 174i5, he gave m
new edidon of the " Flora Jenenais," of Rappina^;
to which he prefised anecdotes of the author, ea.-
larging and impToving the whole from hia own dis-

Haller's botanical labonra, did i
with these performances. On his retnm to Swit-
zerland, many years afler, be still c<nitinued hia
researches; and also sent, at his own expense*
persons pi-operly qualified, to explore the m<x? re-
mote and unfrequented pane of the Alps. The
fmits of theae discoveries, comprising innumerable
improvements, made in the descriptions, both of the
genera and spedes, and extending the number of
plEmle, horn 1840, to 2486, were all embodied in the
last edition of hia great work already mentioned.
Antunber of other papers on this subject, were c?l-
lected in his " Oposcnla Botanica." The diaracter
of Haller, as a botanist, haffnot procured hia Byntem
an est?nave adoption. In claseificBtion, lie fol-
lowed a method of his own, .fonnded upon the
proportion of the stamina to the petals ; a method
whicli he found would not imivetaally apply ; and



?A!choblif^ him to borrow claMM from otlierifs-
tenw. Th? want of naifonnity in hia plan, sod
the Bnperior umplicity of Linnffiiu, has given a
decided Bupoionty to the Swede. In accuracy
?f specific dea4aiption, however, be ia sdinu^te,
?8 well as in sagacity to detect generical affiniUea
?nd distinctions; and upon the wliole, scarcely
any othw writer has been more indefatigable, and
bis works will be found extiemely oseM to tiie
botanical stndeot.

These ItdMnirs, however, occupied but one de-
partment of Haller's studies ; and only a compara-
tively small portion of his time. From e]q)atiatiDg
among the wonderful and interesting production*
of the vegetable kingdom, which has led as to an-
ticipate a little the coarse of our narrative, we
most now follow him h> a difierent avocation ; ap-
puvntly more revolting in itself, bat which he
pursued with no less enthasiasm and success. To
a man of his keen sensibility, it may appear para-
doxical to rec(?d, that the dissection of human
bodies could be either an agreeable or a tolerable

iployment. But the love of sdence in him, seems
overcome the reluctance, and even the
isofoatore; andin 1742, hepronotmced,
in the Univetntv, a sprited eult^um, on this ap-
parently repnWre occupation. With r^ard to
fumself, scarcely any other individual ever made
a greater number of anatomical experiments with
his own band ; aikd it has been asserted, that be-
aidea innomerable lower animals, he had dissected
not less than fire hundred human subjects. It was
owing to this, that he made so many important dis-
coTeries, and that his iuvestigE^ons were rewarded
with such unexampled success.



He leenu flarly to have apprehended, that tfao
knowie<lge of the (^ribntion of the artencd sys-
tem, had not kept pa? with th&t of the bones,
muaclee, aerve? Bsd viscera; all \^ch had been
?epuately and ably u?ated by men of eminence.
Ibller wished, therefore, to illostnte more pw-
-fectty this part of die human frame ; and he gave
to the world a mnre complete system on the tmh-
ject, than bad yet q)peai^ This he perfmoeA
in a valuable work, consiBting of anatODucal pbktes
of the blood-Teasels in Miu ; and of the most re-
markable (lUsectioBfl which occoned in courae of
his experiments. These were greatly admired
fortherainnteesi^anUiaiis, and leuned notes whick
accompanied them. They were published annually^
from 1743-53, in ^ght fasciculi, or folio vohunes.
He gave, at the same time, a number of curioiu
tracts upon particular points in anaimny ; which
Here afterwards ctJlected into three ralumes.

AfUr the death of Boerhaave in ITfCS, Haller

nblished the Prelections of his venerable master,
m a mannscript copy of his own ; wMch ap>
peered in six voluiree, with occaaioiml cdditioas
and cwrections. He likewiae gave an edititm of
his " Methodos Studii Medici," in 1751 ; of wJiich
the greatest part was his own. In 1747, sppMred
one of Haller's most popular works, liis ElaMenls
of Pbyaioli^; being a* outline or sketch of hia
own system in that hianch of science. It is ?
truly original performance, refdele with matter,
and an excellrait oompendinm for the intelligenl
student. Vaiioas works of hia own, mth new
editions of others, too numerous to be here parti-
cularly noticed, bodi in mei^dne and natural
science, were pnblislwd hy turn during his reii-



dMce' M Gottisgen, wUch Were aftenrardii col-
lected in his C^uscnla. Betwist 1747 snd 1756,
be gare to die world a collection of DissertatioDS,
composed by rariooa authora, on anatomy, in
^glit Tolnmes, on Bnrgery, in five.-^^nd on the
practice of medicine, in' seven. ' Theae shew, not
only ^e extent of his learning, bnt the wonderliil
versatility of his talenia, that conld pass so rapidly
from one salyect to another, and treat with eqntd
excellence of all.

Like most other eminent men^ Haller was en-
gaged in some warm diapote?. He had for his an-
tagonists, Hamberger, Von Swieten, Albinos, and
La Mettrie. These attacked his Essay on Respi-
ration, in which he established the doctriaes re-
miding the mechanical part of that function, which
nare ever sbce been maintained. He had like-
wise some phyuological discuaaions with Dr Why tt
of Ediobnrgh, who held with him a learned and
ingtmctife controver&y on Irritability ; which Hal-
ler considered as a property of animated bodies,
distinct from Bemibiuty, and residing in different
organs. This was a sabject on which he has dis-
played his greatest originality ; and which led to
niiwe philosophical conclusionB relative to the law*
of the animal economy, both in its soond and dis-
eased state, than any other theory that bad then
been ofiered to the medical world. In forming
these Goncloeions, fae was led to make a set of ex-
poimenta on living animals ; the cmelty of which
Dnist have i?Bt many painful sbn^les to such a
man aa Haller. Nothing, we may euppoee, bat the
great utility to be draived from uiem to mankind,
conld have indnced him to bflict snfEeriiWB of any
land ; and indeed the compaasion he fdt for the


lietiids of (u* reenrdiM is oAm apMimt is ta0
iwrnitives. In all his dwpHteB, he uiewed creat
moderadiHi and canawad of tempw, thoa^ hm
had not aixnyi tbe nipcnorttf tK point of ?rgitt-'

Such distingniBbed merits temid wM fail to at-
tract attentkni, aoA ocoordi^ty iJ>ey proenrad for
tbe tnthor a bigh degree of boooitrable foMe>
George II. bk earliwt.patnn, took a lively iate-
rest in bis splendid succesa. He appoioted bint
bisfiratphyniciauiai El?ct<H'of HanoTer. He gave
bim tbe thle of Aulic ConnBollor; and in 1749,
IHoeufed for him letters of nobiKtjr from die Einp?-'
rOT Francis of Germuiy, creating biio Baron, R
title w'licb Haller always declined. Ik b nMt
whicb his Majesty made to tbe University abooV
'diis time, be Banalized Hdler with partienlM'
marks of apprtritation, an bononr m>tcfi tbe
gratefbl JVofeesor acknowledged, in aa En^ish
pnblicatton, entitled " A Short NaAa^Te of tin
King's Jonmey to Gottingen."

Haller's emolnmmts angmrated inpTttportionto
bis celebrity ; and honours flowed npon blm from
varions qnarteTs. He was elected nembOT rf al-
most all tbe academies of Europe ; of tbe Rt^^-
Sodeties of Stod(holm, London, and Paris. Semi-'
naries of learning were amdoas to enrol bim aiwmg
the number of their teachers. He received an in-
vitation iTora OrfEird in 1745, to fill tbe botanical
diair, vacant by the dea^ of Dillenins, anotliw
from Utrecht in 1750, to succeed Alhimu, and
a third Irom tbe King of PmHsia, with the aS&tft
a very considerable pension, llins bononred by
sovereigns, revered by men of ?eieitc?, and es-
teemed by aU Europe, Haller bad it in hia parwer

to have MttUBed the h^est rank in the republic
oftettera. HieeeproniodoB^boweTeriaiidlDcraiiVe
iMointmevta, be dime to refiue ; in grateful at-
' tBcbm^ to that UaiverBity, tbe fonnder of wbich
bad been the firtt to gire him the honours best
awted to gratify his wisbea, and to afford scope
for the ftilt exerrise of his varied sbilitieB. The
only promotion which he accepted, and which
save Dim any real satisfttction, was hM election
iM? die Great Conncil of Berne ; aa it insured to
him a retreat, with dignity, and probably with emo-
Iniuent, in his natiTe city, whose fwmer neglect
' had net cooled hia affections.

At length in 1753, tbe precarious stne of hia
health induced him to solicit permission from the
regnicy of Hanover, to retiini to Switzerland,
where he wished to spend the remainder of his
cJaye. Accordingly, he resigned his professorship,
^d epiitted Gottingen, which had been bo mndt
indebted to him for its literary fame. His coun-
trymen were now eensible of the honour they had
derived from his character, and gladly encouraged
his return. Such was the general joy of his fel-
Iaw-<^izene on hia arriral, that medals were stmck
to commemorate tbe erent. Having obtained, by
lot, an c^ce of amall emolnment in the magis'
tracy, he entered with zeal into bis mnnidpal dn-
tiee. Restored once mmv to die land of his nati-
vity, die most splendid offers cotdd never bribe
him &om hia retirement. He declined a pressing
invitation from Frederic II. in 1755, to snpeiintend
the academies of Pmssia, and accept the Chan-
cellorship of tbe University of Halle, vacant by the
death of Wolf. The Empress Catharine II. of
Rnsaa, in 1767, made Inn o^ of a very honour-


able and adranlageoiu aettlenwnt at Peterabaii;,
which he also nfmed ; and in 1770, he rej?ct?d
the still more dignified pTomotion to the Clunu^-
loiabip of the University of Gottingen, on the
death of Moabeim, with a very Incrative appoint-
ment ; althon^ George III. wrote perBonally, not
only to Haller, bnt to the senate of Berne, reqnee^
ing their influence to procure hie acceptance. , -

This disinterested attachment, his gmtefol conn-
try rewarded with the most liberal an<l unbounded
confidence ; and appreciated tiie generona sacrifices
he had made, by employing liia talents in the public
service. A decree was passed, contrary to fon]p,
attaching him perpetually to the republic ; and an
office created expressly for him, with a special
danse that it ahould be suppressed after his death.
In 1757, he was commissioned to reforoi the
academy of Lausanne ; and next yeu' was de-
puled by the Senate, to examine some canons re-
mains of antiquity, discovered at Culm. He was
appointed director of the Salt-worka at Bex and
Aigle, with an annual salary of ?600. Daring
the six years he held this office, he resided at L?
Roche, employing himself in improving the Salt-
works, of which be gave a .short acconnt, ^
mdcing ezcnrsions into the neighbouring connUy,
bnt especially in prepering and publishing hie great
work on physiology, a work which was his fa-
Tooiite study, die master-piece of his mighty
genius, and that which has est^liehed his right
to the title of an inventor in science.

On bis return to Beme, he was elected member
of the Chamber of Appeal, for the German dis-
trict, of the committee for matrimonial BSairB,-^
and for improving the small livings of the derg;


in the Pali de Yand ; whereby their BitnatioD,
which had been wretched and degrading, waa ren-
dered comfortable and reapect^le. He waa also
appointed perpelnal asseBsor of the Council of
Health, wim aaalary of ?100; in consideration of
his disinterested patriotism, in refusing bo many
tempting ofiera from foreign Conrte, and preferring
the wel&re of his country to the advancemeDt of
his fbrtnne. In these aeveral offices he performed
essential services to the State, by promoting the
most useful institutions. In ue Chamber of
Health, he was particularly useful in forwarding
themoat important regnlationa; such as prohibiting
empirics, the recovering of drowned persons, and
the prerentii^ the contagion of an epidemic dis-
temper, then prevalent among cattle. He showed
himself a fiieod to humanity, by obtuning from
Goveniment a public establishment for orphans, of
which he drew up the plan, and asfiisted in pro-
viding a fund ; and also a school for the education
of the children of the more opulent classes. As a
member of the Economical Society, he laboured
much to reform the state of agriculture, and made
many experiments for that purpose. In the meet-
ings of tbe Great .Conncil, be delivered his opi-
nions with a manly freedom, and a lively elo-
quence, which did honour at once to the soondneaa
of his judgment, and the feelings of his heart.

In 1766, and the following years, he appeared
on a more public theatre, and displayed Ins abili-
ties as a politidan ; shewing the same capacity in
adjusting national contests, as in illustrating science
in the closet. He re-established the harmony, and
settled the disputes between tbe Valius and the Can-
ton of Berne, by a ^nccesefid negotiation, in wliicli


he fixed the boundaries <rf tbe two stale*. He tns
ffsaDCiHted with the most enligliteDed dvncten of
the Republic, in tennhtatiagtlieduaeiisionsitf Ge-
nera. He drew np the priudpftl diepatcbee to the
Court of Vernillea, on the mbject of Rome pro-
jected changes ; on wbkh occasion be held a pec^
sonal conference with the French Ambaaaador ;
and was employed to prepare the plan of a
KeMy between Rome and the Elector of Bavsria.
Tbese political aTOCations did not suspend or
intermpt HsJIer's professional studies ; and it waa
then that some of hi* most celebrated and osefttl
works w?e given to the world ; his " Opnscnb
Fatholt^ca," contiuuing some corioni bets in mOF-
fcid anatomy ; but especially his syrteni of Fbyno-
logy, a worit of peiinanent merit, and in whidi
he has for ever rescued that difScalt science from
the degradation of being the sport of vain hypo-
tneses, by establiahing it on the only solid founds-
tion of anatomical knowledge. The exqoisile skill
which he has displayed, in regard to the at m ct u ro
of the human body ; bis indefatigable reeeardiea
into the discoveries and opinions of all his prede-
cessors ; and the judiciona application he muee of
them to illnstrate and confirm his own system, ai<e
proofs at once of his industry, learning, penKrs-
tion, and genins. Though much new hgbt hn
since been thrown upon some of the animaJ fimc-
tions, yet Haller's work is stiU the best systematic
view of phygiology ; and it may in general he af-
firmed, toat such a vest collection of well anthen-
dcated facta ; so much accnrat? deacription, and
truly sdentiSc argnmentation, were never be-
fare brought togetho- on this important mbject.
H)3 other anatomical writings of this datC) ai? prin-


eipftllT cmnprised in bis " Opeta ADatomick Mii
Dim : ' alAongh diere wera many tepanM tracU
i^cb it would be tediom to enumerate. Maoy
phgiansU bare profited by Halter's discoreries ;
tad, in forming their own aystema, have done littla
else than transcribed tbem, intboat baring the
gratitude to aduiowledg? their obligatjous to ^e
greet origin^ Tbongh some of them hare been
GoMeat?d by his contemporaiiea, yet his right to
moat of tliem remwoB inalienable and undisputed.
The h^t which be threw upon incubation, owific^
tian, excitability, and sereral other psrts of the tmi-
nal economy, will unquestionably secure to him a
lane and honouiable share of fame with posterity.
On the condnsion of bis public employmenU,
and when he had arrired at his sixty-second year^
be stilt prosecuted, in retirament, ma literary !?-
ba?n, inth imdiminisbed a^rUy ; and even at
that adnmced age, be produced a set of Tolmueat
which alona would hare entitled tiim to the ptaisa
of a life wdt spent in the aerrice of hja profeasion.
These wera Us faor BibUothecn, vie. Botanica,
Anatomtca, Chtruigica and Medica ; contwDing a
dHvnriogical list of e^oy bode of erpiy age, coun-
tij, and language, respecting sut^acts connected
with medicine, which had come to his knowledge^
irith biief snalysea <tf the contents, and abort tuogra-
^lies of the anthoro. No part of Haller's writings
dbrdsa gaoiestrikingexampteoftberalueofearly
and pcnarering induavy, dun these publica^ons;
andit is matter of aatonishment, thatintbismBnner
he bia noticed and rerifl wed not fewer than 11,000
volumes. Ha tracea tlM history of CKch Invnch of
giTinglntlBa WKf a comwoteduid compendioiu view

?44 coNVEnrs from ikfidelity.

of the whole aaence. TIhs large field, hu eittMi-
sire eraditioD, enabled him to comprebend ; and
qualified him to distingtUHh all original doctrines,
new focta and obserTations ; and to guard against
Bach errors as might mislead young and incautiona
practitioners ; who are too apt to be influenced by
itieoriet, and prejudiced towards particular authois.
These Bibliothecn comprise e^t quarto volumes,
publbhed between 1757-66, to which two others
WNe aAerwards added, from his papers, by Dr Tri-
bolet and Brandis.

Haller fni-nished, at this period, many articles
for the supplement to the Paris Encycloimdia, and
the Dictionary of Natural Hiutory ; and made ex-<'
tracta from eminent publications for the Bibliothe-
qne Raisonee. He wrote likewise three political
romances in the German language ; which seemed
to have been occasioned by the vivid impression
which his late engagements in civil and muniinpal
a&irs had made on his active imagination. In
these he treated of three different forms of govern-
ment. In the first, entitled " Vaoog," fa? eild-
Uted a despotic monardi ; sketching, with a nia?-
lerty hand, the abuses (^ absolut? authority, and
setting forth the happy effects which might be
derived from a virtnons and intelli^nt sover^gn,
even anudst the horrora of oriental despotism : In
die second, called " Fabius and Cato," he describes,
with a spirit and animation worthy of ancient
Rom^ but with a partiality natmal to a republican,
the amtocratical government, as most friendly to
dw display of patriotusn, and most congenial to the-
eiertionB of genius. In the third, named " Al-
fred," be diiftbya the adnntages of a limited mo-
narchy, wherein the balance of power is wisely dia-

tribnted ; and wUch, while it avoids the extr?aiM
of eidier, cujoyH the benefits of both. In these
ronumcea, he dHCersred MNind principles of legis-
htioii, great political sagacity, a de^ knowledge of
hMman natare, and mextetisivew^Muntauce with

The sonndeet German critics place Haller among
the moat Nniseat of their poeti ; sad eonsider bdI?-
Kwity as the grand characterietic of hi* writings,
l^ey adoioirWge that he iyoproTed ^e bar-
nony and ridtnees of hia native tongue ; that
he poBseesed the higheat powen trf' invention,
and great oirigiiidity, bcnh in fab ideas and lan-
gttage. " Htdler, (says D' hraeli) is beavtifnl in
bis deecripdons, s?blinie in bis odes, and lenderin
his degiest He is not Ae less to be admired aa
a satBvt ; nul Beise oaoe trembled at the pre-
sence of its JnvenaL Hia Bambers are highly po-
behed ; ^id it is bard to render jnatio to the
Plicate kugoage of his nHne." Critics have re-
proadted him inth obsmrity and introdBcing new
expressions ; bat twenty saccetsive edi^ns of his
poMos, ami their diflnsion lovflr all Evrope, proved
^t they are not destitate of went or mi?reetv
It deserves to be remarked, that, dthe?gh HaUer's
tnpendoas labem^, in erndition and science ren-
der his poetical Udests af infEriw account; yek
had he confined himsdf to tbe ransea, poetry alwM
wonkl have immortdized his nune.

Thffleie still one department of writing, in wUcb
Haller remu&s to be considered. Amidst the al-
BMst incrediMe variety of bis other pnrsaits, the
study ef th?ol<^, natond and revealed, bad alwaya
eocspied a conspicuous place. It has been ob-
served, diat at H)eariypa>odofhiBatadiea,hehBd


been sceptical widi regard to some <tf the pecidiar
tloctriaea and eridencea of CbiisUaDity. Hia
dcmbta, like those of Bovle, appear t? h?Te been
pnrelv philoM^hical, and not aanimed in Vindica-
tion M any deprerity of prindples, or lic?ntioiU'
ness of mBuiieni. They arose, as we may gather
from hia letlen, from ma inability to comprehend
the mysteries, or accomit for the miracIeB of the
goapel^-^iapecially the divinity and incarnation of
Christ, bis resurrection from die dead, Ac^finb*
jecta which hare alwa^ been found revolting to
the confidence of leaniing, and the pride of hninaa
understanding. How long dieae scmplee conti-
nued to astoand ?nd perplex hit beliefi is not
stated ; bat in 1732, in the prefece to luB poeliy,
he professed lumself firmly cosTioced of the tmth
of natural and revealed religion ; and even at tbu
early period, undertook their defence.

The complete eitirpotion of his unbelief, be aa-
cribes, as was noticed, to the study of natural
science, on the one hand, and an imparl investi-
gation of the Soriptnres, on the other ; the first, as
be expresses it, by pnr^ng liis soul of ambiance
and pride, filled it with that poverty of spirit which
of all the Christian graces, first enters the kingdom
of heaven : The second convinced hiio, diU the
divine revelation conveyed in the Sacred Oracles,
was a boon worthy of ^e merciful author of our
nature t? give ; and sncb as was fit for guilty mow-
ttia to receive, with humble gratitude and reve-
rence. Of these truths, he ever after proved him-
self, both in his life and writings, a zeelooB friend
sod an able advocate. He eagerly s^zed the num-
berless opportunities whidi his profeenon gave him,
of premu^ them on the conviction of all with


. wbom he had inteicouTse ; and recomTneodiag to
their practice the Tirtues and preoepts of Chnati-
aoity. To bie owa mind, they were contbnally
present, and he never suffered the hallowed tecollec-
(ion of them to be effaced. In a thoosaiid ineidenta
whi(^ passed onbeeded by the vuIb^, he could
discern the image and perfections of uie Deity; and
in whatever company or drctuietanceB he happened
to be placed, he never heard that Gi?al Name
mentioaed, without some pioiu espres^on, and
with his eyes or hands lifted np to heaven.

The necesuty of the existence of a supreme Being ;
and the other fun<luneutal principles of uaturalre'
ligion, be argued trom a ccMnprehensive view of
creation, in its greatest effects, as well as in its
minutest snangemeDts. Of hie disgust and bonror
at all attempts to convert the woriis of the Creator
into arguments ag^st bis providence, or his mo-
ral govemineut, he gave a remarkable proof, in
1717, by rejecting the dedication which La Met-
trie offered toprefixtohis book, intitled, "L' Hom-
me Machine ;" a book which mwnlained the doc-
trines of Materialism, and from which Stmensee
and Brandt, and many others, imbibed much of
theu: infidelity ; and he declared, in various literary
journals, that he neither acknowledged, as ins
friend or his disciple, a man who entertained such
impiona nc^ns. In a prefoce, which be published
in 1751, to " Formey's ahridgmeut of the Examen
dn Pyrrhonisme," he paints, in the strongest tM-
loniB, the dreadJid effects of infidelity, both to so-
ciety and individuals.

He published also an Extract fiom Ditton's
" Truth <rf the Reamrection ;" which he acknow-
ledged to have first cleared any douhta he enter-


tained on that mbject. He owns at the nma
time, that be receiml infinite satiBiaction from the
ttndy of the New Testament; becansehe waaserer
more certain of holding coayene ynth the Deity,
than when he read his will in that dirine book.
Another work, which he gave to the public on this
important ml^ect, was his " Lettera, concenung
several late attempts of Free>diiiikers, yet living
agaiiHt fterehrtion ' written in 1775, in Gennaat
expresahr focrrfating tlw objections to Ghrfatianity,
advanced in so lively and dangeroiu a manner by
Vollurai in htt " QsMtians on the Encydooedia.''
Hm vohnne by which his piety is beat kdowb
in tU> coontry, is his " Letters to bis Dsngfater,
e> the Tntb of the Christian Revelation " writ-
ten in Gramui ; and breathing throng^nt, the t?i-
dwort aendraento of parental affection. In dwae
be haa ?diiUted, in an incredibly small compaas,
m moM complete defeDCe of Christianity. He baa
collected the beat argianenta of die ablest divines,
ansnged them in a jndicions order, and bnmght
diem to bear on his Bahjed, with onited Innw, and
wiA m efiiilgence of light, snfiiaent to dispel the
duckeat clonds of ignm'uice tai prejudice. Hie
divinity and atonement of Christ, lie meinl^is is
eppowCion to Arians and Sounians, who reject
from the Kble what they cannot expMn ; and tMidc
to aecre tbe caose of reHgion, by lowering divme
Iradis to hnman cooceptimi. Haller, condemning
ibe im^en of thus admitting or rejecting at will, t?>
criveswiui pkmsawe, even what he cannot compre-
hend ; and with hnmble confidence, walks forward
nto Aoee legioaB of mystery, where Ute grandeur
and incempreiienaTiility of the snmnmding objects,
by pmrtnte the powere of ibe human mind. He

shews, by manifoK) analogies taken from* die' pro-
cesses of nature, both in the animal and the intel-
lectunl world, that mysteries may be credible,
thoup-h they exceed our compreliensii/n ; and may
afford iDom for the exercise of reaBon in the ser-
vice of the Christian canse.

The nnshsken finnneas of hie faith, conld not
always repel' those anxious solrdtudeB about fu-
turity, from which the best of men have not been
exempted. He had his honrs of despondency
and langonr ; which sometinieB clonded his pro-
spects with dark apprehensions. These have been
ascribed, bat without any just reason, to the nar-
rowness of the Calvinistic principles, in which he
had been educated. They were obvionsljr the ef-
fecta of a Bensitive temperement, and a lively ima-
gination ; and sprung from his constitaiional irri-
tability, rather than bis early prejudices. It is,
however, a pleasing natiafiictiou to be informed, that
reason and religion rose snpeiiM' U> these ^oomy de-
preeuons. In a lett?r, which he wrot? a few days
before his debase, he speaks of the awfot' gran-
deur of eternity, with hope rather than with fear.

For many years, Holer's dtotining health had
restrained his exertions in the more active scenes
of life, and confined him almost entirely to' hia
own house. Infirmities had accumulated, which It
was evident he conid not long support ; but the
most pMRful oi his maladies, was a form of retro-
eeilent sout. These, however, did not put a pe-
riod to his stadies ; for bis favonrite employment
of nritjiig was contmned, till within a few ^ys of
his disbofaition. He preserved his senses and com-
poanre to the last moment, meeting death with
the caliraeas of a philosopher, and what is traa-


tcendently rapisior, with Ae Urely bith of B Cfam-
tian> Hia UbI words wero addressed to Mr Ros-
ulet, the phyncisn that attended him; " My
friend," audbe calmly, with bia band on his pulse,'
* die arteiy no longer beala," and immediately ex-
pired, at ifae ^e of sixty-nine, on the 12th of De-
cember, 1777.

In his peTBOn, Haller was tall and mqestic, of
a noble and Bxpresure countenance. He had at
times an open smile, elwayi a plea^ng tone of
roice, nanally low, and seld<Hn. elerated, even
when he was most animated. He wBs fmd of un-
bending hinisetf in society ; and on these ocouions,
was remarkably cheerfnl, polite, and attentive.
He woidd converse with tbe ladies oo fcshions,
modes of dress, and other trifles, with as mnch
ease as if he had never secluded himself from the
world. When be conversed on any topic of lite-
rature or sdcnce, his knowledge was so extensive,
that be seemed to faaro made that hia particular

He was one of the mmt volvminons writen^
and asirws^ly informed men in Earope ; and Bis
profonnd n^ition is apparent to all who are the
least conversant with his works. One of his pai-'
ticular friends, and moat eloquent of his enlc^sts.^
Tscbamer, tbns speaks of the extent and variety
<rf his informa^n ; " He paesessed a fiuidamentaE
knowledge of natmal history, was well versed in
hisTiHy, ancient and modem, in the state of agri-
cnlture, manubctnres, trade, popnlation, literetnre,
and languages of the respective naiitHis of Europe.
Ha had read with attention, the most r^narkabte
voyages and tiavels, and was particolarly conver-
aant with the late discoveries, which tend to illos-


tnte tha fftogiKphy of the globe ; }? had penisoti
many tlMPOBud norels and plajv, and pmseBsed
aach Ml aatoniabiiiff memory, that he conld detail
their content* with the utmost pT?daion." Hn
feats of Halter's memory were aLnost incredible.
Having reeeired a dangeroDH fail in 1766, wliich
be was afiaid mig^t have impaired its powen, he
iiutaiilly tried to recoUect, and write down tbo
oamen of all the rirers which flow into the Oceu;
and waa not satigfied, until, by consnltii^ his map,
he was BBsnred he had not forgot (Hie. Ob an-
othei occauon, be very m?eh BorprMed aome fo-
reigners, in reconnting to them all the oriental
dynasties mentioned in nncietit htstoiy, with tha
dat?s and events of the prindpal r^gna.

His acqnwntance with Isngoagea waa very re-
roariuible ; be spoke and wrote with equal facility,
Latin, French, German, English, and Italian ; and
carried on an extensire correspondence in Uiem
all. He leanied the Swedish af^ he w?s forty

Cn of age, Avm some of his pupils, in course of
anatomical operations ; and except the RnseiaB
and Polish, he was so well acquainted widi the
othw EoTOpeBu tmignes, as to convene vrith the
natives in their respective idioms. Many Tohimea
of bis letters were preserved, on a variety of sub-
jects in physiology, BBtnral history, poliiica, .mola-
lity, and religion. " lliese,' (says M. Bonnet of
Geneva), " display his genios, his nnderatandiag,
and the goodness of his hoart, more folly than any
of his publications. His style, coodse, energetic,
yet picturesque, corresponds ynih the strength and
origmality of his ideas; and he speaks irith no less
BDblimity than conviction, of tne great tnitlta of
natnnd and revealed religitn. Hough ho Ireala


tbe niunenma advocates for infidelity, rad ptuticv-
l?riy Voltaire, with sufficient sererity, yet his heat
istbe aidoni of conviction, and didnot proceed from
?t])erpiqiLe,or8 spirit of contradicdon; heHeemed
. as if ne was perecHially interested in all the quea-
tiotu in lereladon, and pleaded its cmaae as if it had
been hia own. He particnlarly censnres tbe ma-
t?iiBliats, who endeavonr to deduce meclianically'
the formation of orpnixed matter. In a word, his
philoeophy was entirely pracucal, becanee it ww '
entirely Christian." Of letters written to hioi,
MX Tolnmes in Latin, and three in German,
have been published ; but his own, of which Bop-
net posaesaed seven monnscript volumes, it is to be
T^retted, hare only casually appeared. ,

* A more induatrious literary life than that^of
Haller, cannot be imagined. Every moment of his
time was occupied ; the compositioD of memoira
and articles for Reviews, were only fais paatimef.
His labonrs with the pen were nnremitting ; aufl
such was his invincible Hrdoor, that, having one day-
broken his right arm, hia soi^eon, when he came tp
dress i(, fonnd him employed in writing with bis
lef^ band. He read most new publicationa, and sp
eager was be in the perusal, that he Icud them upon
the table even when he was at dinner, occasionally
looking into them, and maridng those parts with a
pencil, which be afterwBrdBextrsctedorc4)mment?d
upon. These were usually written on small pieces
of paper, which he afterwHrds fastened tt^ether^
in their order, a method he learned from Leib-
nitz. During a long state of delicate health, hie
bod was in his library, where he sometimes spent
months without ever going abroad. There he ate
hia meids, and with the society of Ua family, and


laa books, he Concentrated vithin thia nairow
space, all he held most dear on earth. He coftt-
manicated to those aronnd him, a taste fN eden*
tific pnrmiits. His house was a sort of OB^liim
f<Mr learning. He was assuted by his pupils, who
had the cha:^ of hia library, and his theatre. His
wife acquired the art of diswing and painting, for
die purpose of rendering herself useful to him.
Hia childreo, triends, and fellow-citizenB, all re-
garded it as their duty to contribute to hia tabonra.

Hallerwas three timea married. Hia&at, and se-
c(md wife, were oatiTes of Berne ; and both died at
Gottingen, which he called the grave of his wives.
His third, daughter of a professor at Jena, snr-
vived him. He left eight coildren, fom- sons and
four dangbtora, all of whom he lived to see esta-

Hb nncommon senedbility subjected bim to
qiuck ahemativea of pain and pleasure. He was
impatient under sickness, as well from his extreme
irritiAiility, as from the interruption it occasioned
in his literary pursuits. He was therefore fond
<rf taking violent remedies ; and in his latter yeais
he accustomed himself to opium, which, being only
a temporary palliative, iMhec iiicreased his natural

In his retreat at Berne, he had long become an
object of respect and veneration; especially to
Btrangers, who never visited Switzeriand witiiout
seeing him. Rinces loaded him with the most
enviable marks of esteem, and learned men were

rud to lay their offerings on bis altar. In 177%
received the order of 3ie Polar Star, from Gn?-
tavus iU. Kfaig of Sweden. The Emperor of Ger-
many, Joseph 11. in course crfhietraveb, paid him a



nsit, and iMUirerKd with bin] two honn, anhtmonr
irtiicb stabbed Voltaire to tbe heart, as he had
pMBedbyFemeywithontwaitingonhim. Hia Ma-
jesty found the Baron labouring under the disorder
that Hoon carried him off; and onhiB retaru to Vieiiiut,
he Bent him a present of wine, of uncommon ex-
cellence. This tribute of private {riendship from
a monarch, would hare proved giatefid to a man
of Haller'a ienaibility, bat before he had it in his
power to appreciate its value, he had pmd iba
common debt of nattne. The Emperor pnrchaaed
hia library, consisting of aboat 20,000 Tohunes, tor
?2000, which he sent to Milan.

Considered as a man of piety, and a zealons-ad-
Tocate of Christianity, Haller's ia a truly exem-
plary and venerable character. It has been dsb^
as we have repeatedly noticed, for modem infidels
to assodata with themselraB, if poesible, men of
eminent literary talents, and in this they have not
nnfrequentlybeen succrasful ; bnt Haller tfiadained
stich an association ; of which a ugn^ .iniitance haa
been given, in hia rejecting tbe impudent aad ia-
ffldiona flattery of La Mettrie, who wished to have
held him np to Europe as the patron and abettor of
materialism. Me was not only formed by natore
for great designs, bnt guided by reh^on in the
exercise of bis faculties. The nnbonnded extent.
Hid tbe nsefol application of his learning, can-
not fail to strike both believers and infidels, tbe
former will rejoice in the acquisition ef so ^le a
defender, in so good a cause, and tbe latter will
oo dot^ be sarprised and disappointed, that so
VBJvemd a geniva cmild believe Chrietianity.




The puticalan of Mr Newhm'i life, are' perhqn
nore eitennTely asil fiunilisily knovn, tbaii some
otbere tbalhwv been Admitted intft the present se-
lectitm. Tlie conspicuous part he acted as a mem-
ber of the church for upwards of fiHty years, his
nseAil labours as a writer, and the general esteem
in which he whs held as a man of sincere pie^,
and Bound CfaristiBn principles, all tended to inte-
rs the pnblic in his histi^, smd have conferred
ap<Hi his name no ordinary share of popularity.
These drcnmatances, howerer, cannot form any
resBonable apol<^ for omitting to record him, as
a renmrkable instance, oa iLe list of reformed pro-
fligates ; neither will he, on this account, stand the
lees prominent and distangmshed among ellier mo-
numents to the signal victorieB of divine truth.
We haT?, in bis life, a deplorable example of early
deptavity, and of inveterate moral corruption. Few
cases, perhapB, ever exceeded his, in the malignity
of its symptoias, or canid appear in all probability
more hopeless of reformation. His history, there-
fore, whether considered with' reference to the In-
stnictire exhibition it unfolds, of a succession of
striking and wonderful iuterpoBitions, manifested
diroDgh a long train of remarkable beta ; or as dis-
playing the singular methods adopted by provi-
dence for his arrestment and recovery, will be
found to add no common testimony to the lui-


John Newton was born in I-ondon, July 24tli,
172d. His parents were respectable, though
not in affluent circimiBtances. His father was
many yean nia?teT of a ship in the Mediterranean
trade ; he had great knowledge of the world ; was a
man of very good sense, and exemplary in his moral
conduct, but without any terions impreBsions of
religion ; and ?f st?n and severe manners. His
niotber was a member of the Dissenting Church, and
s pious woman. She was of a delicate constitudon,
snd loTod retirement ; and made it die chief bnsi-
ness and pleasure of her life to instruct her only
child in the elements of religions knowledge. She
stored his memory with whole chaplei's and se-
lect poruons of Scripture, with poems, hymns,
catechisms, &c. having destined hun in hei own
mind for the ministry ; and had she lived till he
was of a proper e^, he was to have received his
edncation at the University of St Andrew's, in
Scotland. The progress he made under her tui-
tion was rapid, and eJitraDrdinary for one of hia
vears ;- as he was natuislly of a sedentary turn,
had an excellent capacity, and vraa very much ad-
dicted to his books. At the age of four, he couM
read with ease and accuracy, and shortly after, he
commenced the study of I^tin,

But these early and promising attainments Wei's
left to wither in the bud, by the premature death
(^ his mother, whom he had the misfortune to lose
when only seven years old. His father married a
second time, and this new mother, though she
seemed at first willing to adopt and educate Iter
slep.?on, yet a child of her own aoaa Biipplautett


Iiiin m her affections, and engroMei} nearly itie
whole attentJMi ?f die &tber ; so tlmt he mu left
to follow hia own amusements, or to mingle with
idle and profligate boys, whose vices and bad faabita
he speedily acquired. He was sent for about two
jBKt to a boardii^-?(Aool at Stratferd, in E?aex,
but he made no proficiency in any brand) of
learning, except his Latin, which he prosecnted
with great e^erness. At eleven years of age, he
WHS taken on boud his father's ship, went to sm
with him, and made seveisl voyages to the Medi'
terranean. In this employment he contlnned on-
til 1742, when his father quilted the sea. Seve-
ral attempts had been made in the meanwhile, to
settle him in some permanent business. He had
been placed, dnring his last voyage, in the bouse of
a most respectable merchant at Alicant in Spain,
with very advantageous proapecta, had he con-
ducted himself with propriety ; bnt in course of a
few months, bis master foond it necessary, aa M-
<!ount of bis misbehaviour, to dismiss him.

On his return borne, a proposal was made to
send him for some years to Jamaica. To this he
cmisented, and vraa to have embarked in course
ofawe^ While preparation was making for the
voyage, he was sent by his fetber to a place near
Mwdstone in Kent ; partly on business, and partly
to visit some distant relations of his mother, who
lived in that nejghbonrhood. During this short
journey, an unexpected occurrence took place,
which disconcerted die plan of his settlement in
the West Indies. In the house of his relation,
where he met with the kindest reception, there
were two daughters, the eldest of which, then un-
der fourteen years of age, made such a deep and


iDBtontuteoiw iiiwretdon on itw henrt of bar kins-
man, that be could Bcuetij be?t tbe thought of
aepttreting from ber f<? a momeDt, modi less of
linng for yean at such & distance as Janaict. Ib
coosequence oS Uuh nHnantic Utachment, he abait-
dooed the idea of going almxul ; and as be dnrst
not comniuucate this resolution, to bis fallier, he
detenfiiiied not to return to London until tbe dup
bad sailed. lustead of three days, as ww at first
intended, beremained inKenttln?e weelra,Bndtb)w
completdy disappointed bis triends in tbeir icbemea
nf mercantile pi^erment. Hisf^er,thou(^biE^y
di^leaBed at tbis conduct, became reconciled ; and
in a abort white he sent bim as a common sailor on
a voyage to the east ooaat of Itsly. He i<etamed
home in December, 174<S,withont meeting with any
esbaordinary occurrence, if we except a remaritable
ikeam which he bad, while lying (^'Venice, that
made such a powerful, ibuugb traaeienl impreonun
on bis mind, as tended to diedc him for a wbile,
in his tbouf^dess cara?r of profligiwy.

Shortiy afi?r his retnrn, be had again die mii-
fbrtnne to incur bis father's displeBHure, and Iras'
b?te his anxioas eadeaTOnrs for his welbre, bji
repeating and prolractii^ bis TiMta tA Kent, in dia
aame imprudent manner as he had done beforei
HiscarelesaoesB and dist^edienoe irritated tiie feel~
iags, and dienated the affections of bis parcot, to
mcb a degree, as almost induced him to disown
Us son. Cast in this manner almost destitote nti-
on the world, and befora any statable employment
agauk ofiersd itaelf, be was sMsed by a pm*-gai^,
and carried OH board the Harwich man-ot-war.-
As the Fr?ncb fleet were then hovering npai tbe
coast, and a war daily expected, his fiMfaer, had b?
been willing, could not have obtained his release ;


bat be had no objections he ihonld reniain in die
naTV, end haTiua; procured him & reoommendation
to the Captain, he was in consequence Bent upon
lite quarter-deck as a Budshipman. In tbia poa^
bat for hia uiuettled mind, and disorderly b^t^
be migbt have condncted himself with ease imd
respectability. But be soon gave new occasion of
o^nce, and loet the faTOor of tie Captain, by the
same want of pnidence and consideration that had
already baffied nil tbe exertions of his fiiends to
promote his intereK. While the Harwich lay in
Ute Downs, being bound for the East Indies, he
srailed biraself of an opportonity of gmng ashore,
and follovring the dictates of a lastless passion, he
went lo take a last leave of the object wbit^ had
80 oomj^telypaesessed and engrossed bis tbon^te.
1%is rash step, being a breach of order, proved
fairly displeasing to his Commander ; but it was
fc^owed by another, far more dishonourable.

While they lay at Hymonth, he began to re-
flect on the tedionsness and oncertiuuries of a
voyage to the Elaat Indies, and imagined if be
cenid meet with his father, who was then at Tor-
bay, on ?ceount of some ships lately lost, in which
he had a share, he migbt easily get tran^rred into
better service. Upon the fsjth of this probability,
Im reselved, widunit fbither deliberatdc?, to leave
tbe ahip at all events. lUa he accomplished, but
in the wont manner posKbie ; for being sent one
day in die boat, to prevent otbei? from deserting,
he ahuuefnlly betnyed bis tmaX, and deserted
IwnBelf. He travelled the greater port of two
days aeross the eaattry, on the road to Tmbay,
every thing appearing to go on smoodtly; bnt
when he bad newiy reached the place, and thongbt
to have seen lus latlier wkhin two hours, ho whs


met by a tmall puty of soltfien, whom be coold
not armd (?' deceive. Tbey emnied him immedi-
ately badi to Plymondi, throngh the elreeU of
whiGh be proceeded, gutnled like a felooi and
overwbelmed with ahame, iadignaticin, and fear.
After being kept in confinement for two days, ha
WW sent Ml ?bifi-board, wfiere he was put in irona ;
be waa nest pnblicly stripped, lashed, and de*
graded from bie office ; be was forbidden the com-
pany, and eren tbe sympathies of ius fonner asso-
ciates, brou^ down to tbe level) and exposed to
the insaltH ef Ae lowest of the crew.

In this state of abject miteiy, and gloomy dee-
pondency, bia mind became alternately tbe prey of
diamal reflections and deapeiHte resolutions. Whe^
llier be looked inward or ontward, he coi^d per-
C^ve nothing but darkness and despair. Som&-
timea be wss tempted to throw himself into the
sea, which, he believed, would at once put a final
period to all his serrows ; again, he. would form
deMgns against the life of h? captiuR, as tbe au-
ihoi of ^ the wret^^dness and abuses be WM
nffering ; and the hope- of accomplishing this dia-
bolical purpose, was almost tbe only reason that
made mm willing to prolmtg bia own existence.
At bis more sober atteiValB, be would cfawish tbe
hope of yet seeing better days, of retaining W
^ftgland, and having all his wishes (gowned by m
happY union with the object of his afiections, front
whom he bad seen himself forcibly torn away, and
had felt so many distressing fears at the improba-
bility of ever seeing her again. Such were tlw
harasaing agitations, dividing his thoughts between
hc^ and despur, r^ret and revenge, wat occupied
bini daring tae remaiiider of tbe passage.

Harii^ bnainess to transact at Madeira, tJmy pot


in to that island ; afid here hS obtained an niiax-;
pected releaae ; w ratlier exchanged oue spadea ef
slavery for another. On the morning when thej;
were preparing to sail, two men from a Guinea ship,
wliich laj' near, had entered on board the Harwich ;
and tbe Commander having ordered two otbera to
be sent in tbeir room, Mr Newton, glad to avail
himself of the opportimity, requested to be di?-
tnissed on this occsHion, alongst with an old com-
panion ; a petition wliidi was very readily complied
with. In less than half an hour from his being
asleep in bia hammocli, be found himself safely OA'
board another ship, and placed, as be fondly be-
lieved, beyond the reach of further insult or d?-
gradation. Tbe vessel he had now entered was
bound to Sierra Leone^ and the adjacent parts oi
what is called the windward coast of Africa. Tha
captain'koew his father, received him kindly, anif
prohahly would have been his fiiend, had he taken
care to avoid his former errors. But, Instead of
profiting by his adversities, he appeared to have
become only the more hardened and incorrigible ;
and, of course, very soon forfeited tbe esteem of

He continued in this situation for about six
months, at which time the ship was prepaiing to
leave the coast for the West Indies. This voyage,
he perceived, woidd prove not only disagreeable^
but perhws dangerous to him, conudering the
. terms on whicji he stood withbis commander; who,
jnost probably, would have sent him on board a
man-of-war, an alternative inore dreadful to him
than death itself; and to prevent this, he deter-
mined to remain in Africa ; flattering himself with
tbe idea that he woidd ibare hare a better oppor-
tunity of improving his fortune, as he found some


of bis countrymen BmT done, 'bj trafficking ' in'
(IftTes. 'He entered into llie semce of one of tbe
traden on that coast, wbo had acquired conude-
rable wealth, and was a proprietor of the fourth
part of the ship, from which he had just obtained
hia discfaai^e. As He received no compensation for
the time he fasd been on hoard, except a bill upon
die owners in England, which waa never piud ; he
found himself, at hie liuding on the island of Be-
nanoes, Kke one ship-wrecked, with little more
than the clothea he had on his back. In this new
ataiion, instead of rising to wealth and consequence^
as' he expected, he was reduced to greater misety
than ever ; and enconntered a series of hardships
and indignities, abnost beyond what common'
slavee are doomed to suffer. He could have livetf
tolerably well in his employment, and peiiiaps
even renieved his character, had not bis master'
been entirely under the direction of a black wo-
man, who lived with him as bis wife, and who, for
reasons unknown, bad fh>m tbe first conceived a
strong prejudice against Mr Newton. She was a
person of some importance, had great influence
over her husband, and consequently prepossessed
him with the same hostile feelings towards tbe
unhappy object of her strange antipathiea.

H!streatmentiromher,especiallyin his master's
absence, was a revolting mixture of uuproroked in-
sult and capridouB cruelty. On one occasion, when
labotuing under a severe fit of sickness, he- had the
misfortune to be left in the hands of tlris menuless
woman, who, tar from compassionating bis help'
less and' forlorn condition, treated him with the
utmost neglect ; and though possessed of abun-
dance, she scarcely allowed him what was suffi-

_;_* A ._:_ i!*_ o ^: :. _^ withdiffi-

culty he coold procore a dnllg^t of cold water,
' when bnrniiig witb a fever. His bed was a mat
spread upon a board or chest, with a log for his
pillow. Often he would gladly hsve eaiea, "but
no one gave nnto him ;" except when in a fit of
good humour, bis mistreBB would now and then
send him victnals on her own plate, after she had
dined, a pittance which he received with thank-
fnl eagerness, as the mo8t needy b^^ does ea
alms. At times, she would call him to her table,
that she might administer this cepricioas bounty
wiUi her own hand. On one trf' these occasions,
b^ng exceedingly weak and exfaausted, he dropped
the plate, a loss which mortified and dis^pomted
him in a d^ree, which those who live in plenty
can hardly concdve ; but though^he table was
loaded with victuals, she refused to supply hiro
4rith mora, and had die cruelty to turn mis dis-
-beasiag ndsadventure into a subject of mirth and
ridicule : Such was the eitreme of destitution to
-which he was reduced, that he was some^es
compelled to go by nisht, and pull up roots in the
plantation, which he devoured raw upon the spot,
for fear of being discovered and punished as a
thief. StrangeiB occasionally relieved his wants
out of compassion, and even the slaves in ebains
would have brongfat him a portion of their own
slender allowance secretly, for they durst not be
seen or known to do it. Of this ill usage he com-
plained to his master, when he Teiumed from a
.voyage to Rio Nuna, where be had been absent on
tMuioess ; but he was not credited. He was, how-
ever, taken on board the second voyage, which re-
moved him oat of the reach of domestic persecu-
tion ; but hia had, fortnnB seemed to attend him
wbexerer he went


He lived forati?eon tkj good terma with ill
hta coropanionB, until a brodier trader malicionaly
pereuaded lik master that he was dUhonest. This
was a vice to which he never was addicCed, not
even in his greatest diatresa, and when he had the
strongest temptations to fraud. On the contraiy,
whatever other good principlea he bad relinquiafaed,
he still retained bis honesty ; which seemed to be die
ffldjr remains of a virtuous education, that he conld
aaw boast of. The charge, however, was be-
lieved, and be was condemned without evidence.
From that time be was used very harshly ; when-
ever his master left the vmsel, be was locked up-
on deck, with a pint of rice, for his day's allow-
ance ; and but for the opportunity of catching fish
tomedmee, he*mitBt have fidlen a victim to siarva-

Hia niffsrings, from the want of clothes, and the
inclemency of the weather, were not less sevei&
His whole suit was a shirt, a pair of trowsers, a
cotton handkerchief instead of a cap, and a piece
of cloth about two yards long, to supply the want
of upper garments ; and thus accoutred, be wu
frequently exposed for thirty or perhaps forty
bonra t<^ether, witbont shelter, in incessant nuoa,
accompanied with strong galea of wind. He wa>
so ashamed of his mean appearance, that when ?
ship's boat came to the island, he would hm to the
woods to hide himself from the sight of a stnmger;
and to preserve some d^ree of cleanliness, he
would go pensive and solitary at the dead of
night, to wash his only shirt upon the roclis, and
afterwards put it on wet, that it might diy i^iob
his back while he slept. Things condnnedinthiB
state, or with little variatioD, for nearly twelve
months, when be obtained his master's consent to


~IiT?iritii another trader on the sanie iBland, a
-diange which contrtbuted greatly both to his com-
fort Hiul bia advantage ; aa be was now decently
'dothed and fed, treated as a companion, and erea
'trusted to a considerable amonnt in the manage-
"meiit of the bnaineas. Thia alteration in his cir-
-cnmatances, together with the despair of ever see-
ing Engiand again, began to reconcile him to bis
eendition, and he even entertained thoughts of
wtdmg in the country. His deliverance, how-
ever, was nearer than he expected, and that provi-
*dence, which wisely mles the destinies of man, bad
tnade airangements for his return, of which he
knew nothing.

' Dtning the period of his cruel treatment, he had
written once or twice to his fother, describing his
Condition, and desiring bis assistance. This ap-
licBtian procured an tnrder from his father, to the
Ctqnwn of a Liverpool trader, then fitting oot for
Gambia and Sierra Leone, to bring his son home.
The ship, with this order, proridontially sirived at
k time when Mr Newton was employed at one of
bis master's foctories, within a mile of the shore ;
Otherwise the vessel might have left the coast
Witiiout Mther seeing or hearing of him, as he was
Just on the point of setting out in quest of. trade,
some hundred miles up the country. This wel-
come intelligence of an invitation home, had it
Mached him when he was sick and starving, would
have been heard with rapturous delight ; but from
the hvoorable change in his prospects, he was dis*
posed to treat it witii indifference ; and in order to
gaia his compliance, the messenger had to febri-
eate a story of a legacy, and an estate of ?400,
per annnm, left him by an aged relation lately


daad. Thia atatagem, together with the mumw-
b^ance of lus friend in K?nt, who nerer cemaed,
amidst alt his wretchedneH, to haunt hia waking
di?ams, proved snffident to drew him from his sa-
vage retreat. Thus waa he suddenly released
from a captivity of about fifteen months ; a deli-
veiauce of which be had not iatinlged a wish or a
thoq^t, within an hoar before it took place.

He embarked with the Captain, who kindly
promised to lodge him in his own cabin, and make
um his companion ; and after a tedious voyage, id
which they suffered variooa hardships, from severe
stonoB, and scardty of prorimonB, they reached
tb? northern coast of mland, and anchored in
Lough Swilly, on the 8th of April, 174S, much
disabled by die weather, and with ihek very last
victuals boiling in the pot. Here they were de-
layed some time, refittiqg the ship; dum^ which
Mr Newton wrot? home to intimato hia anival to
his father, who had given op all expectation of
hearing that his son was alive, as the vessel he waa
in had not been heard of for ^hleen months. The
letter reached him only a few days before be em-
barliBd for Hudson's Bay, where he intended to
have taken hia eon, had he returned in time to
England. Thia intention, however, he did not get
lor had he the satis&ction of seemg
d from the Nore on the same day
a arrived in Liverpool, and died at
hich he had been ^tpointed govo^
hns was thia returning prodi^ sin-
inted, in so near an opportunity of
MB for the UDeasineBs hia diaobe-
iioued,to a relenting and reconciled

in who was owner of the ship that

RBV. JOHN MEfnwr. S67

had bnni^ Um bane, raodrod hint wiA dia
graatert MndemMB, and gsvebim tbestrongeotss-
arences of hia fiiendebip. He immediately pro-
posed ta give bim'ihe commuid of m sbip, an of-
fer which Mr Newtoa very pmdeRtly declined for
the' present, eousiderii^ he had hitherto been tm-
ettled and careless, and must acquire fordter ex-
'perience in boMneas, before he ventured to ^der-
take audi a charge. He consented, howevw, to
go as mate in a resael bonnd for die coast of
Africa, to purchase alarea. In ^us voyage, he
visited agbio the scenes of his former captivity,
thoi^i he was now in very different circnmstaaces.
'He was canned and caressed by those wbo once
despised bim. Some lirae riirabs which he had
planted in bis wretched servitude, and which had
occasioned a sarcastical remark of his master, on
the probability of his returning in the capacity of
a ridi merdunt, ta reap the &nit of bis labours,
be now fonnd were grown tall trees ; and promised
to verify a prediction, so unlikely at the time ever
to be raized.

During eight months, tbey were employed' upon
the coast ; and although Mr Newton's businesg ex-
posed him to innnmerable dangers, bod) from the
climate and from die natives, ivho 'watched erecr
opportunity for mischief, and often acted with
great cruelty and treacbery, pMsoning the white
men, or way-laying them in their joiffneys through
^ woods, yet be was singularly preserved both
at sea and on shore. Among odier remarkable es-
capes, he mentions one that made a very salutary
impression upon bim at the time, and remuned
long en bis memory. While lying at Kio Ceatora,
he bad the chai^ of providing wood and fresh
water, which he bnragfat from die sbore ; the only

manee lie bs<l ta perft^'m in tbe boat. H? gan?-
TttUy took wlvuit^ge of the eea twoese to proceed
op the river in the afternoon, wlieie.be procured
bu lading in the. evening, aad returned on board
in the moming, with tbe land-wind. Several of
these little voyBgea he had made witboat meetr
iog any accident, although the boat was old teoA
cnxft and almost unfit for use. One day having
dinpd on board, be was [H?pariiig to retnm to wa
river ae uenal ; when the C^tain csate up froif
tbe cabin, and called him on board agwn ^ saying
jbfit he wished him to remcun that day in the ship.;
wilboDt, however, assigning any other canse for
Ibis countermand, thui tbe mere suggestion of th^
moment. Mr Newton was not a tittle surprised
at thist as the boat had never before been sent
away without him. Another mau was accord*
tngly Bent in bis place ; but be .went to return n*
more, for tbe boat ennk that very night, and hs
perished in tbe river. The news of this event,
when related next m<H7iing, struck TAi Newton
very forcibly, as a singular interposidoa of provir
dence for liis preservation.
, From Sierra Leone, the ship suled for Aotigna,
Dud thencQ to Charleston, in South CaroUna, t*
diapoee of her cargo. After finishing this voyage,
s]iB returned to Liverpool ; uid as soon as afiaira
weifi settled, Mr Newton immediately repaired to
Kent, after an interval of seven years, wnidi had
oow elapsed since his first visiL No ob^taclo
seemed now to oppose the accompli^unent of his
wishes ; he had renounced his former follies, hia
iniereat was established, friends on all aides were
ready to give their consent ; even his fatber before
his departmv from Eggland, bad ^vcq bis sanci *
tioB to the union ; accMdingly, on die Ist of Fe?


bniuy, 1750, he was nwde bappy iii obtaining
poHai?Bn of the object to which he had been m>
loiig and so Brdently deroted.
' Not to interrupt the regular course of the natta-
tive, by inVoducing details of hii cbuacter into the
faiiRtoiy of his commercial adveBtnres, little has as
yet been said legarding his moral or religtons senti-
ments, the causes of Tiis unbelief, or the means by
which he was gTadnally recovered. His infidelity,
like that ef most of his sceptical brethren, will be
fOTud to have oiiginsted chiefly in the depravity of
his own heart, andwithbnt little Hssiatance from the
ai^nments or example of othera ; while his conver-
Bon appears to have been effected, partly from bis
own reflections on the many remarkable delivet^
ancea he had experienced in course of lus voyages,
and partly from occasional examinatioH of the
Scriptures, and the peculiar discoveries that hy de-
grees broke in upon his mind, bo^ ?i his own
guilt, and the remedy for its exmation. '

It WEB already noticed, that Dia excellent mo-
ther had token pardcular care, both by example
and instruction, to season his mind with virtaoDS
principles, and im|ffess it with a veneration for
every thing sacred.. But his corrupt propensities
had at a very early age, gadiered sufficient
strength to break through these wholesome re-
etiaints, and to obliterate from his memory every
tfsce of piety or parental admonition. Alwot die
period of Ua first voyages, bia conduct and tem-
per were exceedingly varions ; and he ivas often
disturbed with reh^ons convictionB. When with
his wicked companions, and none to check him,
he would swear snd blaspheme, as if he had lost
all sense of religion ; at other times, a pious botd^


? passage is theBible, w t^ Badden deotb of a
cainpiuiian, wwnld baT? ?et biin U> btvak vff bis
protane practicea ; and piodnced a lempOTMy r&i
formation. Yet so sttrngety had be contrireid to
reconcile vice and devotion, that wben delemuBcd
<m committing actiima which be knew to be crimi-
nal, be conld not go on qniedj, until be bad first
dispatched his ardinRTy task of prayer, every minats
ot which fae gmdged as lott ttme ; and whentbii
ane finithed, his consctence was in some measure
pacified, and he could m^ into folly with little

Tlua alternate stmggle between compnnctiim
and Temmse, between the pteasorea of^nn, and die
remonstrancu of conscience, contisiied for more
tbon two years ; when he was induced to lay ande
ibis semblance of religion, fonoal and superficial
M' it was. In a petty shop at Middleboi^ in
Hallsud, he dianced to meet with a volume of
Shaftesbury's Chitfactuistics, and he soon fell a
dape to the plausible bat insidious doctrines of
that writer. Hit Lordship, it is well known, ranks
among tboee dangerons authors who have sppeued
against revealed religion. He possessed great de*
lieacy of t'^te, bad a lively and fertile irat^iua*
tion, and the cluume of his -fiiseinating eloquence
procured bioi many admirens, uid have led, per-
Im^ not a few nnwatily to entertain groondless
pngudices agaimrt Chriedanity. His el^Wit but
dedauHrtory s^le suited the romantic turn of Mr
^wton's mind. Unaware of ita tendency, he im?-
seined be had found in this book a valuable guide.
It was coDlinnally in his hands, and he oould even
repeat large portions of it ; and though it produced
no iminediate efiecis, it operated like a slow poi>


atm, the uwxe btilly ifcat it foniid in hia owa iib-
clinBtioDB, a iwigeiual naMra to woik upon.

Hie opiittonB he bad now imbibed, were sfto^
mids ctnifinned by the ol^eetiong and argtuaeata
of one of bis prindpaL compaoiDDS oa board, tbo
Harwich man-of-war ; a perMm of taleatB, a^d ob-
secration, bnt an e^iert and apeciona in&dtl, wbow
zeal ma equal to hu addreat. He bad gained tha
ctmSAeaea of Mr Newton, who ww food of his bo-
ciaty, by fint ^Making in fttvonr of religicn ; bnt
pvc?ivii^ his attachment to the Chanusteristica,
he gaTo him mich repreeentatimu of his LonlsMp't
aignmenta, as speedily e&ced from hia mind raa
last remains of pieCy and yirtne. He now rer
navnced all hope and belief in die gospel, plunged
with bold and reckless Wdihood iitto infidelity,
and seemed to all appearance irrecoverably giren
oyer to a-reprobate mind. When he quitted the
Harwich, where he had been kept nnder soine re-
Blraint, to go on hoard the Gniaea ^ip, one of his
reaaont for preferring the exchange, was, that her
ing among stivigietn, he could Uieo sin withont
diaguise, and be aa abandtmed as he pleased, with-
out reproof or coaUol ; and be certainly proceeded
wiA a rery high hand, not o?ly poatinag ^
sorts of wickednees bimsdf, bat mulring- it hi*
study to tempt and seduce -others.

The fint check he received in this hcftdlo^
career, was the exile and spUtary wrtichedaeeB
n4)ich he endured in the aervvca of the African
trader. By h^ng thus banidied, as U were^ and
almost excluded trom society ; he waa iBcaj^ble,
however niucb he might have the desire, of com^
nnmicating to others this moral peatilence and in-
fectioii. His abject cirrauBstaBCea proved an an-
tidote againat threading tlie contagim ; even the




fftw negTOM wh? converked inth Kim, initeftd of
unitttbg, ntdwr Bhnmied and de^tuedfaim. lla
dustiBementa of affliction bad, in some degree,
Aibdaed and eonk fais spirit; he had bM that
fierceneea and resolution ninch seemed inheraat
in his temper, snd had fimnerly instigated him ta
commit the de^ferate crimes of snicide and roar'
der : bat he was no fertber changed than a tiger
med by hanger ; hie reflectjons were not those vi
ult, er of gratitode for his preseirations, nor ma
ii heart at all bowed down to a iriioleeome re-
pentance^ His worldly prospectB wue certudjr
dnary ; bnt hi? fuml was Btdl daiter than fait ontwafd
cmiditiM); and eren when his fortnne b^an to
improTe and to angiir better, his habits of proffi-
y condoned as Wdeoed and inveterate as erer.
a his first homeward TOyage from Africa, af'
r brang released from his misersble servitude,
havii^ no pBracidar business to employ his thonglita,
ero^t when he would sometiniee amiue himself
with mathematics, he gave a loose to every speoea
of impiety and protanenem. " I know not," saya
be, " d?t I erer in my life met so daring a bias-
phemer. Not content with common oaths and
nnprecatioDa, I daily inrented new ones ; so that
I was ofiten eeriowly reproved by the captain,
who was himself a yeiy paesionate man, and by
BO means drctmispect m bis eipreetdoas."

Among the vices to which sailors are too gene-
rally addicted, there was one to which Mr New-
ton never fdt any inclination, that of drinking ; d-
though he coidd go to a fearfid excess in every
other extravagance. Sometimes, however, from
frolic and a diapoeitiDn to mischief, he would pro-
mote and encomage this indulgence in oroers.
One of diose reveb, at his own expense, aad by

,R?V. JOHN )<KWTO(I* E7#

hu proposal, had moerl likdy proved fatal to tiiia-
eelf, but for oae of those ngnal intarpositioiiH of an
Inrisible baaA, which had so often preaerved hia
life. He had dialleiiged a party of four or &re
-ooe eTeaing, to try who conld hold oat longest in
(liiQking geneva and rum alternately ; s contest,
for which Mr Newton waa very sinfit, aa his bead
WW alwaya incapable of beaong much Hqaof.
A large ae* ahell aapplied the place of a glasa.
He bc^BD by propoaing, as a toan, some im-
precation against the person who ehoold start
int. Thia proved to be himself. Inflamed with
intozicatioD, be arose and danced on the deck like
? madman, when bis hat went over boutL He
inade an attenipt io reeover it, and would, in the
i^wce of a momeDt, have plunged int? the walei^
when some person caoght hold of his clothea, and
palled him hack, Thu was an amazing Mcape*
W he could not swim, hod he even been sober ;
hia companions were too much intoxicated to save
liim,aiidthe rest of ibe sbip'scompany were ealeep.

This, and many other aiiT'l i"' deliverances, ha
experienced, but they produced no salutary effect
at the time. He possessed the same unconcern
when visited l^ sickness, and even beliering hiu-
eelfto be near death. The admoDitioiH of conscieueQ
being BO often repelled, had grown weaker and
weaker, and at length had entirely ceased. " In
a WM^," says be, " I seemed to have every mark
of final impenkence aiwl rejection ; nudter judKO-
ments nor meiciee made any impression on me. '

The atorms they encountered, especially off the
coast of Ireland, in March, 1748, and tlie immi'
nrait danger to which tbey were in coDseipuncv,
i, appear to have been the firet and moat
d menns of rgosipg hisa ,l? aerjoua refiec?


ttott. lite tonpMt had oentiliiied inuy ixj^
and fmn the leakj' state of the vegsel tber ?i-
peded erery matmtat to g;D to the bottmn. ** I
began," taya he, " to- think of my fbnacc t?&-
giooa professuMis, tlie extnordbiaiy tann of
my lif^ the calls, waniings, aod deliverancee I
had met with, the lic?iitioni course of my con^
TrantioB, pu-ticnlarly my nnpaialleled ef&itetety
in making- the gospel history the constant subject
of profime ridicnlet I waited with fear and im-
patience turecetre my Hwrhabledoom'; bntwfaca
I eaw beyond alt probability tSat there fraa Mill
hope of respite, and heard that the ship was deared
of water, there aroee a gleam of hope. I thoi^ht
1 saw the band of God displayed in oar fsvoort
I began to pray ; but I could not draw near to a
recimciled God, and call him Father. The com-
fortless principles of infidelity wen deeply riveted!
The great qaestien was now, how to obtain &ith.
One of the first helps I received, vras from examin-
il^ the New Testament more esrefiiUy; and front
thence L eaaelnded, that thongfa I c^d not say
from' my heart that I believed the gospel, yet I
would for the present take it for giVnted; and
that by Btadying it in this t%htj I shonld be more
and mOTe-GMifinned in iti

Modern^ infidels will sayi (for I know thrar man-
~ ner),diat Ivras desirous to persuade myielfintothia

rion. I confess I was ; and so would ttiey be, ifi
Lord should shew them, as be was plnased to
Aew me at t^at time, the absolnte necessity at
some expedient to interpose between a mercifiil
God, and a nnflil sonl. Upon the gospel schemv
Z saw at kaat a peradTentore of hope, bat on
every otber side, I me sorroiuided with blaek
nnEtthoBMble despair, l^eao wwe ? ftnma <n?


bawd to nham I ootid t^en mjteit mth freedom,
coDOennngtlie MaM (rfmyaoul; none from whepi
I conld Bflk wince. Aa to bocjia, I hsd a New
Tettament, a Tolame of Bishop Beveridge's Ser*
mmu, and Slanfaopea Tbomaa a Kempis, which I
had oflen read before, to pass away the time, but
wi^ the same indifferenoe aa if it had been a ro-
vaooe. In peroaing tbo New Testament, 1 waa
-tnidi with several passages, particnlarly that of

imprasnone on their arriral in Ireland. He had
aatufactoiy evidence in his own mind of the Wnlh
itf the gOHpel, as considered in itself, and of iia
exact suitableness to answer all hia wants. So fitr
he waa no longer an infideL He had renounced
Ua fanner probneness, and had taken np aomo
nght notions ; was eerioosly disposed, uid mn-
cerely touched with a sense of the nndeeerad
mercy he had reoeiveit in bebg bronght safe
tWiigh so many dangen. He repented of Ua
miqient life ; and ijnite retinqoished the baUt of
wearing, which seemed to have been as deeply
rooted in him as a secondnatnre. " From diis pe-
riod," (he adds), " I could no more makeamodc
at sin, ot je^ with holy thin^ J no more qnes-
tionedlbe truth of Scriptni?,orloet a senseof dte
rdnikea of (wnsdence. Ttuvefore I consider this
aa the b^jnning of my retnm to God, or rather
of hia return to me; but 1 cannot consider myself
to. have been a believer, (in tlie ftdl sense of tbe
word), till some- time sfterwards."

Such b hie own accmmt of the ptogteu he had
nnde in religion at tbe timeof his retotn ftom Africa.
Tbe ihwl time he remained in Ireland, be contt-


jmed aeriooB and exemplmy in Im whole depoA-
ment, went twice a-dayto tbe pnverau dimdi.aitd
made BRolenuiBndpablicavowalof bis pn^arion,
by rec^nng the ncrsnent. Bat hie ??!, bow-
evtx aincere, was yet willwrnt proper knowledge;
his coarictions were fiunt, and bdow what nugfat
have been expected (rem areriewof so many won-
(lerfid preBervationa ; 'and accm^ingly hia impres-
nona irf' the diTuie goodness to him began to west
o^ bis *ons and eng^ements were partially (or-
gotten, espetjslly after embai^iing again on hia a^
cnatomed element, and mingling with hia fmner
diasc^te contpamens. TtKragh he never went the
saine lengths of probuity aa before, he became
carelesa and trifling in his conreraation, and gret*
slack and reraiaa in hia devotions, beyond what he
'conld hare believed bimaeif ofiable.

Ilie leismv boniB be had to spare daring fiis
kst voyagea to Africa, he employed chiefly in
recovering his knovrie<%e of the Latin. He bad
a copy or Horace, and witli the aasistance of Cas-
talio s Latin Bible, he camo not merely to aiidet>
stand Ae sense of the Roman poet, but began to
relish die beanties of hia composition, and to afr-
qniie a sort of classical entfaudasin. He needed,
however, another interposition of ^nvridence to
rouse hiT" from hia lethargy, and warn him away
fh>m the rock on which be WBS agan in the hazard
of making ahipwreck of his fiuth. A violent fSTR
widi which he waa riaited at the plantaina, togc
ther with saveis] aorprising eBCI^>es from danger^
?s has already been mentioned, broke once mora
the fatal spell, and brooght him to himself. Tke
intervals of bni^eaa he now spent in retirement
and meditation. Almost every day ho would
widub^w to the woods or fields, these being hia


Tavonrite oratoricB, there to taate the delight of
conimimion with God, in the exercises of preyer
and praise.

After faie marriage, Mr Newton made thre? se-
Teral voyages to Africa, and the West Indies. He
sailed from Liverpool in August, 1750, Comman-
der of a good ship. He established public worship
on board, according to the Liturgy of the Church
of England, and officiated himself twice every
Lord's day. He also resamed the Btndjr of LtU
tin, with- great sncceas, and read several anthoTs
in that haga^e, both poets and historian*. In
proporiion, however, as he ^predated the inesti-
mable value of die sacred writings, he b^an to find
Iws time for elegant or elaboiste pursuits, that ap-
peared little better than trifling. His first voyage
lasted about fonrteen mondis. He sailed ag^
from Liverpool, for the coast ?f Guinea, in July
1752. In course of this voyage, bemdea many on-
foreseen dai^ers, he was wonderfiilly preserved
from a conspiracy among his own people, who had
IVBolved to become pirates, uid take pogaession of
the ship. Bat when the plot was nearly laid, and
an oppoitimi^ only wanted to carry it into execu-
tion, two of the conapiretora mte taken ill on the
same day, cme of whom died ; and this suspended
the afiur mitil the whole were discovered. In the
distribution of hia time, he was very refpilar and
econonncBl. He allotted abont eight bonrs for
sleep and mesla, eight hours !!? exerdse and de-
votion, and eight boms to his books ; and dins by
diversifying his engagements, the whole day was
^reeably filled up. From the coast, be sailed to
St Christophers, wh?ice be returned to Idverpool
in Angnst 1753.

VOL. II. 2 a



He remanied only eix weska at bome, and then
?et ant on hia third and lost voyage to Guinea ;
wbich proved to be the shortest of any he had
made. He had for several years enjoyed a pety
feet and equal atate of good health, in difierent
climates ; bat in thie passage, he waa visited with
? fever which had nearly teiminated fatally ; but
on his arrival io the West Indies, he recovered
liiB nanal strength and sjHrits. Here he fonnd an
agreeable associate io the Captiun of a ship front
Xondon, a. man of wncere piety and e^>erieace ia
jvlig^on. For nearly a mouth, they spent every
evening together, on board each other's ship alter-
Aately. While Mr Newlon listened with eager a:t<
tention, his companion's discourse not only in-
formed hia nnderstanding, but impressed his heart,
sod taught him the advantage to be derived from
Christian converse. His conceptions now became
more clear and evangelical ; he was delivered from
a fear which had long troubled him, of relt^sing
into hia former apostasy ; and laogfat to e^^P^
all from the power and promise of God. The
knowledge he received from this intell^ent tiiend,
of the present state of religion, and of the prevail-
ing errors and controvemes of the times, proved
most interesting and osefol to faim. On bis pas-
sage homewards, he had leiaore to digest and re-
flect npon what he had heard ; and perhaps it had
no small inflnence in deciding his choice, amons
the numerona sects and parties with wtich he haa

He sirived again in safety at Liverpool, after
40 absence of twelve months. He intended ti

Sat to sea again, and by the be^nning of Norem-
er,' had made dl the necessary pceparations j but
this design was frustrated, for he was seised

within two days of sutin?, with a fit of. uduMsc;
which induced faia medicd^atteiidants to proaonnce
h unsafe for him to proceed on the voyage. His
.bnainees was chiefly in the slave-trade ; and from
his own account, it appedfs he had not the least
ecniple as to the lawfolneHB of diat abominable and
inhaman traffic He regarded it as the appoint-
ineDt of pioridence : as a commercial occupatioD,
he considered it ae respectable and lucradve. Yet
heconld not help thinking lumself a aort of gaoler;
and was sometimes shocked at the thought of an
employment so conversant with chtuna, bolts, and
shackles. On this account, he had often prayed that
he might be fixed in a more humane profeasion.
His anxiety was increased by Mrs Newton's ill-
ness, which was the occasion of great solicitude to
him, especially as he had yet no settlement or
competent provision for the futore. A situation,
however, whs soon procored for him, as tide-sur-
veyor in the port of Liveq)oo), to which he en-
tered in October, 1755. Tfaia waa an office of
considerable emolument, and afforded him a com-
petency, which he had neither Boaght nor expected.
Being now fixed in a settled habitation, and
finding his business would aSbrd him some leisure,
he devoted hfc time to the prosecution of sprritnal
Knowledge. To this design be resolved to make
all his stupes subservieat, and to sacrifice hia
elasaicd and mathematical pursuits, which he bad
still carried on at intervals. His first effort was
to acquire as much Greek as might enable him to
underatand the New Testament, and the Septna-
giat ; and having made some progress in this, he
entered upon the Hebrew, which he- learned to
read with tolerable ease, though he was by no
means a great proficient inr any of the ancient ha-


guagM. He read also bodm of the beat wiitera in
dinnitf, in Latin and French, as well aa in Ei^
luh; and BccDRtomed himself to t

qoently on religion! anbiects. He had erni, it ap-
pears, made some nnali attempts in tbe way of
preaching or exponnding ; and many wirited him
to engage more extensively in thme ministerial
employments, to whii^ his own mind waa in-
clined, as be considered it a sort of criminsl bnry-
ing of tie talent not to ?ccapy it, after having so
olramly devoted himself to the service of God.
He was dissuaded, bowerer, by the advice of a
judicioot and affecdonate friend, from becoming
an itinerant preacher, or settling among the Dis-
?entefa, a step which most probably would har?
prednded him from those important scenes of ser-
vice, to which he was sfterwanls appointed. Ho
preferred the Established Chsrch, tfaof^ be had
at first some scruples aboat sabscribing the Ai-
ticles ; ^vhich, however, were easily removed.
' With this resolution, Mr Newton applied to the
Archbishop of York, Dr Gilbert, for ordinaUm ;
hating in December, 175S, received B title to a
cnracyi Imt his application met with a refusal;
-iconched, however, in the softest terms imaginable.
No further steps appear to have been takmt in this
bneiness, until 176^ when he had the cnracy of
Olney proposed to bim, and was recommended b^
Lord Dartmouth to Dr Green, Bishop of Lincoln;
?of whose candour end tenderness be spoke willt
ijincJi respect. The Bishop admitted him as a om-
didate for orders; Bndonuie29thof April, he waa
ordained Deacon at Bnckden ; and priest, in Jane
the following year. In the Mrish of Oloey, he
found many \nio not only had evsngelical views of
the Inilh, but had also long walked in the light


and experience of tl : Bat like all' aiher pepnlmu
nd iiMiiu&otarii^ towns, it conttuned gicit Tarielf
ofcItaracWr. Smne dissolute and profu^ and
others canying their reUgions zeal to excess; be*
ing full of that knowledge, " wbich pnfFeA ap,~
but greatly deficient in the dntiee and chanties of
piactical Christianity. The popnlation was abore
two thonsand, most of tbem poor, and following
the ecciq>ati^ of laee^making. Mr Newton was,
bowerer, singnlarly fortnnate in ministering to
th?r relirf, ^roogn the beneficence of Mr Thorn-
ton, tnm wbom he receirad annnslly a siun of
?200, with pennission to draw for wbaterer more
be night have oo?eion ts distribote; and be Btatea,
that daruig the si?teen years be resided at Otney,
he could not have received from Mr Thornton,
for this pmpoee, less tban ?3000.

Another event of public interest whicb distio'
gnished Mr Newton's residence at OIney, was the in-
timate coimection, both in a lit^ary and a religions
point of view, which it eslabliBhed between him
and lite celebnted poet Cowper, who lived in a
honse adjoming the vicarage, where he spent many
yean seqnestMred fi^tm the world ; holding solitary
Gonverae wid) the mnsee, or indulging in the in*
nooent recreations of bis little select and peacefol
society. Mr Newton wrote the Preface to ttia
first edition of bis poems ; and his name aftei^
wards held a distingnisbed place among die nume-
rons correspondents, to whom Cowper addressed
Us inimitable Letters. A report was ctrcalate^
bowever, and generally believed among Cowper'a
friends, that the deplorable melancholy which
donded and distempered the mind of the recluse
poet, vat, if not deiived, at least fostered and in-


CKMod by Ilk intuBBCy widi Mr Newton ; wbotf
nuBtakeii seali gloomy doctrinei, hmI seren dkr
ci^ine, were alleged not mnvly tolnTe iojued bi*
health, but to bare affected Ue imagimUum, and
Rank his ^nrita iuio krecorerable despondoicy.

There can be oo doubt, that religUHi, mieapplied,
imy hare socb an effect, that iiutead of miiustm^
iog consolation, it may plunge tbe mind into
deepar ileqmir. It may be qneetioned, bowerei)
riietber the tendency of Mr Newton's miciie^,aDd
intercourae widi lus distinguished tiieod, may not IB
tliis instance have been nuHrepresented. It is wdl
known that the symptoms of Cowper's moibid de-
tvesHion, begKn to ducorer tbenuelvei from hie eap-
lieet years,and dmt SDbBe()iient erente tended to in*
crease thiB melandioly disorder, which bad grown
into a physical and constitutional diseaee, long h?>
fen be knew Olney. Instead of tbe Scriptores or
religions conneetjons adding to this malady, the
fact appeals to be qnit? tbe reverse. It was frun
the Bible that bis distempered mind receired tfaa
Gnt censolatioas it erer tasted. When he came
to Olney, he had studied his BiUv with nch odi
vantage, and was so well acquainted with its d?f
ign, that he enjoywl, wilh tlu exception of ehoit
intervBls, a settled traaqtullity and peace, wUcfa
continued iot teToal y?an in sttccesaion.

llieM fkcle, tbea, woold lead us to infer, tiiU
hie ctmTene mth die doetiinea of ScriptNie, and
irith derotienal eociety, was tbe soutice ?f kw

rtest bapgnneas ; that in them altwe be foniHi
cmly sonsbine he ever enjoyed, throuf^ the
doady d^ of his afflicted life. His malady, how-
?Ter, wbiiiui was rather mppraased :^an Hab^ied,>
ob]^ required some canse of iTritBtion,,eitbar real
or imaginary, to bnak ont afreeli, wiih all its train


of (UibibI and dutmnng apjvebeiuiioDS. For aneb
u the ]iM?0iBitable natore of this morbid ,tww-
{Mnuoent, that any object of coHstant atteotioB
tlut shall occupy ? mind so diepoaed, whether
love at fear, icience or religion, even the slighteat
accident, may b? die ioalxuiDent of exciting it.
Tbe fiieiiib of Cowper, therefore, might in thia
?a?^ with aa iniidi reaMin, have blamed the fio-
tifma of Homer, ae the gloomy trntbi oi the Bible ;
for MB ia the mere matter of iaet, the eeeape of a
-faaie, or the death of a biill-&icb, were as likely oo-
<^?iBong of renewmg the liiaorder, as a prayer ar a
MnsMu And it i< ntore than probable, that this
ndascboly relapoe had a liteiwy, and not a leli-
fpam migm ; for the first eyiapUimB of it wei?
di?c?rered in his coBversation, soon after he had
engaged ia some new aubject of oompositioiu

AnotW' eminent person who acknowledged
Siimarif greatly bene&ted by Mr Newton's minis-
tty and eorreipondence, waa the Rev. Tbomas
SoMK, tfaencnrate of Raveuatmie, and WeaCon Uifc-
'denvood, in. tha Tidniw of Ohiey ; wd ainee m
4KlenHidy known, as the anthf^ of > Cmmmonr-
tary on ute Bibl^ StfUMma, aad wiaaa othar
tffwtiam on leli^ow sdqecta. lUa oakbiUed
mitec bad at that tiow imtnbed t?>y eironeoaa no-
tioiis of religioB ; ha was ? Soaman ; aaul violently
prejudieed apNuat heth the persona and priwu{^
of his man aerioiu bowthren, whom he was in the
habit of lidicnling as MethodiatS) l^:ots, and ev
thnaJMrts. - He md entered into an epistolary war
with Mr NewloD, in the hc^ of brii^ing' hina
over to hi* own aentimenta ; bat instead of feiUa^
his opponeoit in this controrerey, I '
self, in a ritort time, a convert to
be had already Bti(


bonred with ill ^ ingeiiiiity of rgnment, to sub-
Tat. Tim intmBtingceirMpcnideucr, which was
canied on from May tilVDecember, 177^ will be
found m Mr Newton's Letten.

Dming Mr Newton's residence st Oloo]^ be
pablisbed, 1767, b volume of S?mons; in 1769,
^tpeared his Reriew of Eccleuaaticsl Historjr;
and in 1779, a -nJnine of Hymns, some of wbich
were composed by Cowper ; tba only other work
be pablisbed, was bis Cardipbonia, which appeared
in 178U From Otney, Mr Newt<mwu removed
in 1780, lo the rectory of the niiited pansbes of
St Mavy Woolnotb, and St Mary Wooldmrcb-
Haw, Lombard Sb?et? London, on tbe presenl*-
tioa of his friend, Mr Theraton : Here a new
cene of action and of nsefalneu wu set before
bim. . Plaoed in tbe centre of tbe metrc^lis, in
an (qmleot neighboorhood, witb connectionB
daily increasing, be had now a oomae of seirice to
parsne, in serenJ respects di^rent from bis for-
laertfitaa. B^ng, however, weH actinainted with
ibe worA ot God, and the heart of man, be pro-
poaed to himself no new wet^mns of warftre for pnl-
ung down tbe etnmg-Golds of sm and Satan around
lum. He perceived, indeed, moot of his pa-
riabionera too intent npon thdr wealth and mer-
cbandise, te pa^ much r^ard to tlwir new minia-
te ; but idnce tbey would not come to lum, be
was determined that tbisshonldnotintenvpttbrir
mterconrae, or deter him from doing bis dnty.
Soon sfter bis institution, be circubited among
tbem a printed address on the usual prejndicea
that are taken up against tbe gospel. He mcou-
nged tbem to visit bim at bis own bonae, whate,
like a fiuber among bis children, he used both to
Oiterttun and instruct them. Here alio, the poor,

the afflicted, and Ute tempted, fotuid bb Myhun,
and a sympathy, which they could scarcely find in
an equal degree any where else. These end othet
acta of hii miaistry, whatever fhiita of iiotiue?a
they mi^t bare produced, were at least proofs of
%is affection for fail flock, and of hla coBCem for
^eir Bptritnal welfem. They were not, howorei^
niqirodiictJTe of adTsntages to the numerous circl?
of acqaainlance which snironnded lum in thia
pnUic BtatioD.

Hie benerotence was remarkable, and scarcely
ft single day passed without giving faim an op[iortn-
ttity of ?xerUng it. It was loC confined lo his own
roof, nor to thoee merely within the drcle of his
-ministerial labours. He was found ready -to take
an active part in relieving lite miserable, directing
tbe anxiona, or recoveriju; the wanderer, in.what-
ev?r state or place be mi^t discover them. Among
other instances, may be menUoned that of Clan-
dina .Bachanan, idio has since risen to audi a dis*
tingaisbed placo in the missioiiary and literary an-
nals of India. Mr Newton not only received him
into bis patronage and fri^idahip, bat introdnced
liim to Mr TlioTQton; who, finding turn a yontli of
talents, bui destitute of pecuniary resourcea, ge-
nwously si^pmled turn at iLe University of Cam-
bridge, until he bad completed bia edneaiion. He
was tben appointed one of the cbepltuns to the
East India Company, at Calcatta, , and shortly af>
ter entrusted by the Marquia Wellesly, then G07
vemoT'general, with the important and laborious
duties of Vice-proT08(, and Professor of CJasBics,
ia the college at Fort William. It deserves to be
recorded to the honour of this distipguished pror
t^ee, dist from bis success ^road, he not only
refunded to his liberal patron the whole e^wnaa

S86 convshts Vrom iNFiDSLirT.

of hit miitvrnty edvcatioDi but likewise pl&ced in
hia bmds an equal HOinof ?500, fortheedncBtioa
of any pions y onth diat miglit be deemed wor^y
of that aemBtSRce once afforded to himself. Be-
Niles this, be appropriated no less a anm tban
? 1650, f<n- ranooM esaayB on tbe nibject of Indian
Itterstnre, and tbe best means of extending the
bleanngfl of religion and ciTilization, to that re-
moteportion of the Biitiah dominione.

Tbe noifoTm routine of Mr Newton's clerical
aTOcatJom, fnrnisheB no great rariety of incident.
Soroedmes tbe faiatory of a dngle day might bo
takenaslbe minianiraof awfaokyem-. In 1785,
In prdilialied two additional roltunes of sermons, on
thesereral interestiDg passages of Scripture, wludi
formed tbe basis of Handel's admired Oratorio of
the Messiah ; a piece of compoeitjon then in the
xenithof itapopalarity, and the subject of eonrersa-
tion in almost every company. In December 1790,
be lost his wife, for whom he had always cherished
an undimimsbed and even excesssire attachment.
The day of her deatk he ever after commemorated,
by obserring ananmrnlsectusioninspecialremem-
Ivance of bo', and prodndng on these occasions R
?art of Uttle ele^ee, or sonnets to her memory.
Tho'same year he had the honorary degree of
D. D. conferred upon him, by the UmrerMty of
New Jersey in America, and the diploma sent
him ; bnt as he never intended to accept tins hoiw
Onr, be begged, in this instance, to decline it

Old age was now advandi^ irith rapid pro-
ptu, and making giadnal inroads upon bis ^inil-
tiaa. Bnt though on the Tei|;e of fourscore, hia.
Mgftt nearly gone, and incapable, through deaf-
f joining in conTorsation ; yet his pabKc
IS regnhrly coBtinned', wid r ' -~ *


widi m C4?tftdenble d^ree of hia (onatr aoimB-
tion; even wbao be could not me to ned hia text.
Hu memory, bdeed, wai obswred ta fail, but hii
jodgenoent in diTine things remained ; and though
eome depression of spirits waa observed, which hm
the natnrol remit of bie advanced age. his percep-
tion, his taste, sad zeal tor the truths he had long re-
cmved and taught, were erident. Hia menl^ m
well M his bodily faculties began at lengtli, slowly
and precepUbly ta decline; diongh be had no

Sin, and gentnidl^ appeared easy and cheerfid.
e became quite incapable of coDyeraation, and
emdd not even rect^nise hia moat intimate friends;
though he continiied calm and sensible to his lait
hour. He expired oa the 31st of December 1807,
in the 82nd year of his aaa, and waa buried inth*
vault of his own church, where a plain marble
tablet waa erected to hia memory, with an epi-
t^ih written by himself.

The reflections which the contemplation of Mr
Newton's character naturally auggest, are exactly
such as frequently occurred to himself on a renew
of his past life. " That one of the most ignorant,"
says he, " the mostmiserahle, and moat abandoned
of slares, abonld be plucked from hia forlorn atate
of exile, aind at lengUi be ^pointed minister in the
parish of the first magistrate of the ?rBt city m the
wwld that heabouldthwe, not only teatily of ancli
gnu:e, but stand npaa a sin^jular instance and rnonn-
ment of it thathe should be enabled to record itia
bis bislwy, preaching, and writings, to the world at
large; ia a fiict I cua contonplate with admink
tion, but can nerra anfficiendy estimMe. Petr
iafa divine grace may have recovered some from
an eqnal degree of apostaay, infiddity, and- preflt-
gacj* ; hat few.of tlieiii.lMr? beeq redeemed fim>*


mch a Btate of ttoBery and depreMion m I wu in,
upon die cout of Africa; when die niiMniglit
mercy of God wrougbt out my deliTerance." It ia
eertunly difficult to concMra one more doeply
auk in profligacy and impiety than ba was; mofe
hardeDed in moid depniTity, or mwe irreclaim-
sble in hia moral habita. Yet he waa brong^
not only to be a believer in the goapel, bat a
hidifid and sealotu apostle of it, in a moat p?>-
Mineot and hononrable atationt

Hie tmthH which bad proved instnunental in
ynrking out hia recovery, he tabonred throoghont bii
niniatry to inculcate and eatabliali ; not only from
tlie Scripmree, but from ^s own happy ezperienc*-
0f tbeir efficacy. He dwelt mach on docttiiwa
which we easentiBl and peculiar to Chnstiaiulf.
Hia manner in die palpit waa by no means eqaal
to. hia matter. It waa thwe, peitiapa, dnt he ap^
peared to leestadwitage ; as he did not geBerallf
kirn at accnncyin die comporitimi of his aennonB,
nor at any addreea in the delivery of them. Hia
mcerance ww fiv from clear, and hia attitudes tu?>
gnuieliiL He posaeaaed, however, so mnch aifeo
tion for his people, and zeal for their best intereeta^
that die defect of hia manner was of Httle cwwide^
ration wtdi hia eosstant bearaa. The parent^
like tende mco a and affectiiM which accompanM'
tm impactions, made tfaem prefer him to pteacfaen
who, on other aceonnts, were much more gena-
ndly popular. Otfaera might be mmv admire^
bat all loved him ; and amidst die extravagant
Botiona and nnscriptnral peeitiona, which have
eometimea diagraced die rriigions world, be nevw
depaited, in any inatuice, from sonndly uid an.
imuiy promnlgatiiig the faith ; of whidi his wrfti
fngs wiU fcBain 4m bert evidence.



"tBia riegut nhd vdmninmn miter, wu o^ of
die fntenuty of litasiy infidela wlio flonnsbed at
the time of the FrencbB>eToliitioB. The disc^le
and the ealo^sl of Voltiure, he bad early imbibed
the tenets of that blupbemous schocd ; nod was
Iwig one of the noet dutinguisliediiiembeTB in tbe
brilliant- and faduoBBble circlea of atheistieatdhi-
leeoiAyi Few, it appears, exceeded him ae a har-
dened and reeolnte aceptie ; and so finnly was he
rooted in tbe prenuling creed of the Academy,
that ^ improhflbility of his converaion was pro-
verlna] among his companiona, and funisbed tbem
with a theme for the exercise of their mhallowed
wit ; ae theje were accustomed, m their saUrical
apeem aRaiusI Tevelation, topratend, thttthe mi-
nde of La Harpe's becoming a Christian, wonld
be antiSdent to convince tfa^ of th^r owb im-
moitality. Coatnuy to their expeciatioi^ this mi-
ttcle was acconqilisJwd ; and he becsine not only
a believer in tbe truth of tjie gocfielf bM one of ita
moet coorageom msetton, msintuung its prin-
dplea in the bee of penecHticHi, imt?iaoiuneiil>
and exile.

During that dismalrdga of pfailos^hy md rea-
son, whii^ confounded the disUnctions of mwal
and sodal order, and overspread the &ee of reve*
latiwi with a total edipse, leaving AtheiBm and


ananhy to pejfonn on a darkened tfaeatra, tlwir
fesrinland bloody tragedy, LaHaipehadtlienii*-
foTtime to be marked out as one of the victimH of
rerolntionary fnry. It was in the dnngeooH of die
Lnxembonrg, that the light of tmth paid him an
Bnaongfat and unexpected nsit ; that tfaoee Scrip-
tores which he had takot np, merely with the new
of finding some amosemeDt for his ^imagination, in
the Bnblmae beanties of tbeir poetry first opened
his eyes to the folly and tbe danger irf his infidri
principles. The nncerity of these impressions be
aftenrards evinced in die most open and imdMinted
manner; not only defending CSuistiai^^ widi \m
pen, but, like Panl on the hill of Mat?,MildlypTa-
cbiming it in the midst of death, &am the pnbUe
tribunals of the capital { and waniing his deluded
conntrynen no longer to pay their snperstitiow
adoratitms at die altar of an unknown God.

John FnANcia de la Harpb was bom at
Fnia, November HO, 1739. His Atther was ?f
Swiss extraction, and descended fnnn a ntMe f?-
inily in die Pais de Vaud. He entered early into
die Fren^ sertice, as Captun of artillery, and inH
sfbarwards made a Knight of St Lotus ; Imt he dSd
not live to attain distinction in his profeaaiofl, or
leal^ a fortune. He had menied a lady, emiahle
for ber Tirtues and good connections, by whom ho
had a number of children, most of whom ?ed in
infancy. Tbe subject of this sketch was among die
'' yonng^ ; and the only one that sorvived bis pl^
rents, who Idi him nnprovided, and an orphan, at
the age of seven. Thus abandoned to die vroM,
widiout friends or Mtrimony, he had no other i?-
Aooroe bat in tbe charity of some of dioee benevo-
lent institutitme in bis native city, where t^'-indi-


fcnt mA the dsttitide cltm fiad a ecnnferuble
ayliHB. He Ind already efinced a capacity aad
iMelligaice eittaordmary fbrhisf?aiB ; and baag
racommended ta 93. AMelin, Principal of the C<^
]eg? (rf Harconn, who aoon discovered bia abiiitiea,
be recited him amoai; hia pupils, and in a than
tOM ohtaiii?d for him a bi>rKii7. Here bia talentt,
which were bia only dependence, were enltiratfd
ivith diligence and saccen. He dlningniahed
hinHelf among hie ctaw-feltowB by the Buperiar
ezo^enee of In* cempoMticns, and for two ane-
oBwdrt Teu*> he eaprcd away oveiy hosiHaiy
fnBB. HiB T^mtBtion gamed him flattering mvb
?f attention, and Inongnt bia eociety into greatre-
qneM; to that be became a man of tbe world, even
-before he bad finiahed his stadieB. He displayed
a strong taste far poetry and satire, and was ao-
cnsed of composisg ludicrons verses on bis benfr-
bctor, M. Asselin. Thongh he jwoteated bis ia-
Boeence, and hia detests^n of mcb base ingratir
tade, he was nM credited ; and accordingly be was
eonmutted, fer eoane monlbs, to a hooae of correC'
ticm; wbich considerably tBirtisbed his rising ftme,
and ?Bade a oeep impression m his own mind.
The confession which be made on tbi* aSiur af(et>-
warde, b one of Us tragedies, was, that be had
Dompoaed tome impradent canplet* on cvtain ob^
?earein?ndnala in die coll^^ wbich his comradea
bad collected and enbugeil by adibtiotia irf their
ewiL] bat that he sever had the leaM sUeatioa of
girii^ offtnce to any man.

Inmiedittely on finishi^ his edscstion, he be>-
gan to leim MnmectioiiB w^ literary cbei?cten>
AoiDDg tbe int sf tbeae was Diderot, wboae eir-
tbonasm in tbe adteiatical philosophy, waa well
calcQiaUd to seduce die yovng aad miwary ; ab

coiivniTS raCni infidzlity.

dui^ &om Us firat cjoovenwtionw{llihiin,'beai?-
tert^ied th?. opinion thu his prino^i
bad ta?te, and would never make him a

tertauied the. opinion thu his prino^eiL-wwe fai
bad ta?te, and would never make him a ^^MelyU>
-In 1759, he made his debvt in Ae caroer of let-

B species o( poetry then very &du?nd>U,
and iawbieh Colanlea?,>IUnce, and Dorat had al-
Ksdy diatingnished thetnaekes. These he callad
Heroide*, or '4I?nHG Epistles ; which were el^
ganily writteo, altJio^^ tbey ^ more credU to
-his t^Dts than hiHprinoip]ea,bMngchie^ levelled
-agaioBt-the priests. His next prodnetion was Ma
tiagedyLof Wanrick, written in Us twenty-fotu^
.year, which met wifli deserved success, and at^
.maintains its popnlanty on the stage. 'It was
?cted' before the Court, and priMorwl the sather
.the hononr of beiiiKpresentod to Lotus XV. Ha
dedicated it to VoUaire, who then swsyed tho
sceptre of Uteratoie ; and tUe |nece of homage pn^
.dnced an invitation to vint him, and lud the fonor
dMion.of an intiiaaU Bcqnaintance between theau
?Voltaire relumed bim a flattering eplAle, pmiB-
ing his genius, bnt eipresung his regret, that ft
.young vna of anch ^rmntaing talent, had ddc
avowed himself .mora de^ndedly, as a pattiaan of
the new jdiflosophy.

Atjbat tine this irafamoiis sect were in the
meridian of dieir authority. They had extended
th?r baleM influence over the regions of polities
and mtmility, and now they seized on the emfHna
of letters, whose faraonrs and rewards they chdoied
the exclosive right of distriboting. The repiua^
tioD of every aiiUiar was in their hands. MecUo-
mty, prot?cted by them, was sure of HDCcees ; wfaib
lalentB, which remsed to bow d??r tribnnel, were
. penecuted and desfHsed. The death-wamirtH of
feme luuLchaiBcter were at tfamr command i audit


WH BQt tmconmon f?r thow who Tentnied to plead
liw CUM of i?]jgion or govenunetU, to be conswned
ta the btHTible cells of the Bastile: especially if
duT had dared (o wotmd the vanity of any phili^
>i^jt?r ?f Dots. The tolenta and success of La
Haipe, mariced bin at oaee as a fit aasodate for
thia collega of coiwpiiaUira, who songht to drav
.wUhia their piecincts erery writer that could re-
flect j^redit OD their party, or serre their neforiona
porpoms. No means of flattery or altueineDl
,werB D^ected ; and consideriiig his precariona
md nalneoded conditian, it ia sot stupriskig that
be yielded to th^r sednctieiis. Had he premuued
fo refase his allegianee, the hri?U sect woald have
Aonished his reaellion by a terrible vengeance.
-The doors of the theatre and the academy, the
auwt pcomiang fields for literary euterprize, woold
bun been shot against him ; and had ne ventured
to pnUishi hia worka would havebeen sneered out
fif circnktnw, by die wit and ribaldry of the phi-
loo^bwa. Hm^ reflectionH, we may auppoae,
had some w^ht widi the orphan poet in embrac-
ing their dogmas ; especiallyas he found theygare
?rea wope to all the passions of youth.

His fame bad now intFoduced him into high so-
(ietyi but without iunushing him with the neces-
aary meant of expense, it soon obtained him,
Jtowever, an appcuutment eoi^;enial to his taste, as
Mie c^ the editors of the Litetvy Gazette, a jour-
nal entirely in the hands of the philosophers, and
one of the most popular engines for the diffusion
of th^ pernicious doctrines. Here he first dis-
tinguished himself as a critic, by the justness and
aohdity of hia observations. His Buccess as a dra-
matic writer, emboldened him to make another at*

894 coKvBRTa from ittribSLirr.

tempt) and in 1761, and the tm mcceeding yw^
be [mdiicad 'DiiKdeoD, FlnramaDd, bihIOiisMtw;
all difierent ia their Uml, Int bU cennued wiA
eztrane Mverity, and the last twv nerer acted but
mice. Iliey shewed a laudable aiaiety to ?sccdi
but ibey irere ntanqftctwred too rafndly to Hoatahi
tbe i^ratatim of Warwidc ISmsc M)n?s greatly
mortified the anthor, who, from an eateeea vi con^
fidence and Tstuty, fell into the oppoute ^Sfcme
of du^nn and diBconragement. He moimeed
tbe tbMtre for some time, and devoted hima^ to
senend literatDre, iriuch appeared to be mon bi^

Tbe nnmerona aeademiet then opened in almott
every town in France, offered to j<|in{r men of tar
lenta tbe mean* iA tuuig into no^ce ; while d??i
pritw, tf obtained, pared B eonrce of GonndaaUe
pecnniary emolument. Umbo also were gob^
pletely in the hand* of dw pUloMiidiece, wbo
Bade' every bianch of knowledge eerre to prop*''
gatetbeir'iaTonrite opmione, and b?ld ont animal
praniomK, as -bribes ia idlnre aafnra^ Mniiu imo .
tb^ rariu. ;For these hononTH, Ia Haipe en^
tered aa a competitor, and -few woe more.soccee^
fal. In die space of ten yean, be carried oS
twelve medals, besides various secondary fuizMt
He improved the style of acadeidicsl oratory, by
introdoong into their dedamations a more dmste
and graceful eloquence. Among other topics
wliidli dieae exercisea embraced, was tJiat of pn>^
aonntsog enlogiee or laudatory barangues, in
praise of eminent men. Among tbe " Eloges''
which our Budior wrote, that cm Henry IV. pro-
posed by the academy at Rochelle, was most ad'
iBired ; dion^ those on FeneW, Racine, and Ga^
^inat, were reckoned little inferior, either in ole-

H. DB LA HAHPK. &9j(

gsnce of ityle, or exact ettinute of dmncteri
That on Radne is admitted to be one ?rf dte fiiMst
moimnientB that was erer raised to die glcHy of
the greatest poeL His other academic fteeeB' in
poeVy, are more diatinniibed fm cfaaaUneM of
Mylei-and fedlity of remficaliont than for genuine
poetical qniitk In 1766, be pnbliehed a udlee-
ticNi of fogitive peeae, both in ^mte and vene,
onJkr die title of " Melangm lilterures." -
' With all his eficRta, however, he could etarcelr
inaiiTe a precarious aab?Htence: and to add to h^
cmbarrasBinentH, he bad entraed very young into
the matrimooiol atate, having espoused a yom^
woman, of poor parents, but of an accomplished
edneation. Ha liad imprndently inspired his wife
with his own Kttnwy embnwasm. Slie alwaya
accompanied biro to die theatre^ and became bia
cfmipanion and conneetior in bis stadies. Deroted
exclnsivielf to these occupations, for which sbe had
' oensideraUe talents, she forg^ot to make proV^bn
for her tiunily, or gnard against those disastrons re^
veraee which ber husband liad experienced ; and
after the ^ure of Gnstavns, the young' cot^e
were reduced to the most distressing poverty. In
tfak forlmn craidition, they received an' invitation
from Volture, to pass some time at bis Castle of
Pwney, to wut the return of better fntnne. '
PeiTiey,' at that time, was a place of extmor-
dinary notoriety. It waa the centre of pbiloeo-
phical correspondence. No iDeasares weretakeir
by die members of diat sect, witiiont consnjtii^
its patriarch. The yonng, who were initiatod at
their mysteriefl, reeiarded it as a duty to make a pil<
grimage, once in tbeir lives, to Uiis great teni|^e of
infidelity, and pay their homage at ^e shrine of its'
fevowite idoL This mania was not limited tti

no cONvsni fhou iiwibxlity.

philaM^en, or men of iMIera. StnugeneftH
Awai^ioiw,?ad fbraigsam froD all conntriw were
kttnctMl bj the aww baUo(ud>W vMtex ; Md wb?)
(be viUi^ of Feiney wm vaeBipthla ui cnlenaiar
tag tUe contianl iiuBnx of riuton, howe* were
^Mtit a|.G? re fe tbwifwdel lecepttm. thr
cUueua of wluch taiMd this idle conoeky <tf tni>
jt U an iBto ? profitable Bpecsluioii. Tbe lewtH-
ttOD (J TiMUn e* tlie Cartle, differed kccotdiMg t?
their nuk or tbev nfrntatum. Noblewen, ?d<

iatainacy. The more olweare, who came ewreljr
to admire^ thong^ tbemeelreo enffieiently hon-
oorad, if tbey ^wex admitted to a fdi^t leput, el
arladh the peraoB wbo wm the object i^ thci*
jeamey, De:rer aaada bia iqifwinuice. Sonw, (aaa
iaroMnd, codU ordy obtain pesmiasiiMi to plac*
themaelrea behind a bedga, or b a halt tbw?^
vfaicb the i^0B<^>h? nu^ ehanee to paM.
Hair ezpectationa w<n onea diai^ pwttadi b?l
dmr did not regret the time they bad toat.

lliey who wwe fortuute eno*^ to catdiA
gUnqwe of hit poaout fat me m??neitt, iMnraed
tome ratiBfied ; and if he did dwm the hnumr, (?
eidtange cifilitiei, or addraaa ihem in a few woidv
jt famiuied a t?xt for eoBrenatiM darit^ the rert
of tlieir Uvea. Accatfomed in this manner to (stc
joy almost all t^e bMtoora wbkh arb rendered to
kmgs, and eren the wonhip which ia paid to the
Deity, V^dtaire atill foand atHnething wantuig to
complete faia gloiy- He was in the h^t of eor-
reapmidiiig iamibarly with most of the rugniiif;
princes of the age ; but hia pride yna not aa^fied,
anleaa they bad stooped from their thrmiea,, or
eeme bom thor cartels to pay their daroira ?>
hia levee; and we bare already noticed how mm^


Jm mft manyied, friicti tbe Eaipsnir of GMwrnaj
-bMtinrad'die haaonr ?f & rait on A? derout nf/a
4)(-Beroe, .iriUch he refaied to tbe in&del phUoao-

Tbii liteniy- Mndenwie, tbe bntlantctraiCof
the Mnwa, and tbe fuhionable TmoitjiS gvmt,
WM in the bright of ,itiBpIend?iirtiid pop^uity,
wfaani!.* Harpo fRived, to faitidptte ad bevji
fMl ta its w MDMemBat*. Vt^taira had emet?d
A printe-tiHUK, where be bad bia (wra tiage^aa
npraacmtadi The andigice^r namtoxoni p aaed
4^ atniigen iriia wen vinton at tbe Caatlis .(v af
Fbetidiofficen, from the ganiaanB ia the mujUkhuv
hood. TTw prindpal acKwa, wwe-YoltMie BiBiaaH
Hadeine Doiia, hu niece, Cranm', aod Chabaoao.
-Tbe tbcMiical entortaiinaeBta wen foUowad h jji
anppw and a bril. In iUb rontine of gaiMf^Mtd
^MMpation, Mouriew and Madame de La Harpe
wen qoaiified to ibine, espeae^ in the-dnmitic
.way; ?? diejr both wne well reraed in dedama-
'tion, and wen agneable in ibcir penon and mtae
ner& Tbeir?KbiUtionB never Med to command
aypl aua e, ax] Voltaire lunwlf ahnys apolie trf
weirtalratatwidi prain. ~H? called Lb Haipe
bia fiiToinite pupil ; while the yoong comedian Iiob^
tmred lum with iht name (^ papa ;- and though be
MRDetimas, on the etag^ took dn liberty of dteih
ing bw-venei, vet the kritid>le old mm aheweri
DO reaemment, knowing him to be ao dm?ted to
bis person end fail works. During bia sofoatn
here, be was anxionB to nndertafce eome wok of
nwit, that might iDoeaee hia reaonrcea, and re*
etfaUiah hia fame ; bat amidst cofltiand plear
BUces and distractions, nothing of limponuiee
cenld-be efiected, awl be fell into.aaiMe of great
dai<{>cniknce> Stmie adywHageou ofie^ jrar*


made to him from Rboh, regavdiagtbe edscatiM^-
m believe, of the Toyalfiunfly; but hie patmii ad-
vised hiiU' to abaadon the prqect, in hopes that
his talentH might recamtuend Um to the Dake ds
Choiseul, at that time the Hacsxua of French

. After sOymg a yen at Fereey, without fr9-
dncii^ any thing bat a fetr detached and unfr-
nished poetical pieces, he retnnied to Paris, *b4
entered again upon his career of critiasm ; joioiii^
himself with Lacombe, the proprietor and editor
of die Mercury, a Journal which was another o^sn
fw the diseeminHtion of philosophical (^nions. He
Iiad also projected a history of the &mons League.;
mailed by the sample of our diBtingnished conn.-
trymsn, Robertson;. Imt the want of eocomage-
nent indnced him to relinquish the idea. Beings
mbont this time, admitted into ttuniliaiity with the
JDake de Choisenl, at his Bi^^gestion, he translated
Snetoniaa, the iNMT^ber of the Ccesars ; vhich had
never ^tpeared in French. Bnt this short sniuhine
of cotirt &?oar was soon clouded by the disgrace ct
his patron ; and he had the additional misfiwtiuM
to incur the displeasore of Bichlien, being sop-
posed to be the andior of some satirical Toreee oa
ikat nobleman. He irritated the pariiament, by
vriting & severe article in the Movnry, gainst
ihe eoonomiais ; but the minisliy, who were op
posed to th? body, protected him ; and thi? brml
rather inrasased tluai dimiudied his Fepntaticm.
it was on the sta^ however, diat his talents ap-
peared to best ad^uitage ; and bis two dremas id
Melanie and Barowdl, coatriboted to raise him
?gain in the public opinion. The fmiDcr had a
|H?digioiis nm in the drdes of l^vis, partly boa
Ua bong an attadc vfoa religi?i, and pnUyfroaa


tbe tttifice or tendenwm of D' Alerobert, irho shed
t?an vrtry lugfat Bt cert?n pans; whidi impomd
iipon Uie bdiea a kind of Dece?nty to symp^iM,
M aU tbe world would hare reproached them with
.Coldoeea and inseiiHibility, if tney bad been seen
widi dry eyes, at tbe moment when a pbilo?Dpber
wept. Aa it wm ^ policy of the aUidatical sect
tl> wise erery inddent that might contribute to the
ezecotion of Huar projects, this dr^a became a
fkTOnrita with tbe whole party ; and Voltaire passed
it a bigh compUment, by saying it had giren a mor^
tal Mow to fanatidBm. It ia quite amnsing td
think of tbe importance die Parisians then at-
tached to tbe merest Imgatelles. The reading of
a play, was enough tA set all their spirits in a fer-
ment. The quarrels of an actreaa, would have
created divisionH in the nunistry, end thrown
vliole colony of the nobleaae out of conrt faronr.
TheKpntatioQwhidiLa Harpehad tbns gained
i>j his varions prize essays, fiterary criticisms, and
poem^ remarkable for their ele^ce and spirit, at
length opened tbe doors of tbe French Academy ;
into which he was admitted in 1776, on the dead)
of bis rival Colardeaa. Fhnn diat time bis n^
pntation, and bis means of subsistence, were mora
eelidly established; end thongh lie still bad hia
enemies and detractors, and was engaged in fre-

r:nt literary disputEe, tbey never injured him in
public opbion, nor prort^ed him to retort
widi mdenesB or personality. From this period,
iherefMe, to tJie Revolntion, bis life preaents leas
imerest, fia it was past in compsratiTe ease and
tranquiHity. His ac<]uaintance became more ex-
tended, and be was t^en into intimate bmiliarity
with Tnrgot, and tbe famous mbister Necker.
He was not le? a fayomite, or lees connected


with tbe encyclt^mditte ; sod was at tUs titne ae^
eounted' an adept in that RudacioDH pliilosophy:.
f^ich infected Fnoce, and finally dissolved bet,
Morak. His poetical and ctitiral lalests were.
Vtill'CBltirated vritli great application ; and amoi^i
ike productions wlndi appeared in coiBse of this
Ime, were his Kivat MueS) ia cMnpliinent- la-
Voltaire, writtm in 1749 ; and tbe f^Uowii^

ST be gave an Elogs on that bero ot modeia
delity, who had so long patroiused him. His
dramatic perfonnanees were Menzikoff, tbe Barme-
cUes, Corialanuar Joan of Naples, I^ilectetet, and
Vn^nio; which, tfaongh -they did- not obtaia'th?
success of Warwick, yet fluppmied his r^ntatioB'
M an-autkor.

i He 'guned no small celebrity by bis readings, an
art which be poaBessed in -a very aapertor manner ;
sad wbicb-he had greatly improved, by practising
dediunation wMle under the eye of Volture. It
was then fiishionable ti? vast tavwds to attend at
tbereadmgs given by andiors, of their own wivks,'
previonH to publication. 1a Harpe's success, was
extremely flattering aa his Tarions productions
Rteceedod each other so rapidly ; and be was in-,
Tited to make his exhibitions in so many circles^
that he was soon compelled to be eeleet in die
dunce of the audience he faononred- with this
gratification. So great was his tene that the
yoni^ Qneen expressed swish to hear Um.

In 1776, he gave a tianslatitm of the LnMadof Cb-
iiioeiH,with notes, imdalifsof^theauthor; andwna
MiglBged to abridge tbe Abb6 Revoet's " Histoire
dee Voyages ;" en employment somnch beneatii his
talents, that it was generally understood to be a
bodcseller's peculation, ratber than an eSan.t^
literary amlntion. He produced tsHoub pieces ia


vene, 0dm, TraMlotiens from Lucan himI Tsmo;
aod'-B poem infotir -cantos, entitled Tai^.ad Fe-
Udw, imitated from die Aisbian, aboonding in
?I^^tly and humoroiiB sallies, gay and voluptBoas
imagM ; and reckoned a master-piece in that kind
'?f writing. ' Tbe solid and InminoiiH critkusms witb
whitji he ha3' enriched the pages of the sereral
jonniBlB which he cosseted, fonaed no bdmII
poctioa of hia ghny ; it was in that kind of talent
that be puticutarty eicelied, and to which he had
deroted a great part of hia life. This made him
be univowilly regarded as the oracle of taste, and
ncnred his appointment as firat professor of lit?-
ntore in the newly erected Lycenm.

Hie school under diia name, was opened at a
very favounble time, (1786), and tbe ptnmlarity
of La Harpe's lectnres was nnerampled. The
idleness and satiety of plesHiires of all kinds, which
dien reigned m; Paris, WImV the wits and pbilo-
flophers to invent some new kind of spectacle for
tbe p?qndar amnsement. This led to the institn-
tion of tiie Lyoenm, an academy of the Bellee
liettree, where every body mig^t attend who had
? Mate for learning, or trisfaed to acquire a Hnpec'
ficial knowledge of science, or to repair tJie defi-
ciencies of a neglected education. La Harpe'a
soccesB was unprecedented. The ladies nn in
arowd? to bear him. His lectures became the esb-
ject of general conversation, and were preferred to
all other entertNoments. His popvlarity with the
ladies, whose taste and patrenage were then omm-
potent, set de last Beat to his reputation. In ibis
institntion be smoothed for diem the nigged paths
of study 1 pleaded' the cause of polite learning with
eloquence and effect ; and was rewarded in the

vol.. II. 2 c


iiiiiiit niiliiiiiiin Miiiiiii, liji iliii iliiiiiitii iili wfciit

be wu hoiHNired among all ranks. His. con*
paiiy and fait TWts were eagerly c<?ned, and Iw
wa? reonred into the moat polUbad drdea with
(aroorandoMiplBiaance. It was not only amongit
-tiw ladies that he bad admiren ; be had maa^
tided Btriiinton, who were eeger to gratify a ridn
vnloas vanity, by clairuag his acqnaiutane^ and
conrtii^ bis conTersatioii. These lectoresr whjnh
were continiied for many yeats, were a&ematda
collected and arranged by him; and pobliabad midv
the title of " Lycenm : or Comae of litaatnra,
ia twelve Tolames : a work ?^ch justly Milittod
hini'to the appellation of the Erencb Qnintiliaot aod
which has established his fiune <xa an booonraUe
and pennanent baaiB. From the exceUence of tha
oiUdsms, it is nmoh to be legretted, that the
anthor did not live to finaUi his conrse of instnic-
tjon, which he had designed to conUnue. Only
some fi'agmenta hare been left, which haye, since hia
death, been pnblished in four additional vohunea.-
This prodaction naked him at the bead of the
Belles L<9ttreB, and stands a meet splendid and dn*
raUe monoment to his liteiary fame. "He not only
labonis, (says Mr Petitot, speaking of the Lyceom)
to gire to persons of no great knowledge, cmoper
tent inf(HinBtion on the topics of his work, but an-
rests the attentitm of the most learned. In hia
plans, the entline of whidi alone announces a raM
stock of toence and learning, he embntces all agea
IB which litentore has. floaridted. Every CMfr
biated wmk is analyaed and diecnased. The baan-
ties of the eeFsral writer are bafwily displayed,
and thMt fimlta pointed ont, with alt the alnlity of
the most lively and eomid critiusea, Tbat wUeli
distinguiahes La Harpe from other mo^tJi^^ who

H. m ?x nAKFK iiS

tm tnated of Ihentnre is, that -fas >hny? ??
toBiM A? torn of the irerii ha ia iti ( i ? o ?. If b*
-Bpcwks erf die Ibad, m bdiold him bmnnr all the
ncfa coltmn of the bih? of poebT to ' daoonta hi*
^seoBrae. Ifhe trwMof DemoMMDM or CHeera;
?1I the gmt ioteraati of Aihos aad Rome tr*
Ve-prodiwed nnder his pen. If T?atu i? hi*
Aaoe, we are iiiatnitly*Nup?ted to the age ?F
die MDperon ; we ?iil?r into all the myitery of
-the dtwk polity <rf Tiberina, and tpeinble M the
aighl of Nere.

The want of npopoKiaa in the dntrilmlioii of
'1& ntattar, baa beeo objected aa a fault in thia
-work ; that he aometiKieB eats off celebrated an-
-dion wiUi a few pagta, wUls others nearly fill
^ ndame. Ferheps in this he n^fat have been
gvided bvdie hnimnn'of hiiaadi?ice,wboae taete
imc^indoiu, andtrtiobadcmaefortlw pmpoee
'of amuement^ rather than inaUnotion. ^t with
-all Eta impaifefitioiia, it bean the Bndonbted ttamp
of gouBi, and ita fndti are ??? than cotnpen-
aated by ita aelid and TaloaUe qo^liee. It pre-
afota ' to the yowig atodoit, to the poet aad the
OTttcH-, Ae TMy ewenee of the Bellea Lattrw.
Tbcra Utey will find delineated, the plan of their
atodiea, and the pindplea which ou^t to direct
4Im)&i in their pn^Mriom.

- Hub rq>id eketoh of the life and writings of
>Ia Harpe, bringa his biatory down to the nienio-
nbte periml of the Revobuko, tAm he became
innrf'red in die pt^lic mitiortnnea of Ua conntry,
^uA prodnoed the extraordinary chenge in his
-o^aioH alNadf alhuled to. It waa then be be-
ffti to caaveit dioee tahatla to the d^ace of ro-
ligitni and aoaal order, which had so highly di?-
thtyiidied him in the more trivial coBtrorsMiea of


iHeMnie; aod thiu hw doquence i^ead -him >
tiii>lHUBeBt> mwe durable tliui those, proud, but
pmshmg itrnctnreSf which ^ greatest philosop
phet8 of his iige have only bniit upon the Matk
^Abvnt the commeiiceinent of that dreadfuls epoch*
he confewed himself -one of ihoM who mutoolt
thp iUiuioiu of marchy Ear solid sdrantsfCM ; as if
the-Bertdntion were to be tbe refomter of iil>nM%
and the restorer of the estate*. He applauded the
destnuition of the ancient institutions ; the depl?-
Table coiis?Kiuences of which be did not then fore-
aee ; and when the phaatom of Uberty became, the
idol of the nation, he liad the^weakness to band di?
knee, as a worshipper of that terrible diTini^.. Tbeaa
viewa he advocated in nnmenniB artidae in tbe M^-
Cory; but after two. yearahe^aw and acknowledged
his deception. This.prodDcedthreau and denno-
dationsinabnndaiice; he was obliged to make C<m-
tmoal apoit^Ies and retractions, which fnroiabed
his enemiee with a iuwdle for the most odions car
Inmnies. At length be could no Iwiger dissemble
.lus sentiments, or sbnt his eyes to the ipiaeritt
jind disasters that were preparing to fall: on hia
iu&tnaled connOy. He then became an otiject of
proscription, was arrested, and committed to the
XiBxen^oi^; which from a palace had been tranfr
formed into a priaon, and which proved the bgodb
\of his unexpected cwiversion.
> Among tbe papers of La HaTpe, there w4b
found a very cnrions fragment, in his own han^
.writing, containing an extraordinary prophecy
uttered by Cazotte, one of his gay compamohs,
-?ad who aft?rwards sufiered on the scaffold ; foi?-
-t^ling his conrernen, as well as the fate Aat (was
to overtake many other cdebrat?d chareetersdHbdar
.the F?gD of terror . Some of his Mo^aphem


Ibw recMded it w astfatBtie, wbilm others ngard
i* ?-? fictitMKK pradictiaii ; ?Begtng Att Pctitos
wbo-fini pabUibed it in tht editiini of hi? pMlliti>
MiM wdAb, in 1806, Mppmwd tfaia hct. With^
otA, bowewir, eUAiing ivio the coBtroTcny of its
raaliiy, or ttifirhing any iaipcRtucfl to it ?? a bw^
ftantuoal docnment, it vmy be consideTed wortby
of tnaertiiHi, as a Mi^dng picinre of that flippant
Md inpioiu leritf iriiich than preraiied bo oni'
*?i^7 in tba lileniy ckdea of Fam.

** It^^wVB to me as if it were liot yeaterday;
aod it waa ner c rA tk aa in the bwinoiiig of 1783 :
We were at tiM taUe of a broUier acadeaiicaur,
?rho im of the Ingbeat laak, and a BoaD of talentab
Tbe company waa nwoMnnu^ and of all kinda ;
co^rtien, adrocatea, aeademkiana, &c We hai
httxttbofitimial, iRnriowsly enlertained. Tbe
mia^ilt' Malroim and Constance, added to the
ttdisl' gaiety of good cinnpaay, that kind of ao-
oal freadom which aometinieB Mretchca beyond
proper deeomm. In i&oit, we were in a state
to iXktW of any thing drat would piwhice mirth.
ChamfoTt bad been reading some of his inniiana
and libertine tales ; and the fine ladies had faeanl
thCm without Once making nee of thar fans. A
Mngei of pleaaantnea on religion then Mioceeded-
Oae gave a qnotatiaa from the Mud of O-leane [
another recollected, and i^laaded the iAik>a?*
{dical diatid) of Didoot :

A diiid rose, and with a hamper in lut hand,
" Ye^ gentl?nen, (he ^claimed) I am aa anra
iheR ia no God, as I am certain that HomM is a

80$ ooKvntTB rBOU impidelitt.

fooir Hie Gouranuion aftennvdB took ft man
#efiow Om; and dte most ardent admintaoa wa<
cxpreaaad of the rertdation wbieli Voitairei had
frrodnced ; and they all said that it fonned the
lirighteat ray Of his glwy. " He baa ffwa the .
tone. to Ilia age; and hu confariTed to be read in the
^lall-as well as in the drawing-room." One of the
company told as, chuckling with langhter, that
Jus hatr-dreaaer bad eaid, ^riiile powdering him,
" Look ye, Sir, tbongfa I be but a poor jonr-
neyman barber, I have no mmv.rdjgion than
aoodier man." It was concluded that tlK.Ke-
Tolution wonld soon be consun mated, 'Wid. tiiat
it waa tkbeolately necesBary for Hupwatitum and
fiuutidam to ^e plsce to philosophT. Tke pro-
bability of this epoch was then caicnlded, and
which of the. present company wtadd live to eee
the reign of reason. The elder part lamented
tbey could not flatter themselves with such hopes,
while the younger rejoiced to think' that .tbey
ahonld witness it. The academy, above all^ waa
congratulated, for having prepared the grand work,
end been tbe'Htrong-hold, the centre, and moviog
printaple of liberty of thought.

One only of the gneste had not ahared in the
delights ?f this conversa^D ; he had even venttir-
ed, in a quiet vny, to let fall a few pleasantries
on oar noble en^nsiaam. It waa Cazotte, aa
amiable and ingeniona man, bnt nnftntnnately in-
fatuated with tJbe reveries of the illnminatL He
renewed the conversation, and in a very serions
tone, " Gentlemen, (sfud he) be asgnrcd you will
see tliis grand and sublime revolution. Yon know
that I am something of a prophet, and I say agiun
tiiat you will all see it." He was answered, in
one chorus, " It is not necessaiy to be a great


fsoittiantt to foresee that." " True ; but perfaapa
it mar be neccsHuy to be eoioething more, fer
srhu I un now going to tell yoo. Have you any
idea of what will result from this Revolution?
iwbat will be the immediate consequences ? what
.will ham>en to every one of yon now present ?"
^ Oh, (said CondtKcet, with bis ailly and satnTnine
fangh,) let ns know all about it, a philosopher
can have no objectioa to meet a prophet." " Yon,
M. Condon?t, will expire on the pavement of a
jdnngem ; -you will die by the poison which you
will hove.taken to escape from the hands of the
eseoationer, the poison which the happy state
of that .period wiU render it absolutely necessary
tliat))>ou should cany always about with yon.".
' . Al:flrst this excited great aatoniahnient ; but it
was soon recollected that Cazotte was in the babit
?f dreamily, while he was awake ; and the laugh
>wasias lond-as.ever. " M. Cazotte, the tale you
liave jost told ns, is not so pleasant as your owa
pretty romance o4 the "Devil in Love:" But what
demon bos put this dnngeou, this poison, and these
Jiangmen in your bead ? What connection CBu
.these have with philosophy, and the reign of rea-
son P" " Predsely that which I am telling you.
It will be in the name of philosopliy, of humanity
and liberty ; It will be under the reign of reasini,
that what I have forejiold will htq>pen to yon.
For it will then indeed be the tmga of reason, ae
the. will then have temples erected to her : Nay,
throughout all France, there will be no other
places of worship, but the temples of reason. " In
fiuth," (said Ghainfort, with his sarcastic smile),
" you will never be one of the priests in these
temples." " I hope not ; but you M. Chamfort,
yon will be well worthy of that diatinction ; for

be W TBI


yiNi will est yonr veba with twentr-two atrokar
of a TBMot, and yet yon will snmve for wmM
moatlu.'' Tluy all stared at bim, uid again bnnt
intft laogfater. " Yaa, M. Vic^^Asyr, yon wiU
not open your vcdns yonnelf i bat yoa will omue
tbem to be opened nx time* in one day, dn^
ling a paroxyam of tbe gont, to make the raref
work ; and yon will die dnring tbe night Ab for
you, M. Nicobu, yon will die on the ecatMd ; ami

yon M. Bully ; and yon M. Malesberbae. "

" Ob heavena I (sud Roocber) it appeora bia

ance ia lerelled eotely agtinat the acadeniy;

a jost made a most honible execulion of
die whole of it Now tell me my ftto, in tba
name (rf mercy." " You too mil die nptm tho
acafibld." "Oh; (itWBstiniTa?a]lyexcbuined)fae
bM RW(?n to eztenninate m a^" " No, it is not I
irttoblTeawwait." "What then; are we to be Bnl?
jagated by tbe Tivks w the TartarB ?" " By no
means ; I bav? told you, t^t yon will then ba
gforemed by reaeofi and philoeojMiy alone. Tboaa
wbo ynO treat yon dnu, will sH be philoeophet^
wiH have continnally in their months the same
phrasee that you have been ntterii^ for the last
Boiu^>-will rqieat ^1 your maxiias and qnote, H
yon bare done, the Terses of Diderot asd Vojl^re,"
? <Hi I tbe man is out cJ bis senHee I" dwy viu?
peved each other; for dorii^dieiriiole ooDTersadont .
nts features oerer underwent the least change.
? Oh, no I (siud another) don't yon perceive that
be is langhiag st us ? and yon know, be ahnty*
blends the murrelloiBwi A huidessantriee." "Yeaf
(mid ChamfoTt) bnt his mervele arenever etdireoed
wiA gaiety. He (dways looks as if be wen go-
ing to be banged. Bnt wlten> Mr prophet wiU


all tliu happen?" " Before iix yaara past, .^ I
bare udd yon sliall be accmnpliaiied/'

" Here indeed, we bave abnndaiice o! miracles,
(said M. de La Harpe, who now 8p<^) but do
you ^t me down, for nothing P" f Yon will yourr
Relf be a wracle, as estraordinaiy as any I have
related: you will then be a CbiiBtianl"- Great
exclainatioiu followed tiiia. " Ah 1 (replied Cham-
fort) all my fears are vanished; i^ we are not
doomed to perish un^l La Haqw becomes Chris-
tian, we shall all be immortat."

" As ffV ns womon, (scud the Duchess of Gram-
nont), it is very fortunate that we are considered
as nothing in these revolutions ; not that we are
to have no concern in them, bnt that in such cases,
it ia understood they will leave ns to ouTselves ;
and our sex" ? " Your sex, ladies, will then be
no defence or guarantee to you ; .and -whether you
interfere or not, yon will be.treated precisely as the
rest, without any difference whatever." " Bnt
what does all this mean, M. Cazotte P yon are
surely preaching to ns about the end of the woild ?"
" I know no more of that, my Lady Dnchea^
than yooTB^f ; but this I know, that yon will be
' conducted to the scaffold, with many other ladies,
in the cart of the executioner, and with your hands
tied behind your back." " I hope, good Sir, that,
in that co^e, 1 shall at least be. allowed a coach
hung with black." " Ko, Madam ; and Jadi?s ?f
higtier rank than you, will be drawn in acart to
execution, and with their hands ^d .like yours."
' " Latties of hi^er rank ! what, do ytju mean prin-
cesses of the blood ?" " GirofOer still, Madam."

Here a v^y senuhle emotiMi was excited
dutu^iont the cqmpany ; Hie master of the house
jwow ,? njy grave and solemn aspect ; they be-


gan.'ta Sieanr they had earned dwir pleaoaany
tadier too &r; Madanw de Gnunont wMuag'
' to dlipene the cloud that aeeiaed to be approadt-
faig, Mok DD notice of this lait aaswer, init con-
tented benelf with nying in a sprightly toiie^
** Yon aed h? will not even leare me a confes-
iwr." " No, Madam, neidter yon nttr any othe^
pencm mil be dlowed dist cranohtioii. The last
victim who, as the greatest Ot all ftrOttrs, will b6
permitted to faaTO a coofeesar on the Hsfiold, wiH

be ." Hne he panaed fior a moment. "And

who dien, (they oied) is the happy mortal that
will be indulged wiUi this speod and dioeUy
^reregatiTe ?" " Yes, the mly ^^?^;a<iTe that wil}
then be left him it will be the king of France I"
The BUBter of the KosBe here rose abn^tly?
and the whole company were actuated by th?
same impnlse. He advnnced towsidB M. Caaotte*.
and eaid to him in an earaeit and impresraTe
lone, " My dear M. Caaotte, we ha^ had eoon^
of these melandioly concoti ; yon have carried
them too bi ; even to the exposing of ^naelf,
imd die eompany in which yon are." Cazotle
made no answer and was prcpaiing to retire;
lAea Madame de Granuncmt, who still wished, if
possible, to banish serioos impreHsions, and restera
good-bnmonr and gaiety among Aem, advanced
toward him, and said, " My good prophet, yoti
hare been eo kind as to tell oa all our fortunes,
but yon have said nodring respecting your own."
After B few minates silence, and wim his eyn
fixed <m the gronnd,' " Madam, (he replied) h?<A
yea read the si^e of Jcansalem, as related by
Joamhns ?" " To be sore I have ; and wha hw
KM f But you may sappoae, if yon pleaMs thtt
1 knownothii^ abont it>" " lien y?v aiaM

x. BE t^ atxn. 911

IciffW, MadMB, thai during tfaa mtge, n nut, for
?eren anccewive daya, went nmiMl the runpwM
of thM city, in nght of tbe bau^'wa and (he b?
?ieged, crying cantiniisUy, in a Irod and iom^i*
dona voice, Woe to Jeraaalem t and on tbt
.wventh day be cried, WoA to JeroMlan, and' te
myuil I and at that very moment, a huge Btona,
wown by the machine* of the enemy, itntck
litm, Mvl daahed him to piece*." After u^ rq4^
M> Caaotta madft hi* bow and retired."
. H?re M. La Ha^'* note oi this Nngnlar con-
?nrial meeting bieeki oS. How literally Casotte'v
pt^beaes, wbetlw real or pretended, were ?c-
complt*hed, every reader knowa wfco ie acqtia)nte4
with the delaila of the French Revolalioa. Me
himtelf nnfortnaMely fidfilled bia own fn^aitttt,
by auffering ibe guUotine, in Septenber 1787, at
ibe ageof sevM^r-fotir.

It WM in November, 1793, u ^fem from the
report of Gregoire to tbe National Gmivention, that
La Harpe was impriaoned; andinduaconfinemeit
he continued untii Angnat neat year, bong nearly
Ua months. At the eomroencetnent <rf taia aip^
tirity, the philosophical prin^tes he bad imbibed
from bia aaaociates, were, by no means e&ced
fiwa bia mind; and tbongh lie never conld cuk.
ceal from hioHelf their odioua cwiae?ptencee, yet
they atiU preeerve^ a sort of attraction in his eyea,
of whidi liis better jn<^pnent conld not diveot
them. Thow vain a^Btems wluch hod served to
oanse him in proepenty, and to conceal Irom him
dieinstabilityof teiieBtriHlhappineM,be nowfonnd
^te incapable of ministerinffccuifMt. On the con-
trary, they threw a darker ahade ovw the gloom of
hia pris?ni and ptunged him the deeper in desola-
tion and despair. In tbia diimal condition be coidd


derive bnt little Batisfaction from the recollectinn
of his fonner glory. Hie applmsea of the Ly>
GCDDi seemed bnt the idle triumphs of ambitiom
vanity. He coald no longer find repoee in the anni-
hilating creed of the philosophers, which had e-xr-
ptinged immortality from the record of his faopee ;
nor coold he regale his imagination in ^e grorea
of thnr academy, where he saw every svenne ter-
minte with the gallows. The light with whitA
they had vainly pretended to reform the worid,
tiad proved the fatal spark to a mighty conflagia-
tion, which discovered notlling bnt plota and coif-
Bpiracies provinces overmn with rebellion, an4
Btreela deluged with blood.

In this stale of ennoi, and hopdess expectation,
Be never aeems to have felt w expressed a wisb,
to fly to that saoctoary, whose altars are the last
refiige of distress, and fumish a peacefiil shelter
in the storms of adversity. Misfortune had hnn^it
him acquainted with the bishop of St Brieox, who
was his fellow-prisoner, and took nn interest in
his sorrows. He reconimeDded him, as a means
of hegniling the solitude and langonr of bis mind,
to read die Psalros of David, in which he would
find poBtical' beandea that ni^;ht entettun hfs
fimcy. This he proposed- merely as a literary
unnsement, for the Idea of religion wonid have
only appeared ridiculous or revolting to the mind
of a philosopher ; and he politely ofl^red bis ser>
vices, in making comments, or cridcBl remarks oil
those snblime productions of the Hebrew muse.
Ea Harpe was delighted with an occupation so
conformable to his taste, and so much in charac-
ter with his profession. He applied himself to
tbe study, and soon discovered beauties of a su-
perior order. As he proceeded, his admiration

M. DE LA HARPB. 313'

tocTiMfwdt until he foand them to be a Iiigher awl
]Hirer , Mrarce of pleoanret than mere intellectual
giatification. The impretatanB thus made, were
mtified with other religious books; until the
Hody which he had b^;tm^ the ardour of ciiti-
?ism, ended in inapirii^ 1^ with the zeal of

' Tlaa extraordinary change, as was to be ex-
pected, gare rise to much calumny and <lerisiuu ;
Mpedslly among his former aMociales. Hia coa-
4itct proved, however, that it had all the maiiu oE
nncerity. Hia own account of it, which he left
tn writiDg, is BO striking, that it deserves to be
recorded ; and whatever may be thoi^ht as to
the nature of the impressions to which he ascribes
hia reforma^on, -it breathes a ^irit which nothing
bat the convictEfin of truth could have dictated.
Viaiona aod voioee are always to be regarded with
Kispicdon, and as existing in the imagination, i-a-
ther than addressed to die bodily senses ; and it
is quite obvious that the coDscionanem of his past
life, and tbe discoveries he bad lately made, were
saScient to account for the sudden effecta pro-
dnced by reading a passa^ in lliomaB a Kompia,
fNthoot-lhe si^omtion of a miracle, ortheneces-
Hty of any snperaatnraLwaniing.

". I waa in iny prison, (says he) in a little eham-
W, solitary and disconsolate. For some days I
had read the Psalms, the Gospel, and a few pions
books. Their effect was rapid, though gradual.
Already I had yielded to tbe faith, and made new
jdiseoveries of the .truth ; but the light 1 saw ouljr
terrified and alarmed me, by revealing tlie abyaa
:into which the errors of forty years had (ilunged
jne. I saw the extent of the evil, but found no


VMMdjr. TlMra was nodii^ wound me trUcb X
eoold mbetitnte for the a?ceoan of t^^ob. 0?
Mwhaad, my life wu before me; bateadi mUm
beanu of baarenly light oaly made mora liigfatfuli
Ob the otbet, dei^M;;deatli, vliicli I expected
tKtrj ham, and m iKaost ^mallmg tana, Ths
|irieit DO loBger appeared oo ue acwoH to dm^
die tfce dying miSerer ; ifbenMmntedthatbloodjr
tage, it WB8 osly to Ml himMlf a Tietira. Faft
of tbeae (BHxraMdate tboog^rtB, my heart ma cait
dowB : and addreniDg raywlf in nlence to ^ God
I hod just found, b?t iraam I atareely yet kinwi
* Wbat mtut I do P' I said, ' What wooldM thai
luTe me to be ?' On my table there lay the
?IrattMionofiSnirt;' and I had bem told, im that
excellent bodt, I mi^it find hi anawar t^my
Aonghla. lopmedit on?hance,andmy eyecta^it
dieae wonb of the Savioor, Ben am Im*/ ton t
I eome to&ee beeaute &um heut oailed upon mMi
I read no more. The sudden unprenion I felt iabo-
yond desoiptiofi ; and it is aa impossible fm-iiie to
?9t<enit,aatofo^;etit. I fril with my ftkce to the
earth, badted in tears, and almost choked widi
kAb, ntterif^ loiod and tmdttai exclamationa. I
ftut my heart corafrated and enluiged, but at the
same time almoet ready to bnnt. Orerwbeiaed
wtA a mnltitnde of thon^ta utd reflectiena, I
trept lor a long time ; bnt witbont hanag any re^
mraid^rsnce of my aitni^on, except that my heart
nerarMtan emotion morevideni or ao in o xpt -
?bly delighUnl ; and th^ the words, Ben am I,
mg mm, nevw ceased to edio in my mind, and ta
agitate all its bcnlties."

&o(^)tuitbis exmonfinaiy manner to the tmtli;
in gratitiide to the som-ce from which be had da*
-tired consolation, he enqtk^ed his cgptirityintrflw-

M. DI LA ntARPS. tit

ktfaiff die IMter into f<eTM, wtuck ha BAenrardi

Ebluhed, with a preliBiinciy AsMme, in wUA
pnt^c^ monnoed hia cooTCindon. EnrjrdBf
WH tbiniuiig die muaba- of his felhiw-priM>aen^
MWt rfiriMND had abMity pembed ?n die acafftM ;
and Im mra fcte WMoed iiA4tid>lfl and M band;
Mpacnlly m be bad incnmd, far eome apm^oa
?f contempt, dte reaentment (rf Rebeapierre, at that
time the MBgninary Mtdodi of tbe Revolwion,
iriioae altata wotb amoking with the duly Hcti'
ficeaofaoehr- BntdiaikaihofdwtTcantMnd
die Hfe irf hi* inprndait cenanrer ; irito Mrer bad
|Mdd M dMTfdr the exmiae of hi* crilidHna.

The fint Me he made' of hia Ubwty, WW to mm*
pert the e??e bo iMd so ferrandy embraced. He
i^ain mmuMed die pulpit of the Lycemn, frmn
wUch, in timea of tno^mllity, he had, witfaont
danger to himsdf, difiiued the ajwit of Uteratoie,
aai the pratdplei of infidelity ; reganfing it m ?
ncred dntyto prackim in public, thdJaetrntbtwi^
he had then tto miifntnne to Mpos& His flnt
^peaianee A?w immmue ctowdi, and produced
UextiMirdiuaTcflBct. Ute (mtor, in a dlacoono
of gnat enorgy and feding, drew ? Ihreljr pietnro
of ibe pdiBc ^i ?*!?. ; pitted out their canaea,
Md in^aed the irfmle aaMmb^r wid) hie own HD-

[. timetita tt iodigiiadoir and regret. Hia tecmrna

condmed to be immensely attended ; many beuw
ettatwted meiely by the novelty of doctrines wbica .

! had been prodneti?e of rach itraage reanha t and

his eloqaence, it was obaerred hy all, nerer waa
so pathwic or mbKmo, tm trttett co ns eeraied to the
deftace of so good a oose. It was at tlua time
that be collected and pnbhahed hia Covrse of lito-

P ratnre, already mentioned ; in die hope Aat thoae

diacosnea wUdb had w powerfully ioBtteniced dM


public opinion, imid bad do higher aim tbah to ez-
{Hain the lawa of elegiance and taste, might prora
Herriceable to reli^on. . This tsak lie iiccoinptiBhcd
with great labonr; and boldt)' ventured to publish it,-
Bt a time when the empire of letters, as well as of
morals, had fallen a^rey to the inra^on of die
most dangerous errors.

His zeal, however, agiun drew down npon lufli
tlie rengeance of persecution ; and his pamphlet^-
on the Fanaticism of the Revolntionists, decided
his fate. He was proscribed in Sept?mber, 1798,'
and condemned to pcrpetnal honMimMt, to be
transported to Cayenne. But his benefactor, die
Bishop at St Brieux, procured him an asylum' at
Corb^, B few leagues from Paris ; and thou^ the
moat rigorona search was made for him, and an or*.
der passed to sei^^e bim dead iu- alive, lie baA the '
ftHtnne to remain undiscovered. In this retreat he
wrote his Apoli^y for Reli^on, withont consults
ing a single book, but the Scriptures, on the snbr
ject. It was .from this sacred armoury, alone, thai
be drew those ailments with which he so ablf.
^posed tlie philosophers. .He possessed, indeed^-
advantages beyond many of his predecessors. He
^adibeen long their accomplice. He had passed
nearly his whole life in the enemy's, cimp, and
knew where the stronger the weak points of their
doctrines lay. This perfect knowledge of th?r
mysteries, furnished him the means of immasking
die hypocrisy, and c^^Mised the bad .(ikithoF his
adversaries. . .

. In. this privacy be spent many laborious months,'
bat which, he declared, were the happiest in his
life. His abode was a small chamber which com-
municated with a garden, with .very Igg^ wril%
in which he occsairaially ventured te walk. In

M. Mt LA. RAXP& X17

and r^urii^ to Pm, be appeBred agmn in the
Lycewn, wbwe his |ffnaace excited mora and
HtnappkiHe. Hiataoe wm now chiefly devol?d
te rojraiiM or religiow p?blicati<?M. He mote k
" ' ' ra of Helvetia!, Bodpabliabed Ua Liteiaiy
ndence, witk Pavl I. Emperor of Rnaaia ;
wludi excited tnocb enry against bim, from the
aeverity with which b? conutwiited upon many
fiviag antbofa. Some <^ hu writii^ i^nst tbe
idaloMfiluc party, being nppoaed to faTOur B??-
tuqmrte, who, it is aad, effeied him a pennon 4^
4000 firancs, which he refiued ; he waa tgaia
baaiflhed twenty-fire leacnea from Parii, and re-
tired to lua fonner asyliun ; bat the loM of hia
bealdt soon obtained bim peTniiBBi<w to be recalled.
Hia confinement, and lua ledentan life bad evj-
dffittly impaiied iuaconalitatlon. He waa himself
aennble that his end wu mirottcliingi and pre-
pared to meet it witboot aaxiety, He bad always
been very exact in hia devatuma; and seemed
willing to expiate bis former erroia, by that tiffA
penitence peculiar to die creed of nis national
chnrch. In the midst of the greateal anfferinga, ha
Viewed a redgnation, wluch was both edilyuw and
in^eanve; nod totally Mipaute to tbe Batuialun-
petoouty of lua temper. He ipoke with ins friends
ef tbe c(ms(dBtions of reli^oD, bnt without any af-
fectalion of courage ; and shewing nothing (rf that
theatrical lerity or indifio'eiice, which waa the
fuhionable death among the pbilosofdwrs. Ha
expired in the siity-fonrdi year of bis ^e, on tha
lltb of Febraary 1S03. On the evemng preced-
ing his death, M. Fontanes called to see him ; be
was listening to the FroyeiB far the Sick ; and as


?oon as they were condaded, he etretchnd his
hand to his frieDd, and said, " ( am grtfefnl- W
divme mercy, for having left me mffici^t recoUe&^
ti(?i, to feel how consoling these praVerB are to the
dyii^." Hia fOiiHal waa attended by moM of tba
dutingnished literary chaiacten in Frutce. Adfr*
pntatioH from the Inatitnte joined the procesakn ;
AndM.Fontanes, oneoftbedepatstioD,pT?M>iinc?d
an ontion over the grare.

' Inperson, La Harpe WHS little, lnitEKttre,?ndwd
proportioned. His literary Ufe-wss -mrbnlent, and
fall of controversy ; and he was not hf^pyin hie do-
neettc connections. Hia first wife became metaa-
choly, and destroyed heiwlf. He married a second,
from whom he soon separated. Me left a great mun-
ber of mannsciipts, both in prose and verse, sereral
of which have been published since his death. He
shewed to the last an increasing anxiety to be ser-
viceable to religion, that be might, if posuble make
some reparation fur the injury he bad done it ; and
in hia Will he made a declamtion of the sentimMsta
which for nine yeu^ he had professed and defended,
even at the hazard of his life. Someof hWdnuna-
tic pieces he withdrew from the stage, and fbi-bade
them ever to be represented'; and reti?ct?d and
condemned all the errors of which he liad been
)rui)ty in his former writings. His " Apology fw
Religion," he did not live to finish, at which 'he
expressed the greatest regret ; as fw several years
tti his life, the hope of being iiseful, and of rebuild-
ing what he had once destroyed, was his only am-
bition on earth.




. Few cbaracteiB are better known, or more nui-
Tonallf and deservedly admired tliaii die mtbor
?f.the Pilgrim'B IVogress; die most popular, and
fiucinating allegory that perli^w was ever. wntten.
The butory of this uig?iii(His Dreunor i? Jiei-
ther HO eopioos nor ao satk&ctoiy in its details, as
his extiBordinary popularity would lead us to ex-
pect. There is sometunes a confusion of evenla, and
a contradictian of dales, which it is not easy,4o re-
concile. Enough, however, is known to eatoblisli
him a place among those who have been reclaimed
from the most damig and r^nwbate conduct, to the
practice of ijrtue md piety sand. whether or not
the term infidel may fao-.properly attached to one
who had no syetem of religion whatever, and :Was
almoM too .ignorant to distingnisb one creed from
anotlier, is of small cons^uence ; Noce the ex-
treme deprwity <if his heart and understanding
preseiited obatatJes to the truth no lose irresistiblet
than the elaborate and learned arguments of the
most '.ingenious sceptics. From being the most
wicked of all his profligate compauions, he was
transfotmedt through a knowledge of the Gospel,
into one of its most diatinguislied preachers ; and
wliatCTCT may be thought as to the .peculiarities of
his doctrines, no one ever questioned his sincccity
as a Christian ; of which he gave public testimony,
by Mlhcriog with aiM)ntolieal firninese to his priu-

amy convsbts frou tRFRMomr.

c^lee, under braida, and in perMcndon for goik

KMice' saka.

John BmnrAM ms bsrn ia 1628, aiEkunr, s
small villagv near BecHonL He wm of rtry
UHD parentage ( hw father bang a common
tinker, bat a man of an honest chaneWr ; and
tlwugh he intended hi? son to follow the some )aw
occtipation, b? took care to harehimuutractediD
ibe dementa of reading and writii^. These al?n<
dn* Bcqarementa formed the whole it4>ck of hi*
ednotion ; and if ever they made any benefidal'
imprMaiofi Mon iaa mind, they were nnfortonately
Twy Boon eflaced by hu vicioiu habits ; to whicli
be was eren from las childhood so incmr^bly ad-
dicted, diat he waa Bated, to qae hia own expres-
sion, aa a " town-^mer; and bnd but kv eqnala
both for cnrii^ iweuing, lying, and bbapheminK
Ae holy name of God." He trarelled, for aevecu
years, in his ptofatrnM t^ a tinker, chiefly in the
viranity of hia nUwn pbce; dining iriiich he rar-
rendered himaiif Op to every specie* of wicked^
nins and imjHety, joimi^ in gmhyfellowiUpwith
bu asBodatei, in the most degnding viees ; sad

Though 1

tenets, whidi be afterwards adopted, and iriiosa
pecriiarity it is to contefi^late Wnan deprarity
m ita darkest cotcnrs, may pabqia hate led him
to speak with exi^jfeiation of his own crimes, yet
there can be no qnestioa that his eariy life was
coarse of extraordiiiiuy profl^acy and iirdigion.

But thongb ^ indulg^ in meae excesses witfaoot
fear or reebaint, it qtpeara he waa not altogetbw
widMRit fcelingB ot wttaome. He was frequently
alarawd, ssd interrnptod in hie carew of disaipw


tktn, by Uie compaQ^ona vkitings ?f coiwd?^Ge,'
which were increased by dreams end fesrinl ti--
uons, such BB the wildest imaginaUoo ccmid faardly
conceive. SometiDKshethon^tbeeswdieheaTeiu,
as it were, all od fire ; and the firmament crackling
VkI sbireriBg with the noise of mighty thvnden.
Again, he would imsigine himseir ia a pleassnt
place, rerelling in Imrary and del^t ; when in Ae
inidet of this Tieionary banquet, a nighty eartit-'
^ake would rend the earth aninder, ont of which
4tart?d flaiBea, and Ggnrefl of men, with horrid
dirieks and exeeroticnjs,- presenting to his terrified
senses, an emblem of the geneial jndgmeot. Thestf
upprehensionB, bowerer, though overpowering af
the time, had no other effect than to frighten him
into A momentary reformati?n, or extort from him
tlte most absBTd wishes that can be imagined. ^ Of
these inwatd and tonnenting ciraBicts, he has
given a.detailed account in his treatise of "Grace
abounding to the Chief of %mers." i

; One advantage from these trannent alarmaww,
that they rendered him more accessiUe to -convic-
tion : and in this way they contributed indirectly
to his complete and final reform. This, however,
was a slow and progressive consmnmation, and ap-
pears to have been the reenlt ef avariety of .causes.
He was twice preserved from being drowned ; and
when. a soldier in the parliamentary army, winch
be had entered from a dislike to his own profes-
sion, lie had a remarkable escape. At the' u^e
,of Leicester, in I64S, one of his comtadea woo
had Vf>lnnte(n?d to go In bis place, was drawn oat
to stand centinel, and while at bis post, was phot
throagfa th? head with a muBket-balt.
. Having about this time entered into thelHHidB
of matrimony, the religiouB ocniTeraatiwi of.hia

SSx CO mniRTs f rom

vife, wbn wm griercd to witneai bis regttrdlera-
MM-Mid proAMrity, had a mateml inflnence npon
hwMndaok Ha had maniedwidiont making the-
dglBMt pMrami for a fanily, or baTing ?Ten the
M>ina of mwwmI comfort ; bdoginnidiezlreiDtf
BOTCvty, tint, IS be reconit, " when his wife and
Le came together, they hod not m mock hoaae-
hoU Uoffj ?a a dish w a apotm betwixt tfaem
botb,"-4mp1eniaiti, iriiich of ^1 others, we aboaM
hun dKHutit him the leaat likely to want. The
whd* of her dowry waa comprised in two amall
vdmuea, " The Piactice <rf Kety," and dw
? Flaui Min'a Patk-way to HraTen." By indue
ing him to nad these, and diaconnii^ fteqoentljr
ctHiceming her father'a piety, who had p^ pvaV
Rganl M mligisD, Ae preriiled with nim to at-^
tend chnreh Te^darty, and by degrees fo abandm
nany of his vieioaB liabita. '

iUt revarance aooa carried him to the oppoaitA
(Ottram^ fm he was so srennQ widi the spirit of
aapwtiriwii that, u be sa^s, he a^red with greM
devotion evary thing beWgiegte tbe church; lh^
altar, the priest, clerkj gnrplice, bnd serricw-beok;
Sweaifa^ tbe-praetico to which he was so Hhock-i
la^y addictedt he at length broke off; being se-
*vn1y nfoitBanded by a womaa, who, diotfgB of'
nfunow character benelf, declared in the sttMgtal
tenn^ tfaat be exceaded in that rice, al] awn' ifafl
lad em beaid t and^iathiaMamplewaaaioagb
to infect the yenth?af tlie wbeb town, if Aef
came tmt in hh eempanyi

Awakened to a sense of n?gion, hit within*
j? p o a o aari n g competent nifonaattini on<tbe -? ' '
jec^ Ids mind b^an to ''be hanaaed by the m

aainlal and perplexing apprelienBiaaa. llis live-
bneaa^f hiH' haey, wholly imreMrai^ed by kM>W?



inpcMsioiu, ?leeping and n
tbe forca and afiaot of reality,
dingly, that he had a miranilooa c
from beareo, trfbring him tbe altenMira of life
or death; and thM while om^ed in dimiioa
with hi* cflOKiamanB ob ? Smmlb-6aY, ? di?
which he had liwwft devoted to iporta, aod all
KBBDw of vice, he beard a celestial Toioe liim ad-
dicn him, " Wit then leave diy liiu, and go t*
heaTen i oc hare tl^ mm and go to hell ?''-^word?
which we mnat aonwae wem ifae nggeetian of lui
own (hon^Uo, aad not addwwnd to hk bodiljr
ear. But the aModatioa of hn ideas htaag m
Oroag, aad the terrors of hi* coBMaence so li^j^
prepared him to admit tbe moat baeelen aoj^MMi*
tioDB as JactB, and ^ve to thoae viaioBe that
hHanted Ilia imagination, the reiy form ami eK-
presnon of truth. At certain hoschu, he telk ast
that iba devil wonld not let lam-eat his mest ia
quiet ; v^iile at othen, he was Mzed with tma-
UingH and agitatk, that cMitinaad for whole


.0 had ?ftMi-4oabtt aboat dte geaninanMs of
Is r c fentan co, cendwding, that it was tao late fi?
ameul or seek salvaticm ; and in ^a state irf do-
e|Mar he was templed to reoor to hia fanner indat-
fences, at dw only eoarce &era whidi he conM
poaaibly ei^ect or oijoy pleasure, lliese vimoaary
terrera, however, had a real and powerful infltt-
Rice on his conduct, and wwe undoubtedly tbe
inatraments employed for wwkiog out im nltinste
refonnation. In Uus wavering conditian, be !??
tamned for aMne time, alteraaUjy convinced and
perplexed ; afraid to coatin?e, yet reluctant to
, Hia sobrietj


b^iin to agfamuih his neigUMnra, who apiriaaded
and commenijed them, iJthougb he was yet coD-

' Bocras of being " ii6 better than a poor p^Dt?(l

' It W8B in thia unsettled state of mind, and while
travelling tbroQgh Bedford in coorBe of his trade,
** that in one of the Hreeta of diat town, he.cwne
where there were three <?' foor poor wtHnen Mtting
M a door in the sun, taUiing about' the thii^ of
God." Their diicoorse was upon regeneration,
hnd the bflhence of' the Holy Spirit, a subject
frhich-he did not fully comprebmd ; but he was
tench^afected by the eanieetneesof the speakem,
and conTificed, ao fax asbewaBcapableof jnt^ing
that his own riewB of religion were aiiH very de-
fectives Having formed an acqnatntance with
these pious women, he became a fiitqaent associate
in ihMT diacuBUons ; and with the advantage of
dieir Scriptnral knowledge, as well as the raiample
of their madesTaBd-cbee^d be^*iow, aa entire
cliai^e vne speedily wrangfat in bis habits, senti-
. mente and di^KMitions. So deeply was his nund
engaged in the contenif^ation of religion, that he
fimnd it ?fficnlt to employ las thonghts on any
wcnlar aJIinis. The Bible now became bis delight
nndhisdaily^tndy. The historical and didat^c parts
*of it first attracted his attention, and ware under-
atood without much difficulty. Bat the writings
of St Paol, whi^ he read with great caia, hot
'Widiout the ben^ of any commentaFy w inslnictor
-to guide him, puizled him exceedingly ; and in-
Tolved him in new peqitexi^es. The docbines of
election, reprobation, Sic were .mysteiies which
seemed rather to teniiy tfaan^ soothe his ^tated

BaJth was a subject on whicb he found the

?foMle dwelt wfiecuUy ; bnt he cvsld never eona
to light ippTebeneuHi of the meaoiiig of the
ttnn, or diwover ^ledter he wm bdjerar or
ot. In this nncetUinty, wd to r^el the m
?f Sum, who wtt pupetiwlly nggnting ti
the bopdaaBnew of hit caee, he reeolved to uecuu
the qneniom by itcttMl experiment. Here his ho-
Beet seal had eertaiiily oTOTatepeed the bounds of
diaeretioii ; and while we give ium credit fmr bis
earaeatneaa to know the trath, we cannot oefrfun
tma milin^ at the boinely and iriumaoalteat, by
tHiidi he wuhed to try Iba Mrength of faia pna.-
dpba. SoppoMiig, envneonsly, from the aatertiMi
in Matthew xvii. 30. that the remond of movDtuae
WM litwally aperqoiaite of the tme belierer, ho
thought to clear bis donbts by wMldnr a niDscl& Ac-

eordi]iglT,?HHletraTelliBgb??ween^stowand Bad-
fntl, md meetii^ with a amall pond or pvddle of
water in iha boTM-path, be imubied ths attempt
might be made by couHraniyi^ the water Vt be diy.
As a Buitable inQridaetton, he tboDght it ngfat to 0^
a short pny^ ; bnt jnst se he was oa the point of
uttering the important order, some ancret imimlM
indnced him to postpone the tiial ; lest, if bemade
the attempt, kmI MM, the victory would be de-
clared in fiiTOtir of the tdventiry, and be bimielf
(fiscovo^ to be a cast-sway. His miitakea, hew
ever, were at lengUi rectified, and all Ha feoia pat
to flight, by a comparatiTe penuel of oth^ Scrip-,
tore paMSges. liieae errora wax not widiODt
their use, as they enabled him afterwards to coon-
sel others with better eficct, aod more tenderly to
ympKthise with their perplexitiea.

Bnt it is the miafortime of zeal, wboi not guided
by knowte^^ei to ran into extremes ; and from tm

VOL. II. 2 B


cxcew of profligacy, Bangui now proceeded M
the extnTigBDCe of enthiuiasm ; joinii^ Inmself
mib Ae RantOTs, erne of the vilest wcta that ever
disgraced religion. Tbeir doctrines, bowerer, so
&r B8 he conld comprehend theta, appeared to be
impious, and even atfawrticBl ; and in a abort
time he detected and relinquished tbev delusions-
He next cmmected himself with die Bsptials ; and
in 1653, was admitted, by adult baptism, a mem-
ber of tile clmrch of tiiat pertrnamon at Bedford^
mider Mr Gi&Md, trom whose preaching and con-
versation, be derived great enconn^ement. At
the request of the congregation, be ventnred to
exhort and expound the Scriptures, ss was costo-
mBiy-among the Dissentera, as a preparative to
the ministry. They took no prejudice against the
meanness trf his station in society, or the manoer
of Ids former life ; and being' satisfied of bis ^fis,
he vas at length called forth, and set apart, by
fasting and prayer, to the clerical office ; the du-
ties of which he is said to have exennsed with fi-
delity end snccess, for a considerable number of
years ; atthoogh it does not appear, whether, be^
fore llie time of his imprisonment, be bad obtained
a regular charge, or only preacbed' occasionally,
Gontinning still to work at bis ordinary occupation,
as was die conunon practice among the sectaries,
' in tboae days.

At fiiM he was overwhelmed with such a de^
sense of his own incompetency, tiiat he woold
only consent to speak in a smalt company. He
aooQ began, however, to attract attention, and to
become extremely popular. Many slanders were
heaped upon him by his enemies, all of wbidi be
rqidled by tiie impenetrable shield of a good con-


wacnce, and die tUMt poverfal of all argnmentBi
a Gonnstent and exempleiy life.

Notiritluttnding the toleiatioii granted by Crom-
well to all pemiBtdoiM, Banyan, it qipean, waa in-
dicted at tfie aauzca, in 1657, for preadting at Eaton.
't]m tetnm to bare been tlie oiiy interraption lie
met with tiU the leatontioa. At that period) a
WTwe check wa? put upon itineiaot and non-coa-
fonning praacheTL Laws were banned without
any legaid to the rights of cansdence ; and exer
cuted witha cruel and needleaa rigour, on all who
reftued coiqptiaDce with the litnrgy and forms of
the national church. Banyan wat among the firat
that felt the etonn of pereecution. Being natnrally
bold and nnreseired, he aconied to deaert hu
post, 01 disgnise his sentimenta. Accordingly, he
was appcehuided by warrant, on the i2th itf No-
vember, 1660, wlule preaching at a meeting at
Harlington, near Bedford, and committed, with
aiity otbw penons, to the county jail.

Hi* friends offered iecority for bia i^pearance
at the next aeaaiona ; thiH, faoweTer, was refused,
as it could not be gisnted but on ctmdition of his
ibatsining innn preaching, to which he would not

His indictment bore, " That John Bunyan, of
the town of Bedford, labourer, hod devilishly and
maticiouBly abstained from coming to church to
bear divine service, and was a common upholder
of several unlawful meetingB or conventicles, to the
great distuihence and distraction of the good sub-
jects of this kingdom, contrary to the lavvB of onr
Soverdgn Lord the King." The fscis chained
npou him in this absurd and ridiculous libel, were
never proved, as no witnesses were produced.
He had confessed, in conversation, that he was a


dKBcnter, and had preached ; an ack)Mw1edg:ment
which waa considered eqniraleDt to proof aod
conriction; and hanos refined to confwin, he was
entcnced to perpetual baniahinent. TbiasentencA
was Dot executed; bat be was still confined to
Bedfiird jail, wbere be by npwards of twelve
yean, notwitlistaodiDg TarioDs atleKipU ' irer*
made to abtKm his release {. K>^icatioa Mi%
made, among others, to the amiwle and tinnona
Jndre Hale.

Tins bmg and Berere confinement, for a matter
' of prirste opinion, and for merely endeavonring to
instnict others in what be believed to be the tnu
religi<Ht, was a fiagnint Tiotation of jmtice and lin-
manity. The whole proeeedinD;s against bin!
were scandalons in tbe extreme. It ib probable bit
deliremnce might have been obtained, bad bis esse
been pnmerly repiesented to tbe anperior courts ;
but bii judges were prejudiced iigsmHt bim, and
bia connections were too poor t* lake the neces-
sary measorei. TTie hardBbips of this tedious cap-
tivity be Iwre with grent patience. He osed oc-
eaaionally to exercise his ministeri&] gifls to good
efiect among Ub fellow-sufierers, alt of whom went
underlying the penalty of the law for non-confor<
mity. Here be made bis oira hands minister to
his necessities, by making ta^^ thread-laces ;
which be ieeniB to have Teamed in prison, and
for the laudable purpose of aupporting his wife
ftnd &mily. Here also he wrote his admirable
romance tit the " Pilgrim's Prioress," with sere-
ral other tMattses, pis. " The Holy City;".
** Christian Bebarionr ;" " The Resarrection of
the Dead ;" " Grace abounding to tbe CWef of
Sinner* ;" a task which appesrs the more asto-
nishing, as he coold have received tittle or no M,


hat from lite retoniCM of hia own vigorous iiua-
gimtioo, ibcfl hia whole stock of books is said to
Dave GonaiMed only of the BiblS) tnd Fox's Mar-

Dunng tbia protracted captivitv, he was several
timM pennitted by the &ronr of his jailor, to visit
bis family and fnwda i and even took sjonmey to
LonduB) to iaqoiie, aa is snppoaed, whether some
Itffl ndraa migfat not be obtained. This most
probably gave rise to the opioioo, that he was im<
prisoned at different times ; though it would ap-
pear he never was set at libeny till his final dia>
cha^ in 1672 ; a kindness which is said to have
been procured him, after many fruitless attempts
for that pnrnosei throng ihe good offices of Dr
Barlow, Bisnop of Loncoln, who, at the request of
Dr Owen, was prevailed npmi to interest Umself
in behalf of the prisoner.

Immediately after, or according to some ac-
counts, the year before his enlargement, he was
chosen putor of the Dissenting church at Bedford,
where a chapel was built for him, by the Tolnntary
contributions of his friends, during the partial to-
leration which King James, to promote hia own
measnree, had extended to the ncm-confonmsta.
Here he pnadbed statedly to crowded auditories,
without meeting with any fiirther molestation
from the civil authorities, on account of bis prin-
ciples. He did not, however, escape the general
obloquy and contempt, in which Dissenters were
then hetd> Oljections were made to his poverty,
and want of education ; though his being illiterate
was no disgrace, and no bar to his usefulness m*
popularity as a preacher.

His moral character was hkewise attacked ; tor


Ub Kvikn arewUnnd mBBf abnrd and HclieioH
calnmiuM ; MigtM^cing Ubi m witc^ ? jcmut,
a bighmy-nuo, Ac ; thkt ha had hii eaacAaatm,
baatarda, and even two invee M once. Htme li'
dicnlona acciuatioaB gaiD?d little credit, and kbto
him as little concern. " My toe*,' (nmM)^
".have missed their mark in thu tbeir HAooting
at me. I am net tba nan. I with that tbaf
ibaaadrw be gmhleM. If all the fonknonand
dnltereia' in England, were baagvd np b^ tha
neck till tbsy b? dead, J<An Banyaa, ue olject
of tbair an^, weald ba atill afin and welL I
know not whather there be aitcfa a tUng as a we*
man breathing nnder the copim of the bwveBs, bat
by tbuT apparel, orbTccminon npott, esoept mj
own wife." Tbeae uregnleritiea, ii^eed, wen
riee* to which ha BeveT waa addicted, and which
he moat abhorred. Hia nodeaty m ^ia reapect
was remediable. He aroided tb&CDaipanyof die
^r aex as much as poaaible ; and even had scrapes
of conscirace at the common civility of dwking
hands with than. He objected to die ordinary
ftiaotice of aalating femalee, while peymg or re-
CMvii^ funily vi?ts, as a piece of mpropM and
Btiaeemly politeness ; and when hia friendi urged
religions reaaim^ and apost^cal injanctiom for
the practice, lie would aak why tbev nude diatinc-
tiona, " alwaya salnting the most nandsome, and
letting the ill-bvoared go."

Mia conduct as a dergyman waa alwEya moet
correct and exemplary. In his &mily he main-
tained strictly the observanceB of rri^on ; be was
pectdiaily attentive to tbe sick, and in supplying
tbe temporal wants of those who suSered bit crai*
adence' atdce. He was- in the habit of malong
atated circuile into various parts of the kingdom ;


wbiMMf Ilk peiMcmed bivthnn to bear whh
cliMUifiilBUW tneir illegd opfniKOBm ; mi tfutn
eB^doyng bia tnfloence nrr n ee c w fti lly in n-
GOfkciliiig tfiflimncM auioiig Innit m u to {mrmt
diMOTOMble and naamat litigatujM. TImm peri?-
dicu jonnwy* and vintatuHM pracnred him the
title of Kahon Bonyea ; and ihmgfa the name waa
giviB in derino n , tw hai riflm to meter colehritf
tfcnn iMBt of tlw i^mfied head! UM ew worn

higlleat a

tended Us eemov ; and eone, it eppean, " who
came to aeoff, reanaiiwd to pray." Charlee II. in
a conTemtion irith Dr Owen, once azpreaaed his
aatonishment, that a man of hla senn ud leamii^
coold bear an illiteiate tinker piMe ; to which he
redSed, " Reaae your mMsty, had I the tinker'a
iwIttiM, I would moat gfadlf relinqnidi all my
learaing." There seema to have been wnneiliing
peculiarly faadnating and atlrRctiTe in Bnnyan's
nmnner of address. He was petht^ tiie most
popnlar ]ffeacber of bia age. Whenerer be vi-
sited the metropolis, bis anival was die tignal of
general rendezvous. The shortest notice was auf<
fieient to collect an overfiowing andience. In the
middle of winter,andDnaweek-day,be would ban
had more than twelve hnndred bearers assembled
before seven o'clock in the morning. Scarcely
any thing of die same nature has occurred ; and
tins e xu aur di narv degree of public exdtement will
only find a panJlel in tin well-known celebrity of
These various employments, without any event


t}( DiBteml importance, fill up bia history from tbc
time of bis libention, tilt his (leadi in 168a While
00 bis aoniul vitot to London in that year, be bad
gone in very bod weather to Reading, to make up
a breach betwe^ a &ther and a sod, with whom
he had. some acqutuntance ; and bavmg happily
succeeded in this benevolent embassy, he retunied
to London apparently in good health ; but. as he
had been exposed to heavy rains, and got com,-
pletely wet, he was speedily seized with a feyeri
which in ten days terminatfNl his existence, on tlie
Slst of Augnst, in the 60th year of bis age, and
thirty-second of his ministry. .This event took
place at tbe sign of the Star, in Snowhill, in the
house of a friend with whom he lodged, Mr
Stmdwick, a grocer ; who bad him buried in bi?
own vault at finnfaill Fields, where a handsome
tomb-stone to his memory was erected, and may
still be seen.

Bnnyan was twice married. By his first wife
he left fovT children, two sons and two daughters,
the eldest of whom was blmd. His second wife
interested herself much in his liberation from pri-
son, and pleaded his cause with great enei^y be-
fore & Matthew Hale and tbe other justices ; she
survived him about four years, but seems t? have
had no family.

Of Banyan's character and personal appearance,
one of hb biographers gives die following account :
" He i^pe^?d in countenance to be of a stem
and rough temper ; bnt in bis conversation, be
was mild and aJSable, not given to loquadty oi[
much discourse in company, unless some argent
occasion required it ; observing never 1o boast of
himself, but rather seem low in his own eyes, and
eubmit himself to the judgment of othere ; E^horring


)yiog and mreariiig ; Just to ?!] ; not seeming to
revenge injnriei; loring to reoondte diftmicM. .
He rad a Hharp qnidc eye ; an excellent diteerning
of p??onB, >nd good indgnieDt. He wea t*]) of
Btttnrei firong boned, lAongh not CMpolent ; some-
what of arnddy face; weaiing his beard odIi is nppet
lip, aftcf die old Bridsb bshion. Hie hair mfe
reddish ; bat in hit old age sprinlded widi grey ;
his fmvbead tomewbat high; lua habit almya
plain and modeBb"

Ifis modest conversadon tnd inotsl correcHwBs,
after his conrersioit, were always beymd the reach
of detraction. Ilie most prying oidclsiB, even ma-
lice itself conld not 6x a single stain upon his re^
pntation, with which be conld be justly (jsu^ed.
His natural talenta were eztnunrdinary ; hu on-
draetanding, diaceniment, memory, and intention^
remarkably acnte and ngemma. In his sermaiM
he always spoke extempore ; generally with nvM
fluency, though sometimes widi considerable neu-
tation. He was bold in reproving sin, widKntt
respect of persons : steady, perhc^ bigoted to bia
own opinions ; and tliough his piety was sincere,
it waa evidently mixed with a portion of enthu-
siasm. His proficiency in Scriptural divinity was
surprising, considering his disadvantages ; but be
nerer made much pn^ress inhuman learning. It
may be doubled, however, whether his genius
Would have been improved <?' i^mired by a man
refined and liberal edocation. Toe exuberant fer-
dlity of his imBgjnation, supplied hia defects in
acquired knowledge. He had written books or
treatises, equal to the number of years he had Kved;
mostof them parabolical, as bis foikcy seemed to have
clothed every object in the coetmne of allegory.

BM bis great master-piece is the Pilgnm'i PhH


greM, which, u a woA o( original g?iiiiu, ranks
among the first in the English language ; and ii
read with admiiMion, both by the learned and the
illiterate. Hie fiction is ingemoiuily carried on ;
die characters justly drawn, and niuformly sup-
ported. The umple and artless arnugement of
the narrative, renders it intelligible to the most
i^nonnt and snperfidal mind ; while the agreeable
Bimilitndes and images under which ita moral lee-
sona are diagnised, aireet the attention ; and give
to a religious treatise, all the cliarm and Ulnsioa
of romance. VVith wonderful ingenuity he has
contrived to overcome the disadvantages of hia
subject, and given to the most repugnant do?>
trines of the Calvinistic theology, an attraction,
which, in ipite of the nide and h<Mnely garb in
which they are dressed, has made them, not only
tolerated, but admired ; and secured them a popu-
larity which, continues nndiminished, while me lar
boun and talents of many learned divines, whq
wrote eipressly in their defence, have sunk intQ
comparative neglect-

Fe^ books luve more captivated the taste and
the fimcy of the multitude, as from its judicious
combination of nanative with dialogue, it exactly
suits the capauty of those who have not acqiurei^
the art to abstract or generalize their ideas. It,
has gone tbroi^h innumerable editions, and ha^
bean translated into almost every language iq thsi
civilized world. Acopy of it, in elegant binding, is-
?aid to be preserved in the library of the Vatican
at Rome. Its powerfnl inflnence over the reader's
imagination, has often been remarlied ; and there,
cannot he a more striking proof of its excellence,
and ingenuit)^ than the complete illusion which it
produces. Ilie young and uniastructed, who are

deligbted with it m > pleMmg tile, giro it lOl ttw
cnmt of truth ud rcaiitr- lltey nenr once imi-
pne it to be a ficUon, bnt actually belie*e that ll
wa? communicated to him in a ureani ; a deee[H
tion which -waa further confirmed, by th? aleeDlng;
posture in which he 'ii generally repreaentM on
the frontispiei

Initances hare been known of aome, who, |
gnage, have fancied the tcenea of triiJ and temp-

ing a literal interpretation on ita fignratiTo

Mion through which it condacia its imaginary
hero, an sxpflrinieDtal warfare to be undergone in
this world by every true belierer. An example
of this occurred within the xmter'a obtemtion, In
an old man, a natire of the Highlands, settled ea
a Bhepberd in Dnmfriet-shire, who had not learned
to read nntil he was sixty years of age. The ficst
book that fell into his hands was BunyHn, the ef-
fect of which was irreHistiblo i heightened as it
was, in his case, by that credulity so natural to
ignonnce. Actnated by the impression, ho re-
solved to abandon his flock, and the village where
he resided, which he mistook for '& type of the
city of Destruction 1 and providing himself with
the emblematic badges of a wallet and a staff, be
et out on an earthly pdgrimage, in quest of the
New Jerusalem. After an absence of some
weeks, he was found on the coast of Ayrahire,
where the Western Ocean had begun to convince
him of his error ; and prevuled upon to return.

This production has obtuned many admirers,
even among men of letters and lefinement.
Not a few who have regarded the author as a
bigot and a fanatic, and held his religious creed in
derision, have done ample justice to his intellectual
powers: Merrick, Kames, Whitfield, Johnson,


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